Social Victorians/1897 Fancy Dress Ball/Quadrilles Courts

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The Procession and Quadrilles[edit | edit source]

After they arrived and had been greeted by the 20-year old William, Duke of Manchester (grandson of Louisa, Duchess of Devonshire) at the bottom of the famous Devonshire House stairs and the Duke and Duchess of Devonshire at the top, the Royals apparently led the processions into "the White and Gold Saloon," where a dais had been set up for them.[1]: p. 7, Col. 4C?

Once the Royals were on the dais, the processions began, followed by the quadrilles. The Gentlewoman newspaper here, like all Victorian periodicals, used the word Oriental to refer to what we would now call East Asian.

First came the Oriental queens, headed by the Duchess of Devonshire herself, who was accompanied by the Duke, as Charles V. of Germany, in black velvet and furs. Among the most magnificent of the Oriental personages was Princess Henry Pless, who, as the Queen of Sheba, was gorgeous to behold. Her dress was of purple and gold-shot gauze, bodice and skirt embroidered nearly to the knees, the train being one mass of jewels encrusted in gold. An Assyrian headdress, with clusters of diamonds over each ear, jewelled feathers, and chains of diamonds and turquoises, which were attached to armlets from shoulder to wrist, completed a costume of dazzling splendour. The other Queen of Sheba, who was Lady Cynthia Graham, was charmingly attired in white and silver and rose red. There were also two Cleopatras — Lady de Grey was one mass of beautiful embroideries, and Mrs. Arthur Paget looked her character to the life, and her jewels were quite the most magnificent in the room. Mr. Gerald Paget walked beside her, attired very effectively as Mark Antony. Among the gods and goddesses was Titania, the Queen of the Fairies; Lady Westmorland who made the prettiest Hebe; the Furies, Lady Lurgan and Lady Sophie Scott; and Lady Archibald Campbell, who elected to appear as Diana.

Then came the processions of the various Courts, who afterwards formed into separate quadrilles.[2]:32, Col. 2c

That is, first the processions were presented to the Prince and Princess of Wales, and then the quadrilles — a type of square dance, a custom at other fancy-dress balls or costume parties as well — formed. Apparently not everyone was part of a larger group, but the quadrilles, which had been rehearsed, were much smaller groups of people.

The Processions[edit | edit source]

The processions were made up of the members of the "Courts" of the various monarchs, especially queens. The first procession was the "Oriental" one, which included Louisa, Duchess of Devonshire as Zenobia, the Queens of Sheba and the Cleopatras. This procession was followed by the goddesses and gods.

Referencing the article on the ball in the Times, the Westminster Gazette says,


It is twenty-three years (the Times continues) since a ball of similar design and magnificence was given. We are referring to the famous ball at Marlborough House on July 22, 1874. In one respect there was a considerable difference, for, whereas the Prince of Wales's ball had a number of distinct quadrilles — a Venetian quadrille, a Vandyck quadrille, and a pack-of-cards quadrille — the innovation of yesterday was the idea of different Courts headed by various well-known ladies and attended by their friends as princes and courtiers. The Royal party itself fell in very readily with this idea, and attended in historical and mostly Royal costumes of the sixteenth century. There were four Courts strictly so-called, besides two groups which were separately arranged. The four were the Elizabethan Court, headed by Lady Tweedmouth as Queen Elizabeth, with Sir Francis Jeune as Lord Chief Justice, Lord Arran a Cardinal, and Lord Rowton as Archbishop Farrer; the Louis XV. and XVI. Court, with Lady Curzon as Queen Marie Leczinska and Lady Warwick as Marie Antoinette; the Court of Maria Theresa, with Lady Londonderry as the Empress, Lord Lansdowne as Prince Kaunitz, and Lady Lansdowne as Lady Keith; and the Court of the Empress Catherine II. of Russia, its Imperial centre being Lady Raincliffe. Of equal importance with these Courts were the group of Orientals and the Italian procession.


The dancing was of the most desultory description. In the quadrilles people did their best to vie with the old-fashioned courtliness and grace. Some of their courtesies were quite beautifully done. In the procession everyone saluted the Princess of Wales in appropriate style. The Orientals spread out their hands in the impressive Oriental manner; the gods struck the ground with their sticks, and so on.[3]:Col. 2–3

We do not know how these processions or quadrilles were formed. We know that the groups doing quadrilles were expected to have rehearsed, so it seems likely that they were worked out ahead of time. The members of some groups perhaps planned their costumes so that they would be part of that group. The Innes-Ker sisters, for example, wore dresses that matched, making up part of the Cosway Quadrille; another group of sisters had dresses made from Watteau paintings. The Queen Elizabeth group met for dinner the night before the party to rehearse.

It seems possible that individuals might have attached themselves to a pre-existing and more loosely formed procession, the Duchess, Goddess or "Oriental" procession, for example. Perhaps in conversations people discovered others wearing costumes similar enough to suggest a grouping or even, perhaps, after having seen each other in their costumes at the party. Not much joining this late could have occurred since people were presented to the Royals by way of the processions and quadrilles, which occurred at the beginning of the party almost as soon as the Royals had arrived and made their way to the dais.

The Western Gazette describes the quadrilles and processions in the introduction of its story on the ball:

The most sumptuous epochs of the most sumptuous Courts were represented, and that with a dazzling completeness which made the times live again all their glitter of precious stuffs, of gold brocades, and imposing arrays of jewels beyond price. There was a noble diversity, yet a satisfying consistency, for the main theory was to reproduce the Courts of princes famous for their love of sumptuary display, and notably the reign of Queen Elizabeth, as perhaps the richest in brave apparel, with the contemporaneous outlook of the French and Spanish Courts of the same era, and these afforded every opportunity for gorgeous display. It might be said that as a panorama of historical costume on these lines no such opportunity has ever occurred of seeing and realising the glories of dress, and the consistent reproduction of historical personages in all their traditional bravery to the fullest advantage.[4]:2, Col. 7A

The Quadrilles[edit | edit source]

"[T]he quadrilles took place" after or as part of the procession.[1]:7, Col. 4C A quadrille is a choreographed "square" dance, though not technically the very specific kind of dance called a Square Dance in the U.S. Typically, quadrilles were made up of four couples. Apparently fancy-dress balls often included quadrilles, especially those with costumes of the past and bals poudres, typically balls with 18th-century costumes and powdered hair. The Western Gazette describes the quadrilles under "The Dancing":

The dancing was of the most desultory description. There was the Royal quadrille and there were the quadrilles danced by the Venetians, and the Russian quadrille. In the quadrilles the dancers did their best to vie with the old-fashioned courtliness and grace. Some of their courtesies were quite beautifully done. If all did not fall in with the spirit of their times it was excusable, as there were no rehearsals. Not until the chaperons and those who merely went to see had left or gone down to supper was there space for ordinary dancing, and even then so few of the dresses were fitted for the waltz and the gardens were so temptingly cool with all their coloured lights that the latter attracted the majority.[4]:2, Col. 7C

This article suggests that there was a "Royal quadrille," possibly danced by the Royals present? and that the people did not rehearse their quadrilles.

The Royals On the Dias[edit | edit source]

No definitive list exists so far of who exactly was counted among the Royals who were on the dais, though it seems likely it would be the Prince of Wales's immediate family, including his siblings and children as well as the Princess of Wales.

The Prince and Princess of Wales's Children and Their Families[edit | edit source]

  • Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (at 1 in the list of people who attended the ball), as Grand Master of the Knights Hospitalier of Malta in the court of Queen Elizabeth
  • Alexandra, Princess of Wales (at 2), as Margaret of Valois
  • Prince George of Wales, Duke of York (at 3), as George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland and thus in Elizabethan dress
  • Mary of Teck, Duchess of York (at 4), as a lady in attendance on Margaret of Valois (Alexandra, Princess of Wales)
  • Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife (at 177), as one of the ladies of the court of Margaret of Valois (Alexandra, Princess of Wales)
  • Alexander Duff, Duke of Fife (at 15), as a courtier of late Elizabethan Period, the time of Henri II
  • Maud of Wales, Princess Charles of Denmark (at 159), accompanying the Princess of Wales as one of the ladies of the court of Margaret of Valois
  • Prince Charles of Denmark (at 144), accompanying the Prince and Princess of Wales as a gentleman of the Court of Denmark in the time of Elizabeth
  • Princess Victoria of Wales

The Prince of Wales's siblings and Their Families[edit | edit source]

Many of these costumes are from the Elizabethan period, but the royals wearing them would not have been in the Elizabethan procession or quadrille. One newspaper report noticed this as well.

Other Royals Possibly on the Dais

These people were closely related but not of Victoria's immediate family and thus perhaps not eligible for the same obeisances? So perhaps they were not on the dais.

Also, it does not seem likely that Louisa, Duchess and Spencer Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire took part in one of the courts or quadrilles. They welcomed the Prince and Princess of Wales to their home and would have been presented, if they were, at that time.

Processions[edit | edit source]

Speaking of the processions before the Albert Edward, Prince of Wales and Alexandra, Princess of Wales the Morning Post describes the scene:

One after the other they entered by one door, advanced up the middle of the ball room, made obeisance, and left by another door. Those who did not belong to any particular group lined the room and crowded the doorways. After this the quadrilles took place.[1]:7, Col. 4C

The Graphic published this drawing, by W. Hatherell and J. Gulich, of a member of one of the processions bowing before the Prince and Princess of Wales. Given the attendant train bearers, the woman might be who?

("Duchess of Devonshire's Costume Ball, The: The Procession of Guests Bowing to the Royal Group in the White and Gold Saloon. Drawn by W. Hatherell and J. Gulich." The Graphic 10 July 1897: 17–18 [of 34].)

It seems that the processions came in to the White and Gold Saloon and then formed in front of the Royals to do their quadrilles, so any group might be called a procession or a quadrille, depending on what exactly they did. According to the Morning Post, which in this list apparently mixes up "courts" and processions, "The following processions were formed shortly after the assembling of the guests, and passed through the ball-room":

  1. "Oriental" (their word for it, and repeated twice more later in the list)
  2. Goddesses and gods
  3. Duchess
  4. Venetians
  5. Austrian
  6. Russian, led by the "Trumpeters of the Imperial Guard"
  7. Louis XVI
  8. Elizabethan

The Morning Post story highlighted the "Oriental" procession, as did the story in the Gentlewoman possibly in part to focus on the exotic, by listing it first and describing it in detail. Also, the Morning Post article attempted to illustrated how people were arranged in the processions by the way their names were typeset.

"Oriental" Procession[edit | edit source]

The "Oriental" procession included the following people:

  1. Lady Cynthia Graham (at 220)[5][1]:7, Col. 5b
  2. Daisy (Mary Theresa) Cornwallis-West, Princess Henry of Pless (at 38), as the Queen of Sheba
    1. Miss Cornwallis West, Shelagh Cornwallis-West (at 383), as her "Ethiopian attendant"[6]:5, Col. 7c
  3. The Suite of Ladies following the two Queens of Sheba
    1. Miss West
    2. Miss Mary Goelet (at 228)
    3. Lady C. Grosvenor (at 229)
    4. Miss Rosalinda Oppenheim (at 230)
  4. The Suite of Men following the two Queens of Sheba
    1. The Hon. George Keppel (at 39), as King Solomon, in the Suite of Men following the two Queens of Sheba (Lady Cynthia Graham and Princess Henry of Pless)[5][1]:7, Col. 5b
    2. Wilfred Wilson (at 232)
    3. Arthur Portman (at 233)
    4. Gordon Wood (at 234)
    5. The Hon. A. Bourke
  5. Lady Alicia Duncombe (at 453), as a Greek Slave
  6. Hon. Mrs. A. Bourke
  7. Minnie Paget (at 90), Mrs. Arthur Paget, as Cleopatra
  8. Gerald Paget Paget (at 237), as Marc Antony
  9. Lady Violet de Trafford (at 238)
  10. Two women walking together for some reason
    1. Hon. Mrs. Julia Peel Maguire (at 240; the Morning Post has her both in the Oriental and the Duchesses processions)
    2. Miss Muriel Wilson (at 242)
  11. Miss Keith Fraser (at 243)
  12. Mary Charteris, Lady Elcho (at 224)
  13. Mrs. Hope-Vere (at 245)

The Morning Post typeset a visualization of the procession, more or less, like this:

  Lady Cynthia Graham .................. Queen of Sheba.
  Princess Pless ....................... Queen of Sheba.
          Miss West .................. )
          Miss Goelet ................ )
          Lady C. Grosvenor .......... ) Suite of Ladies.
          Miss Oppenheim ............. )
          The Hon. G. Keppel ......... )
          Wilfred Wilson  ............ )
          Arthur Portman ............. ) Suite of Men.
          Gordon Wood ................ )
          The Hon. A. Bourke ......... )
  Lady Alicia Duncombe ................  Greek Slave.
  Hon. Mrs. A. Bourke .................. Salambo.
  Mrs. Arthur Paget .................... Cleopatra.
  Gerald Paget Paget ................... Marc Antony.
  Lady De Trafford
  Hon. Mrs. Maguire ................   )
  Miss Muriel Wilson ................  )
  Miss Keith Fraser
  Lady Elcho
  Mrs. Hope-Vere

Goddesses[edit | edit source]

The women who walked in the procession of goddesses included these women listed in the Morning Post list:

The Gentlewoman says, "Among the gods and goddesses was Titania, the Queen of the Fairies; Lady Westmorland who made the prettiest Hebe; the Furies, Lady Lurgan and Lady Sophie Scott; and Lady Archibald Campbell, who elected to appear as Diana."[2]:32, Col. 2c

Others who may have walked in this procession include the following, although perhaps more likely is that they attended in their costumes without having joined a procession or quadrille:

The Morning Post typeset a visualization of the procession, more or less, like this[1]:7, Col. 5B:

Goddesses were:
           Lady Gerard.
           Lady Westmorland.
           Lady Lurgan.
           Lady S. [Sophie?] Scott.
           Mrs. Talbot.
           Miss de Brienen.
           Mrs. Leslie.

The Duchesses Procession[edit | edit source]

The members of this procession included the following:

  1. Katherine Osborne, the Duchess of Leeds (at 35), as the fictional Persian character Lalla Rookh
  2. Lady Dudley: Georgina, Dowager Countess of Dudley (at 198)
  3. Gwladys de Grey, possibly as Cleopatra (according to the Carlisle Patriot, she headed the "Oriental" procession, but the Morning Post visualization puts her with the Duchesses)[7]
  4. Lady Randolph Churchill (at 132), as Empress Theodora of Byzantium
  5. Alexandra Harriet Paget, Lady Colebrooke
  6. Mrs. Maguire (the Morning Post has her both in the Oriental and the Duchesses processions)
  7. Adele Grant Capell, Countess Essex (at 194)
  8. Margot Asquith (at 217), as a snake charmer
  9. Mrs. Leo
  10. Louisa Acheson, Lady Gosford (at 140), as a lady in Charles V.'s Court(?)
  11. Edith Glyn, Baroness Wolverton (at 130), as Britannia
  12. Lady A. Stanley (Lady Alexandra Louise Elizabeth Acheson Stanley), not sure if this is the right person for Lady A. Stanley
  13. L. Brassey (at 252)
  14. Lady A. Acheson — Lady Alexandra Louise Elizabeth Acheson — (at 254), in Hunting Costume, period of Louis XV
  15. Lord Acheson, Archibald Charles Montagu Brabazon Acheson (at 255), as Raoul di Nangis
  16. Lady J. Stanley
  17. W. Stanley
  18. Lady Alice Maude Olivia Montagu Stanley (not taken from the list below but from the description of her in the newspaper visualization, though she could be Lady A. Stanley, #12)

The Morning Post typeset a visualization of the procession, more or less, like this, suggesting that everybody except Lady de Grey and Lady Wolverton was walking or perhaps dancing side by side in pairs.

              Duchess of Leeds.                 Lady Dudley.
                                 Lady de Grey.
              Lady Randolph Churchill.          Lady Colebrooke.
              Mrs. Maguire.                     Lady Essex.
              Mrs. Asquith.                     Mrs. Leo.
              Lady Gosford.                     E. Stanley.
                                Lady Wolverton.
              Lady A. Stanley.                  L. Brassey.
              Lady A. Acheson.                  Lord Acheson.
              Lady J. Stanley.                  W. Stanley.

Venetians Procession[edit | edit source]

The Venetians Procession is variously called the Venetian or 17th-century or Italian Procession or Quadrille in the newspapers. This group is also made up of subgroups: the Italian Procession, the Venetians and the 17th Century, each smaller procession with its own leader.

The Westminster Gazette says, "The Venetian group might indeed have been called a 'dream of fair women,' as it numbered more decidedly beautiful women than any other at the ball."[8]:Col. 1

The Gentlewoman says, "The Venetian Court was most picturesque, led by the Duchess of Portland, who looked magnificent in white brocade embroidered with silver, a diamond crown, and ropes of diamonds and pearl, round her neck. One of the most noticeable ladies of her Court was Lady Mar and Kellie, in white and green and silver, embroidered with gold."[2]:32, Col. 3a

These are the names in the visualization in the Morning Post story.

Italian Procession[edit | edit source]

  1. The Countess Mar and Kellie (at 160), as Beatrice
  2. Lloyd Tyrell-Kenyon, 4th Baron Kenyon (at 167) as Guido Cavalcanti
  3. Lady St. Oswald (at 284), as Duchessa di Caluria in the Italian procession or a Venetian lady of the 14th century
  4. Mr. George Wyndham (at 221), as Signor di Samare
  5. Miss Blanche Forbes (at 285), as Donna Lucrezia Arcella
  6. Mr. Schreiber, Mr. Charles Shuldham Schreiber (at 286), as Duca d'Iripolda
  7. Mrs. Higgins (at 287), as Donna Valeria Bodessa
  8. Mr. William Henry Grenfell (at 222), as Signor di Argentina or as Mercutio
  9. Mrs. Mary Von André (at 289), as Desdemona
  10. Mr. Murray Guthrie (at 290), as Otello
  11. Lady Alice Montagu (at ?), as Laura and escorted by Giles Fox-Strangways
  12. Giles Fox-Strangways (at 78), Lord Stavordale, as Petrarch
  13. Miss Enid Wilson (at 293), as Giulietta
  14. Lord Hyde, George Herbert Hyde Villiers (at 294), as Romeo

The Venetians[edit | edit source]

  1. The Earl of Lathom (at 125), as Il Doge, Giovannino de Medici
  2. Hon. Ivor Guest (at 295), as Marco (Redi Cipri)
  3. Hon. Seymour Fortescue (at 296), as Avocato
  4. Mildred Cadogan, Viscountess Chelsea (at 162), Venditrice di Fiori, a Veronese lady
  5. Hon. S. Greville (at 297), as Cipriano
  6. Mr. Clarence Wilson (at 300), as Buffone
  7. The Hon. Mrs. George Curzon (at 301), as Marchesa Malaspina in the Venetians procession
  8. Hon. George Peel (at 302), as Luigi Giorgi
  9. Ettie (Mrs. W.) Grenfell (at 200), as Contessa Maria Cicogna or Maria de Medici
  10. The Hon. Evan Charteris (at 303), as Cavaliere Vittorio
  11. Lady Lettice Grosvenor (at 304), as Bianca Capelli
  12. Lord Alexander Thynne (at 305), as Marino Grimani
  13. Mrs. Cavendish Bentinck (at 264), as Grandezza degli Antenati
  14. Hon. Cecil Brownlow (at ), as Nicolo Danabi
  15. Mrs. Olive Guthrie (at 291), as Marguerita Grimani
  16. Mr. Herbert Wilson (at 307), as Antonio Priali

17th-Century Procession[edit | edit source]

  1. Louise (Mrs. Arthur) Sassoon (at 202), as La Dogaressa, led in the 17th-century procession
  2. Arthur Wellesley Peel, 1st Viscount Peel (at 74), as Il Doge
  3. Winifred, Duchess of Portland (at 29), as Duchessa di Savoia (The story in the Morning Post says Partland rather than Portland.[1])
  4. William, Duke of Portland (at 28), as Duca Filiberto di Savoia (This is from the Morning Post[1] and the Times[5]; the London Daily News[6] and the Pall Mall Gazette[9] say he went as the Duke of Buckingham.)
  5. Lady Helen Vincent (at 215), as Contessa Valentina Gateago
  6. Sir Edgar Vincent (at 226), as II Conte Oravio or Orayio
  7. Mrs. Gerard Leigh (at 308), as Lucrezia de Rossi
  8. Mr. Higgins (at 288), as Sanchio di Sedilla
  9. Mrs. Katherine Mary Drummond (at 309), as Donna Caranado
  10. Mr. Henry White (at 310), as Giovanni Felici[1] or Henri de Lorraine, Duc de Guise[10]
  11. Miss Mildred Grenfell (at 30), as Bianci di Piacoma, accompanying Winifred, Duchess of Portland
  12. Mr. Norton (at ), as Guyman di Silva
  13. Captain Fraser (at 244), as Duca di Tarsis
  14. Windham, Earl of Dunraven (at 199), as Cardinal Mazzarin, one of the "Visitors to the Court of Savoia"
  15. Consuelo, Duchess of Manchester (at 175), as Anne d'Autriche
  16. Mr. Jean Béraud (at 312), as Cinq Mars

Not Listed in the Morning Post story, But Still[edit | edit source]

...but said somewhere to have been in the Italian Procession

  1. Lady Edward Cecil, probably Violet Georgina Maxse Gascoyne-Cecil (at 102)
  2. Evelyn Achille de Rothschild (at 669), as a page to the Doge's Wife
  3. Anthony Gustav de Rothschild (at 670), as a page to the Doge's Wife

The Morning Post Visualization[edit | edit source]

In the Morning Post visualization of the procession, Beatrice, the Countess of Mar and Kellie led the procession. The typeset visualization looks, more or less, like this:

                                 ITALIAN PROCESSION
                 Beatrice,                            Guido Cavalcanti,
    The Countess of Mar and Kellie.                      Lord Kenyon.
            Duchessa di Caluria,                      Signor di Samare,
              Lady St. Oswald.                       Mr. George Wyndham.
          Donna Lucrezia Arcella,                      Duca d'Iripolda,
           Miss Blanche Forbes.                         Mr. Schreiber.
          Donna Valeria Bodessa,                     Signor di Argentina,
              Mrs. Higgins.                            Mr. W. Grenfell.
                Desdemona,                                 Otello,
             Mrs. Von André.                         Mr. Murray Guthrie.
                 Laura,                                  Petrarch,
          Lady Alice Montagu.                         Lord Stavordale.
               Giulietta,                                 Romeo,
           Miss Enid Wilson.                             Lord Hyde.

       Il Doge (Giovannino de Medici),                Marco (Redi Cipri),
            The Earl of Lathom.                        Hon. Ivor Guest.
        Avocato,                Venditrice di Fiori,             Cipriano,
 Hon. Seymour Fortescue         Viscountess Chelsea.        Hon. S. Greville.
                              Mr. Clarence Wilson.
            Marchesa Malaspina,                         Luigi Giorgi,
         Hon. Mrs. George Curzon.                     Hon. George Peel.
           Contessa Maria Cicogna,                        Cavaliere Vittorio,
             Mrs. W. Grenfell.                           Hon. Evan Charteris.
              Bianca Capelli,                              Marino Grimani,
         Lady Lettice Grosvenor.                       Lord Alexander Thynne. 
        Grandezza degli Autenati,                          Nicolo Danabi,
         Mrs. Cavendish Bentinck.                       Hon. Cecil Brownlow.
           Marguerita Grimani.                             Antonio Priali,
              Mrs. Guthrie.                              Mr. Herbert Wilson.

                                  17th CENTURY
              La Dogaressa,                                  Il Doge,
           Mrs. Arthur Sassoon.                           Viscount Peel.
            Duchessa di Savoia,                      Duca Filiberto di Savoia,
         The Duchess of Partland.                       The Duke of Portland.
        Contessa Valentina Gateago,                        II Conte Oravio,
            Lady Helen Vincent.                           Sir Edgar Vincent.
             Lucrezia de Rossi,                          Sanchio di Sedilla,
             Mrs. Gerard Leigh.                              Mr. Higgins.
               Donna Caranado,                             Giovanni Felici,
               Mrs. Drummond.                                Mr. H. White.
             Bianci di Piacoma,                            Guyman di Silva,
           Miss Mildred Grenfell.                             Mr. Norton.
                                  Duca di Tarsis,
                                  Captain Fraser.
                          Visitors to the Court of Savoia.
      Cardinal Mazzarin,         Anne d'Autriche,                Cinq Mars,
    The Earl of Dunraven.    The Duchess of Manchester.       Mr. Jean Bérand.

Austrian[edit | edit source]

The Gentlewoman says, "The Austrian Court was a wonderful procession, headed by the Marchioness of Londonderry as the Empress Marie Thérèse. She wore the famous Londonderry diamonds, which included a diamond crown copied exactly from one worn by the Empress Marie Thérèse on her powdered hair. She was followed by four young Archduchesses, in white and silver and pale blue ribbons."[2]:32, Col. 2c–3a

The Austrian procession and quadrille were headed up by the Marchioness of Londonderry, as Marie Thèrése of Austria. It had 4 archduchesses in attendance, even though the Guernsey Star reported 5:

  • "four beautiful young Archduchesses in white and silver with pale blue ribbons, and wearing white plumes in their powdered hair"[6]:5, Col. 7A
  • "four young Archduchesses, in white and silver and pale blue ribbons. These ladies were impersonated by Lady Helen Stewart, Lady Beatrice Butler, Lady Beatrix FitzMaurice, and Lady Alexandra Hamilton."[2]:32, Col. 2c–3a
  • "five Archduchesses and five Archdukes. The former, all attired exactly alike in white and silver brocade, were Lady Helen Stewart, Lady Beatrice Butler, Lady Beatrix FitzMaurice, Lady Alexandra Hamilton, and Miss Stirling."[11]

Possibly this quite-large group had subsections: the Morning Post (or the Times?) says Lady Helen Stewart-Murray was "in the Archduchess Marie-Karoline and Emperor Joseph II section of the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille."[1]:7, Col. 6B[5]

  1. Section 1
    1. Theresa Vane-Tempest-Stewart, Marchioness of Londonderry (at 42), as Marie Thérèse of Austria
    2. Henry Petty-FitzMaurice, Marquis of Lansdowne (at 558), as Prince Kaunitz
    3. Maud Hamilton Petty-Fitzmaurice, Marchioness of Lansdowne (at 51), as Lady Keith, wife of the British Ambassador at the Court of Marie Thérèse
    4. Augustus, Marquis of Winchester, as a Coldstream Guard at Vienna
  2. Section 2: Archduchess Marie-Karoline and Emperor Joseph II section of the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille
    1. Archduchesses
      1. Lady Beatrice Butler (at 45), Archduchess Marie-Karoline
      2. Lady Alexandra Hamilton (at 46), Archduchess Marie-Josepha
      3. Lady Beatrix Petty-FitzMaurice (at 44), as Archduchess Marie Anna
      4. Lady Helen Stewart (Vane-Tempest-Stewart) (at 43), as the Archduchess Marie Christine of Austria
    2. Charles Stewart Henry Vane-Tempest-Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh (at 73), attended as Maria Thérèse's son Emperor Joseph II (Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, was the Marchioness of Londonderry's son.)
    3. Mr. Gathorne-Hardy (), as Archduke Leopold
    4. Charles William Reginald Duncombe, Viscount Helmsley (at 353), as Archduke Charles in the Archduchess Marie-Karoline and Emperor Joseph II section of the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille
    5. Lord William Lurgan (at 165), as Duke Albert von Sachsen-Texhen or Sachsentexhen
  3. Small Group of 4
    1. Lady Magheramorne (), as Maria-Amelia, Princess of Lorraine
    2. Lady Aline Beaumont (), as Queen of Sardinia
    3. Lord Ava (), as Archduke Maximilian
    4. Mr. C. Willoughby (), as Grand Duke Charles of Tuscany
  4. Small Group of 4
    1. Mrs. Mabel (G. Gervase) Beckett (at 359), as Princess Elenora of Lichtenstein
    2. Siegfried, Count Clary (at 205), as General Count Nadasdy in the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille.
    3. Mrs. Muriel Beckett [sic Mrs. R. Beckeet] (at 482), as Princess Isabella of Parma
    4. Count Hadik (), as Field-Marshal Hadik in the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille
  5. Small Group of 4
    1. Cicely Gascoyne-Cecil, Viscountess Cranborne (at 196), as Princess Josepha of Bavaria
    2. Schomberg McDonnell, Mr. Schomberg M'Donnell (at 104), as Duke Ferdinand of Modena in the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille
    3. Lady Hilda Charteris Brodrick (at 362, Lady H. Brodrick), as Princess Marie Künigunde of Saxony in the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa
    4. Mr. Jack Graham Menzies (at 363), as Freiherr von Bartenstein in the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille
  6. Small Group of 4
    1. Mrs. James (at 318), as Archduchess Elizabeth
    2. Lady C. FitzMaurice (at 365), as Secretary to Kaunitz, personated as listed above by Henry Petty-FitzMaurice, Marquis of Lansdowne (at 558)
    3. Muriel Duncombe, Viscountess Helmsley (at 354), as Princess Charlotte of Lorraine in the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille
    4. Henry Petty-FitzMaurice, Earl of Kerry (at 72), as Count Mercy d'Argentau
  7. Small Group of 4
    1. Lady E. Cavendish (probably Lady Evelyn Cavendish, at 164), as Countess Trautmannsdorf
    2. Mr. F. B. Mildmay (at 95), as "Field-Marshal Count Charles of Batthyany" in the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille
    3. Lady M. Cavendish (probably Lady Moyra Cavendish, at 366
    4. James Somerville, Lord Athlumney (at 367)
  8. Small Group of 2? (or they belong above, her with the Archduchesses?)
    1. Miss Stirling (at 47), as Countess Kinskey in the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille
    2. Mr. Brodrick, possibly William St. John Freemantle Brodrick (), as Count Kinskey
  9. People not in the Morning Post visualization but elsewhere said to have been in this procession:
    1. Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart, the Marquess of Londonderry (at 558), in the procession according to the Morning Post story
    2. Edmond Fitzmaurice (at 627), a Courtier of the Empress Marie Thérèse
    3. Miss Alexandra Ellis (at 695), in a Thérèse costume

The Morning Post typeset a visualization of the procession, more or less, like this[1]:7, Col. 6B:

Lady Londonderry . . . . . Empress Maria Theresa.
Lord Lansdowne . . . . . . Prince Kaunitz.
Lady Lansdowne . . . . . . Lady Keith.
Lord Winchester  . . . . . A Coldstream Guard at Vienna.

Lady B. Butler . . . . . . Archduchess Marie-Karoline.
Lord Castlereagh . . . . . Emperor Joseph II.
Lady A. Hamilton . . . . . Archduchess Marie-Josepha.
Mr. Gathorne-Hardy . . . . Archduke Leopold.
Lady B. FitzMaurice  . . . Archduchess Marie Anna.
Lord Helmsley  . . . . . . Archduke Charles.
Lady Helen Stewart . . . . Archduchess Marie Christine. 
Lord Lurgan  . . . . . . . Duke Albert von Sachsen-Texhen. 

Lady Magheramorne . . . . . Maria-Amelia, Princess of Lorraine. 
Lady Aline Beaumont . . . . Queen of Sardinia. 
Lord Ava  . . . . . . . . . Archduke Maximilian. 
Mr. C. Willoughby . . . . . Grand Duke Charles of Tuscany. 

Mrs. G. Beckett . . . . . . Princess Elenora of Lichtenstein. 
Count Clary . . . . . . . . General Count Nadasdy. 
Mrs. R. Beckeet [sic] . . . Princess Isabella of Parma. 
Count Hadik . . . . . . . . Field-Marshal Hadik. 

Lady Cranborne  . . . . . . Princess Josepha of Bavaria. 
Mr. M'Donnel  . . . . . . . Duke Ferdinand of Modena. 
Lady H. Brodrick  . . . . . Princess Marie Künigunde of Saxony. 
Mr. Menzies . . . . . . . . Freiherr von Bartenstein.

Mrs. James  . . . . . . . . Archduchess Elizabeth. 
Lady C. FitzMaurice . . . . Secretary to Kaunitz. 
Lady Helmsley . . . . . . . Princess Charlotte of Lorraine. 
Lord Kerry  . . . . . . . . Count Mercy d'Argentau. 

Lady E. Cavendish . . . . . Countess Trautmannsdorf. 
Mr. Mildmay . . . . . . . . Field-Marshal Count Charles of Batthyany. 
Lady M. Cavendish . . . . . Countess Lützau (A Lady-in-Waiting to Maria Theresa). 
Lord Athlumney  . . . . . . Prince Metternich. 

Miss Stirling . . . . . . . Countess Kinskey. 
Mr. Brodrick  . . . . . . . Count Philip Kinsky.

Russian[edit | edit source]

According to the Gentlewoman,

The Russian Court formed a dazzling procession, headed by Lady Raincliffe, as the Empress Catherine; her gown of white satin was studded with rubies, emeralds, and turquoises, and across her bodice she wore a blue ribbon with the Orders of the Star and Eagle, and upon her head a Russian crown of diamonds. Beside her was Prince Orloff, represented by Prince Henry Pless, in a costume of red cloth with heavy gold embroideries; he also wore the Order of St. Catherine. There were eight officers of the Imperial Court accompanying the Empress, whilst Lady Henry Bentinck and Lady Yarborough impersonated ladies of her suite, amongst which one of the most striking figures was Mr. Cresswell, as her Chamberlain, in a costume of cerise velvet, covered with the double-headed eagle of Russia in gold, which embroidery was repeated on his pink satin vest, his white satin breeches, and his silk stockings.[2]:32, 3b

  1. The "Trumpeters of the Imperial Guard" led the procession
  2. The first group, if they did break into subgroups
    1. Lord Henry Bentinck (probably Lord Henry Cavendish Bentinck) (at 262), as Count Poneatowski (afterwards King of Poland)
    2. Grace Denison, Viscountess Raincliffe (at 75), as Catherine II of Russia (after the picture by Lambi)
    3. Count Heeren (at ), as Duc de Ligne
    4. Addison Francis Baker-Cresswell (Mr. A. F. B. Cresswell) (at 103), as Count Lausköi, Chamberlain of the Empress Catherine II of Russia
  3. The second group
    1. Prince Henry of Pless (at 40), as Count Orloff
    2. Mrs. H. T. Barclay (at 266), Princess Shakofsky
    3. Mr. Biddulph (at 268), as Count Soltykoff
  4. The third group, with the 8 "Imperial Guard" walking along the outside (or at least typeset that way) of the "Ladies and Gentlemen of the Court"
    1. Imperial Guards: left side
      1. William Denison, Viscount Raincliffe (at 76)
      2. Captain Cook (at 270)
      3. Hon. Gerald Ward (at 271)
      4. James Stewart Forbes (at 273)[6]:5, Col. 7a
    2. Imperial Guards: right side
      1. Lord Romilly (at 269)
      2. Mr. H. T. Barclay (at 267)
      3. The Hon. Cecil Campbell (at 272)
      4. Mr. T. W. Wilson (at 274)
    3. Ladies and Gentlemen of the Court
      1. Consuelo Vanderbilt Spencer-Churchill, the Duchess of Marlborough (at 174)
      2. Charles Richard John "Sunny" Spencer-Churchill, the Duke of Marlborough (at 142), one of the Gentlemen of the Court of Catherine II of Russia
      3. Kathleen Florence May Candy Pelham-Clinton, Duchess of Newcastle (at 150)
      4. Charles Anderson-Pelham, Earl of Yarborough (at 61), with Lady Yarborough, was among Ladies and Gentlemen of the Court
      5. Marcia Anderson-Pelham, Countess of Yarborough (at 54)
      6. Lord Shipley Cardross (at 275)
      7. Lady Rosalie Cardross (at 276)
      8. Herbert Marmaduke Joseph Stourton (at 277)
      9. the Hon. M. (Muriel) Erskine (at 278)[11]
      10. Mr. Elliot (at 279)
      11. Lady Henry Bentinck (Lady Henry Cavendish Bentinck) (at 263)
      12. N. Boulatzell (at 280), as Prince of Mingrelia, one of the Gentlemen of the Court in the procession of the Empress Catherine II of Russia
      13. Lady Margaret Spicer (at 281), as Countess Soltykoff
      14. M. Nicholas Gourko (at 108)
      15. Lady Mildred Denison (at 283)
      16. Charles Henry John Chetwynd-Talbot, 20th Earl of Shrewsbury (at 101), as a member of the Court of Catherine II of Russia
      17. "Black Attendants"

The Guernsey Star suggests that the Hon. Mrs. Erskine's daughter was in this procession, but the Morning Post does not list her.[11] The Hon. Cecil Lambton was also there, apparently, and sold his costume to Arthur Collins, who directed The White Heather.[12]

The Morning Post's visualization of the procession looks more or less like this[1]:7, Col. 5b:

                             Trumpeters of the Imperial Guard.
Count Poneatowski            Empress Catherine II. of Russia           Duc de Ligne,
(afterwards King of Poland),  (after the picture by Lambi),            Count Heeren.           
Lord Henry Bentinck.                 Lady Raincliffe.                  Count Lausköi,
                                                                       Mr. Cresswell.
Count Orloff,                     Princess Shakofsky,                Count Soltykoff,
Prince Henry of Pless.            Mrs. H. T. Barclay.                   Mr. Biddulph.

["Imperial Guard." — typeset vertically up the left and down the right side of the column, with 2 vertical rules separating the two columns of names.]

                 Lord Raincliffe.   |           |   Lord Romilly.
                    Captain Cook.   |           |   Mr. H. T. Barclay.
                Hon. Gerald Ward.   |           |   Hon. Cecil Campbell.
                   Mr. J. Forbes.   |           |   Mr. T. W. Wilson.
                            Ladies and Gentlemen of the Court.
                 Duchess of Marlborough.      Duke of Marlborough.
                 Duchess of Newcastle.        Earl of Yarborough.
                 Countess of Yarborough.      Lord Cardross.
                 Lady Cardross.               Mr. Stourton.
                 Hon. M. Erskine.             Mr. Elliot.
                 Lady Henry Bentinck.         M. Botalzell.
                 Lady Margaret Spicer.        M. Gourko.
                 Lady Mildred Denison.        Earl of Shrewsbury.
                                   Black Attendants.

Louis XV and XVI Period[edit | edit source]

The Morning Post calls this one a quadrille rather than a procession, the quadrille of the Louis XV and XVI Period (MornPost),[1]:7, Col. 6B This procession or quadrille was organized and led by Daisy, Countess of Warwick[13]:5, Col. 9C.

  1. Headed by Daisy, Countess Warwick (at 53) as Marie Antoinette[11], as La Reine Marie Antoinette[1]
    1. Plus 4 boys dressed as pages[14]
  2. Georgiana Elizabeth Spencer-Churchill Curzon, Viscountess Curzon (at 168), as La Reine Marie Leszuiska in the quadrille of the period of Louis XV and XVI
  3. Nellie, Countess Kilmorey (at 207), as Madame du Barry
  4. Lady Algernon Gordon-Lennox (at 333), as Princesse de Lamballe
  5. Lady Harriet Burton (at 334), as Madame de Tençin
  6. Lady Garvagh (at ), as Comtesse d'Artois
  7. The Hon. Mrs. Greville (at 299), as Madame Elizabeth de France
  8. Alice (the Hon. Mrs. George) Keppel (at 231), as Madame de Polignac
  9. Lady Rose Leigh (at 337), as Duchesse de Villars
  10. Mrs. Farquharson (at 338), as L'Archiduchesse Louise
  11. Miss Naylor (at ), as Comtesse de Charny
  12. The Hon. Mrs. Sackville West (at ), as Duchess of Dorset
  13. Henry Arthur Cadogan, Viscount Chelsea (at 163), as Le Roi Louis XV in the quadrille of the Louis XV. and Louis XVI. Period
  14. Lord Camden (at ), as Duc de Richelieu
  15. The Hon. Humphrey Sturt, M.P. (at 120), as an Abbé de l'Epoque
  16. Lord Burton (at 335), as Cardinal Dubois
  17. Mousquetaires et Militaires de l'Epoque
    1. Luke White, Lord Annaly (at 342)
    2. Lord Tullibardine (at )
    3. Lord George Murray (at )
    4. Frederick Edward Guest, the Hon. F. Guest (at 345), as one of the Mousquetaires et Militaires de l'Epoque in the Quadrille of the Louis XV. and Louis XVI.
    5. Sir Samuel Scott, Bart., (at 99) one of the Mousquetaires et Militaires de l'Epoque in the Quadrille of the Louis XV. and Louis XVI
    6. Captain Gordon Wilson (at 96), one of the Mousquetaires et Militaires de l'Epoque in the Quadrille of the Louis XV. and Louis XVI
    7. Captain the Hon. W. Lambton (at 346), likely Hon. Sir William Lambton, one of the Mousquetaires et Militaires de l'Epoque in the Quadrille of the Louis XV. and Louis XVI.
    8. Captain Gilbert Elliot (at 347)
    9. Mr. Frank Dugdale (at 348)
    10. Carlo Ermes Visconti, Marchese di San Vito (at 691), as one of the Mousquetaires
  18. Mr. Clive Wilson (at 349) as Le Comte de Ferson in the Quadrille of the Louis XV. and Louis XVI
  19. Mr. W. M. Lowe (at ), as Gentilhomme de la Cour Louis XVI
  20. Rt. Hon. Arnold Morley (at), was dressed as a Gentilhomme de la Cour Louis XV in the Quadrille of the Louis XV. and Louis XVI.was dressed as Le Comte de Ferson in the Quadrille of the Louis XV. and Louis XVI
  21. Not listed in the visualization in the Morning Post but mentioned elsewhere as having been dressed in a costume of this period:
    1. Millicent, Duchess of Sutherland (at 33), "belonged to the Louis Seize group of the Countess of Warwick"[11]
    2. The Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain (at 93), as a gentleman of the Louis XVI period
    3. Lady Sarah Wilson (at 392), as Madame de Pompadour
    4. Mr. Gerald Loder, M.P. (at 100), as a Gentleman of the Court of Louis XVI
    5. Sir George Frederick Stanley (at ), as Maro (period of Louis XVI)
    6. Hon. Frederick William Stanley (at ), in hunting dress (period of Louis XVI).
    7. Lady Isobel Stanley (at ), in hunting costume, period of Louis XVI
    8. Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart y Falcó, Lord Alva (at 405), as as a courtier of Louis XV
    9. Charles Carington, the Earl Carington (at 69), as Louis Seize
  22. Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury (at 101), either a Gentleman of the Court of Lois XV. or a Gentleman of the Court of the Empress Catherine II of Russia

The Morning Post typeset a visualization of the procession, more or less, like this:

Louis XV. and Louis XVI. Period. 
Lady Warwick . . . . . . . . . . La Reine Marie Antoinette. 
Lady Curzon  . . . . . . . . . . La Reine Marie Leszuiska. 
Lady Kilmorey  . . . . . . . . . Madame du Barry. 
Lady Algernon Gordon-Lennox  . . Princesse de Lamballe. 
Lady Burton  . . . . . . . . . . Madame de Tençin. 
Lady Garvagh . . . . . . . . . . Comtesse d'Artois. 
The Hon. Mrs. Greville . . . . . Madame Elizabeth de France. 
The Hon. Mrs. George Keppell . . Madame de Polignac. 
Lady Rose Leigh  . . . . . . . . Duchesse de Villars. 
Mrs. Farquharson . . . . . . . . L'Archiduchesse Louise. 
Miss Naylor  . . . . . . . . . . Comtesse de Charny. 
The Hon. Mrs. Sackville West . . Duchess of Dorset. 
Lord Chelsea . . . . . . . . . . Le Roi Louis XV. 
Lord Camden  . . . . . . . . . . Duc de Richelieu. 
The Hon. Humphrey Sturt  . . . . Abbé de l'Epoque. 
Lord Burton  . . . . . . . . . . Cardinal Dubois. 
Lord Annaly  . . . . . . . . . . )
Lord Tullibardine  . . . . . . . )
Lord George Murray . . . . . . . )
The Hon. F. Guest  . . . . . . . )
Sir Samel Scott  . . . . . . . . ) Mousquetaires et Mili- 
Captain Gordon Wilson  . . . . . ) taires de l'Epoque. 
Captain the Hon. W. Lambton  . . )
Captain Gilbert Elliot . . . . . )
Mr. Dugdale  . . . . . . . . . . )
Mr. Clive Wilson . . . . . . . . Le Comte de Ferson. 
Mr. W. M. Lowe . . . . . . . . . Gentilhomme de la Cour Louis XVI. 
Mr. Arnold Morley  . . . . . . . Gentilhomme de la Cour Louis XV.[1]:7, Col. 6B

Elizabethan[edit | edit source]

Elizabethan costumes seem to have been very popular, even outside the Elizabethan procession, in part because the Royals were costumed in Renaissance styles as well. In this description the Gentlewoman includes Anne of Austria and the Electress of Luneberg and Hanover, not to mention Napoleon, who would not have been in Elizabeth's court. They could conceivably have walked in the Elizabeth procession, although Anne of Austria, while Renaissance, might have walked with the French procession if it included Louis XIII. The Duchess of Connaught and the Duchess of Teck were very closely related to Queen Victoria's immediate family and thus might be grouped here because many of the Royals wore Elizabethan dress.

A Court, the details of which were perfectly carried out, was that of Elizabeth of England. Lady Tweedmouth took the part of Her Majesty, and her costume was an exact reproduction of Queen Elizabeth's portrait in the National Portrait Gallery. Her skirt of rich old white and gold brocade was held in place by the old-fashioned hoops, the bodice and front of gold tissue embroidered in old jewels were finished by stiffened cuffs and large wired collar of old lace wrought with gold. Four yeomen held a canopy over Her Majesty's head. Their uniforms were exactly copied from the picture of the Field of the Cloth of Gold at Hampton Court. These were the Duke of Roxburghe, the Hon. Dudley Marjoribanks, Captain Maunde Thompson, and Mr. Rose attired in scarlet and black. The two heralds who preceded the Queen were Mr. Harold Brassey and Mr. E. Villiers, while Lord Rothschild, in a splendid costume of the time, walked between them.

Among her Majesty's Court were Sir Walter Raleigh (Mr. Ernest Beckett), Sir Philip Sidney (Mr. H. Warrender), Sir Francis Drake (Sir Charles Hall), the Lord Chief Justice (Sir Francis Jeune), the Lord of Burleigh (the Earl of Sandwich), while Lord Lonsdale, who carried a hooded falcon on his wrist, represented Sir Richard Lowther. The Duchess of Roxburghe, and the Countess of Powis, as the Countess of Shrewsbury and Lady Herbert of Cherbury, looked very effective. Countess Spencer, Mrs. Habington, Lady de Ramsay, and the Archbishop of Canterbury, represented by Lord Rowton, made up the Court. Then followed Mary Queen of Scots, in the person of Lady Edmonstone, wonderfully attired in turquoise-blue velvet with pearls and white satin; Mary Hamilton, in white satin and gold, and Mary Seaton, in white, followed in her wake as did the Countess of Lonsdale (Lady Hunsdon), Lord Glenesk, and many others.

H.R.H. the Duchess of Connaught, as Anne of Austria, and H.R.H. the Duchess of Teck, as Electress of Luneberg and Hanover, looked their characters very well, and a very effective trio was formed by the Countess Clary d'Aldringen, Countess Isabel Deym, and Countess Kinsky, as the three sisters of Napoleon. The Duchess of Somerset as Lady Jane Seymour, after a picture by Holbein, was dressed in gold brocade with a wonderful headdress; superbly jewelled, white gloves and Holbein ornaments embroidered on her gown. Margaret of Orleans, impersonated by the Duchess of Manchester, in white satin and silver, was a great success. Josephine, the wife of Napoleon, copied from the picture of her coronation, was impersonated by the Marchioness of Tweeddale, who wore white satin wrought with gold, and a train of geranium-red velvet, trimmed with ermine. Lady Lathom as Catherine of Arragon was splendidly dressed in bronze-green velvet worked in gold designs.[2]:32, Col. 3c – 34, Col. 1a

The Elizabethan procession was "led" by Fanny Marjoribanks, Lady Tweedmouth (at 85) as Queen Elizabeth, but she did not come first in the procession.

  1. Heralds
    1. Mr. E. Villiers (at 326), as a Yeoman in the Queen Elizabeth procession
    2. Harold Brassey (at 253), as a Yeoman in the Queen Elizabeth procession
  2. First two rows
    1. Mr. E. (Ernest) Beckett (at 313), as Sir Walter Raleigh
    2. Mr. H. (Hugh) Warrender (at 314), as Sir Philip Sydney
    3. Sir Charles Hall, Q.C., M.P. (at 127), as Sir Francis Drake at the head of the Queen Elizabeth procession
    4. Sir F. (Francis) Jeune (at 315), as Lord Chief Justice
    5. Edward Montagu, 8th Earl of Sandwich (at 71), as Lord Burleigh
    6. Earl of Lonsdale, Sir Richard Lowther (at 225), as Lord High Falconer
  3. Group of 8 people followed the first row
    1. Violet Countess Powis (at 316), as Lady Herbert of Cherbury in the Queen Elizabeth procession
    2. Anne Duchess of Roxburghe (at 22), as Countess of Shrewsbury or Bess of Hardwicke
    3. Charlotte, Countess Spencer (at 192), as the Countess of Lennox (agreement from the Morning Post and Album of portraits[15])
    4. Rosamond Fellowes, Lady de Ramsey (at 329), as Lady Burleigh
    5. Grace, Countess Lonsdale (at 211), as the Countess of Essex
    6. Colonel John Leslie (at 261) was dressed as "Lord Darnley (carrying Sword of State)" in the Queen Elizabeth procession[16]
  • Fanny Marjoribanks, Lady Tweedmouth (at 85), as Queen Elizabeth
  • Yeomen
  • Sir A. Edmonstone (at 323), as Duc d'Alencon
  • Henry Holden (at 325) was dressed as Will Somers (Court Jester) in the Queen Elizabeth procession.
  • John Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer (), Sir A. Brown, First Viscount Montagu (None of the sources agree on who he personated; this is the Morning Post)
  • Arthur Earl of Arran (at 327), as Cardinal Loraine in the Queen Elizabeth procession

These people were in Elizabethan dress at the ball but not listed as being in the Elizabeth procession or quadrille:

  • Lady Katharine Montagu-Douglas-Scott (at 25), as Mary Queen of Scots; perhaps she walked in this procession.
  • Algernon St. Maur, Duke of Somerset (at 27), as Somerset the Protector, older brother of Jane Seymour. (The Gentlewoman, however, lists the Duchess of Somerset as a member of the Queen Elizabeth procession.)

The Morning Post typeset a visualization of the procession, more or less, like this:

                               QUEEN ELIZABETH PROCESSION.
Sir Walter Raleigh,                 Sir P. Sydney,                Sir F. Drake,
Mr. E. Beckett.                    Mr. H. Warrender.               Sir C. Hall.
Lord Chief Justice,                 Lord Burleigh,           Sir Richard Lowther
Sir F. Jeune.                     Earl of Sandwich.         (Lord High Falconer),
                                                                Earl of Lonsdale.
Lady Herbert of Cherbury,       Countess of Shrewsbury,       Countess of Lennox,
Countess of Powis.               Duchess of Roxburghe.          Countess Spencer.
     Countess of Essex,                                      Elisabeth Cavendish.
    Countess of Lonsdale.                                       Mrs. A. James. [p. 7, Col. 5–6]

                                Lord Darnley
                          (carrying Sword of State),
                                Colonel Leslie.

Lord Leicester,                                                    Earl of Essex,
Lord Tweedmouth.                                                   Earl of Essex.
             Yeoman,                                    Yeoman,
       Duke of Roxburghe.                        Hon. D. Marjoribanks.

      Spanish Envoy,               | CANOPY. |                  French Ambassador,
      Mr. Ephrussi.                                           H. E. M. de Courcel.
                                 Queen Elizabeth,
                                 Lady Tweedmouth.
             Yeoman,                                    Yeoman,
       Captain Mann Thomson.                            Mr. Rose.
Duc d'Alençon,                     Will Somers                 Sir A. Brown, First
Sir A. Edmonstone.                (Court Jester).                 Viscount Montagu.
                                   Mr. Holden.                      Earl Spencer.

             Yeoman,                                    Yeoman,
         Mr. E. Villiers.                          Mr. Harold Brassey.
Cardinal Loraine,                 Swiss Burgher,          Archbishop of Canterbury.
  Earl of Arran.                 Lord Rothschild.                      Lord Rowton.

 Mary Seaton,                   Mary Queen of Scots,                  Mary Hamilton,
Hon. Mrs. Greville.                 Lady Edmonstone.            Duchess of Hamilton.
          Lady Hunsdon,                                 Lady Burleigh,
         Lady Battersea.                               Lady de Ramsey.
Casimir Count Patatine of Bavaria  Lord Herbert of Cherbury,            Lord Hunsdon,
Baron F. de Rothschild.                Earl of Powis.                 Lord Battersea.
Martin Frobisher,               Lord James Murray,                Sir Thomas Gresham,
Mr. Godfrey Webb.                   Lord Glenesk.                  Hon. S. Lyttelton.
                             C. Maguire (Lord of Fermanagh),
                                   Mr. R. Maguire.[1]:7, Col. 5C–6B

Other Groups[edit | edit source]

Other processions or quadrilles existed, not captured fully by the Morning Post but mentioned in, for example, the London Daily News story about the ball.The Morning Post is not complete in other ways as well, judging by other newspaper accounts or even descriptions from later in the big Morning Post story. Both the Knights of the Round Table of King Arthur procession and the Cosway Quadrille are examples of processions or quadrilles not detailed in the Morning Post.

The Court of Marguerite de Valois[edit | edit source]

Theoretically, the court of Marguerite de Valois could have been included among the Elizabeth procession, but some of the people in this court, which was led by the Alexandra, Princess of Wales, might have been on the dais with her, so perhaps it was a court but not a procession.

  • Alexandra, Princess of Wales, as Marguerite Valois
  • Evelyn, Lady Alington (at 41), as Duchesse de Nevers
  • Princess Charles of Denmark (Princess Maud of Wales)
  • Prince Charles of Wales was in this court? He was photographed with Princess Charles of Denmark and Princess Victoria of Wales; this photograph is in the Album.[15]
  • Mary Teck, Duchess of York, attended by
    • Lady Mary Lygon (at 547), as Marie de Lorraine, a lady of the Court of Marguerite de Valois
    • Sir Charles Cust (at 152)
  • the Duchess of Fife
  • Princess Victoria of Wales
  • Princess Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein

Queen Guinevere and the Knights of the Round Table of King Arthur procession[edit | edit source]

Even though the members are not listed in the article in the London Morning Post, according to both the London Daily News and the Morning Post, a procession represented King Arthur's Round Table. This quadrille is mentioned in the story in the Times. The ladies included Lady Ormonde, Lady Constance Butler, Lady Ashburton and Miss Chaplin. The knights included Lord Rodney, Hon. R. Grosvenor, Earl Bathurst, Hon. G. Hood, Lord Ashburton, Lord Ampthill, and Lord Beauchamp.[1]:8, Col. 1B[6]:5, Col. 7A

  1. Elizabeth Butler, the Marchioness of Ormonde (at 373), was dressed as Guinevere
  2. Corisande, Baroness Rodney (at 472) was also dressed as Queen Guinevere, according to her portrait in the Album in the National Portrait Gallery,[17] but she may not have been in this procession, although George, Baron Rodney was, as a Knight of the Round Table.
  3. Lady Constance Butler (Elizabeth Butler's daughter) was Lynette or Elaine
  4. Lady Ashburton
  5. Miss Chaplin
  6. John Lister Kaye (at 97) as Sir Kay
  7. Captain R. Peel (at 614), as Sir Bedivere
  8. Margaret Russell, Lady Ampthill (at 419), as a Lady in Waiting at the Court of King Arthur
  9. Mr. J. B. (John Blundell) Leigh (at 602), as Sir Tristram in the Queen Guinevere and the Knights of the Round Table of King Arthur procession
  10. Knights of the Round Table (first four, Morning Post; first two plus last three are London Daily News)
    1. Lord Rodney: George, Baron Rodney (at 80)
    2. Earl Bathurst (at 82)
    3. Hon. R. Grosvenor (at 81)
    4. Hon. G. Hood (at 83). The printing on the portrait that was in the Album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire says, "The Hon. Grosvenor Hood as Sir Galahad."[18]
    5. Lord Ashburton
    6. Oliver Russell, Baron Ampthill (at 77)
    7. William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp (at 60)

The Cosway Quadrille[edit | edit source]

The "Cosway" quadrille, with the Ladies Innes-Ker and the Ladies Villiers, is not mentioned in the Morning Post article. This description suggests that there were two Ladies Ker and two Ladies Villiers: "Very artistic was the "Cosway" quadrille, in which the Ladies Ker and the Ladies Villiers took part. The long clinging gowns of Oriental cream satin were veiled in pink muslin, and had very short waists and coloured silk sashes — two of blue and two of pink."[6]:6, Col. 1A These costumes seem to have been based on portraits by Maria rather than Richard Cosway.[6]:6, Col. 1A The Ladies Innes-Ker had the blue and the Ladies Villiers had the pink sashes.

Lady Margaret Innes-Ker (at 23) and Lady Victoria Innes-Ker (at 668) are in the album given to the Duke and Duchess of Devonshire by some of the people attending the ball.[15] They are named there and identified with Cosway, so it seems likely they are the two Ladies Ker in the Cosway Quadrille. Of the Ladies Villers, both Lady Edith Villiers (at 282), as Lady Melbourne, and Violet Manners, Marchioness of Granby (at 448) are both named in the Album and associated with Cosway. Lady Edith Villiers is said to be part of the Cosway Quadrille. Further, while Violet Manners is said to have been photographed "after Cosway,"[19] she is not a Villiers.

So if Lady Edith Villiers (at 652) is one of the Cosway Quadrille, we need one more Villiers. One possible choice is Lady Margaret Childs-Villiers (at 433), called Lady M. Villiers. We know Lady Margaret Villiers was at the ball: her portrait as Madame Henriette Duchess d'Orleans is in the Album. She is not part of the same family Lady Edith came from, which was that of the Earl of Clarendon; Lady Margaret Childs-Villiers is part of the family of the Earl of Jersey. Another young woman from that family was Lady May Julia Child-Villiers.

Since a quadrille is usually a dance for four couples, this list would make up the Cosway quadrille if indeed four women took part:

  1. Lady Margaret Innes-Ker (at 23)
  2. Lady Victoria Innes-Ker (at 668)
  3. Lady Edith Villiers (at 282)
  4. Lady Margaret Childs-Villiers (at 433)

Courts of Charles I (and Henrietta Maria, Queen) and Charles II[edit | edit source]

A number of people were identified as being a member of the courts of Charles I or Charles II, even though no such group is listed in the major stories. This is Charles II of England; the Duke of Devonshire was dresses as Charles V of Germany, so this was not a group forming around him. Relevant people would be Cromwell, the Roundheads, and so on.

People Who Came as Individuals or Are Not Listed as Part of a Procession or Quadrille[edit | edit source]

The Royals, obviously, would not have been part of any procession or quadrille because they were on the dais instead. Others, whose costumes are described in enough detail for us to know how they were dressed are listed here.

  1. Hon. Oliver Borthwick (at 89), dressed as Marshal Turenne (reign of Louis XIV)
  2. Colonel Arthur Paget (at 91), dressed as Edward the Black Prince
  3. Arthur Balfour (at 86), The Right Hon. A. J. Balfour , in a Dutch costume of 1660
  4. Sir William Harcourt (at 128) as Sir Simon Harcourt, the first Lord Harcourt, in 1712, as Lord Chamberlain
  5. Lady Gwendolen Cecil (at 404), as Portia
  6. Lady Edward Cavendish (at 393) as Madame de Maintenon
  7. Alfred Rothschild (at 633), as a French noble of the 16th century
  8. Sir Charles Hartopp , as Napoleon I
  9. Mr. Montague Guest (at 115), as Montague Bertie, second Earl of Lindsey
  10. Beatrix, Countess Cadogan (at 55), as Elizabeth Queen of Bohemia, after a painting by Honthorst
  11. Lady Ethel Meysey Thompson (at 391), as Elizabeth Queen of Bohemia
  12. Mr. Arthur Wilson (at 118), in a Costume from a portrait by Velasquez
  13. Mary (Mrs. Arthur) Wilson (at 395) wore a dress in the Georgian period
  14. Lady Edith Wilbraham (at 119), as Peg Woffington
  15. Lord James of Hereford (at 122), as Sir Thomas More
  16. Miss James (at 396), as Eugénie Hortense de Beauharnais, Louis Bonaparte's wife
  17. Lord Edmund Talbot (at 123), as a Gentleman of the Spanish Court of the early 17th Century
  18. Colonel Sir Charles Wyndham Murray , "Mr. C. Wyndham , M.P.," (at 124), as the Emperor John Polaeologus II. on his State visit to Venice in 1438.
  19. Lilian Maud Spencer-Churchill (at 634), as a Watteau shepherdess
  20. Norah Beatrice Henriette Spencer-Churchill (at 635), as a Watteau Shepherdess
  21. John Lambton, 3rd Earl of Durham , as the Duc de Nemours, period Henri III
  22. Isabella, Countess Howe (at 489), as Lady Howe of 1758
  23. Richard George Penn Curzon, Viscount Curzon (at 197), as Admiral Lord Howe, husband of the 1758 Lady Howe, accompanied his mother
  24. George Holford was dressed as Philip IV. of Spain.
  25. Francis Gathorne-Hardy as in either the Archduchess Marie-Karoline and Emperor Joseph II section of the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille or a gentleman of the Court of Louis XV.
  26. The Grand Duke Michael of Russia (at 8), as Henri IV of Navarre and France, first married to Marguerite de Valois but father to the children of Gabrielle d'Estrées, personated by Sophia Nicholaievna, Countess de Torby (at 184), his morganatic wife.
  27. Louisa Jane, Duchess of Buccleuch (at 24), as Elizabeth, Duchess of Buccleuch, after a painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds.
  28. William, Duke of Buccleuch (at 20), as either William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle or Charles I.
  29. Lady Constance Montagu-Douglas-Scott (at 26), as a Watteau shepherdess.
  30. William, Earl of Dudley (at 63), as Prince Rupert, so he could have been in the Charles I or Charles II procession but is not listed in any of the newspaper reports as being in a procession or quadrille; his wife, Rachel, Countess of Dudley (at 31) is not the Lady Dudley in the Duchesses procession; that's probably his mother, Georgina, Dowager Countess Dudley.
  31. Carlos, 16th Duke of Alba (at 32), as his ancestor at the Court of Philip II of Spain
  32. Katherine Grosvenor, Duchess of Westminster (at 34), as Queen Elizabeth of Bavaria, who might not be Elizabethan, but Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, as Casimir Count Patatine of Bavaria was in this procession.
  33. Constance Stanley, Countess of Derby (at 36), as Duchess of Orleans. (Members of her family, the Stanleys, are in the Duchesses and the Louis XV and Louis XVI court processions.
  34. Lady Angela St. Clair-Erskine Forbes (at 37), as Queen of Naples.
  35. Lawrence Dundas, Earl of Ronaldshay (at 529), as Sir Peter Teazle
  36. Lady Eva Greville Dugdale (at 409), as great-aunt Lady Anne Bingham
  37. Francis Egerton, 3rd Earl of Ellesmere (at 68), as James I
  38. Count Franz Deym (at 66), as General Wallenstein
  39. Countess Isabel Deym (at 67), as the Princesse de Lamballe, one of Napoleon's sisters, along with Thérèse, Countess Clary and Aldringen (at 191) and Josephine, Countess Kinsky (at 394), though another Princess de Lamballe, Lady Blanche Gordon-Lennox, appeared in the Louis XV and XVI procession
  40. Emily, Lady Ampthill (at 420), also as the Princess de Lamballe[20]
  41. Beatrix Palmer, Countess Selborne (at 557), as Lady Percy, after a picture by Vandyk
  42. William Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne (at 70), as an officer of the Duke of Marlborough's Army
  43. John Seymour Wynne-Finch (at 681), as Cosmo, Grand Duke of Tuscany
  44. Lady Muriel Fox Strangways (at 403), as one of Queen Charlotte's bridesmaids
  45. Frederick, Baron Wolverton (at 79), as King Richard, Coeur de Lion
  46. Lewis Harcourt (at 678), as 1st Viscount Nuneham, c. 1750
  47. Lady Natica Lister-Kaye (at 499), as Duchesse de Guise in the time of Henri III
  48. Maria Chaine (at 490) as Madame Sans Gêne, from Victorien Sardou and Émile Moreau's 1893 play Madame Sans Gêne
  49. Margaret Jane Stuart-Wortley Chetwynd-Talbot, Lady Talbot (at 485), as a Valkyrie
  50. Lady Robert Cecil — Eleanor Lambton Gascoyne-Cecil — (at 450), as Valentina Visconti (XV Century)
  51. Hon. Victor Cavendish (at 121), as a Tudor or an Elizabethan ambassador, from a Holbein in the National Gallery
  52. Mr. S. Cavendish (at 656), as Count Chotak
  53. Louisa Montefiore, Lady de Rothschild (at 674), as Lady Vaux, after a picture by Holbein
  54. Mr. Leopold de Rothschild (at 567), as Duc de Sully
  55. Mrs. Leopold (Marie Perugia) Rothschild (at 568), as Zobeida
  56. Alfred Rothschild (at 633), as King Henry III
  57. The Right Hon. W. H. Long, M.P., (at 117) was dressed as a cavalier from the time of Charles II, after a picture by Sir Peter Lely.
  58. Mrs. Doreen Long (at 484) as Urania, Goddess of Astronomy or an astronomer
  59. Lady Elspeth Angela Campbell (at 632), in white with gold wings
  60. Madame Marie-Elisabeth Chodron de Courcel (at 182), as Night
  61. Mademoiselle Henriette Chodron de Courcel (at 371), as a Valkyrie
  62. Mademoiselle Chodron de Courcel (at 498), as a Valkyrie
  63. M. Luis de Soveral (at 135), as Count d'Almada, A.D. 1640
  64. Frederick Oliver Robinson, Earl de Grey (at 679), as Admiral Coligny
  65. Archibald, Earl of Rosebery (at 139), as Horace Walpole
  66. Archibald Acheson, 4th Earl of Gosford (at 143), as Robert de la Marck (the rest of his family was in the Duchesses procession)
  67. Beatrix Herbert, Countess Pembroke (at 146), as Mary Sidney, Countess of Pembroke, after the picture by Marcus Gheeraedts
  68. Sidney Herbert, Earl Pembroke (at 181), as William, 1st Earl of Pembroke after Holbein
  69. Lady Beatrix Frances Gertrude Herbert (at 658), as Signora Bacelli after Gainsborough
  70. Ana, Countess Casa de Valencia (at 148), as Nuit d'Espagne
  71. Daisy (Mrs. Henry) White (at 151), as Morosina Morosini Dogaressa of Venice
  72. Anne (Alice Anne), Duchess of Buckingham (at 155), as Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus
  73. Lord Wilbraham Egerton of Tatton (at 591), as the Doge Morosini
  74. Rt. Hon. Sir Edward Walter Hamilton (at 683), as John of Gaunt
  75. Kathleen, Viscountess Falmouth (at 471), as Madame Recamier
  76. Count Albert Mensdorff-Pouilly-Dietrichstein (at 180), as Henri III, King of France
  77. Thomas Lister, 4th Baron Ribblesdale (at 185), as Lord Ribblesdale, after the Lawrence picture of his grandfather
  78. Charlotte, Lady Ribblesdale (at 206), as Duchess of Parma
  79. Rachel, Countess of Dudley (at 31), as Queen Esther
  80. Lady Aileen May Wyndham-Quin (at 661), as Queen Hortense
  81. Arthur Sassoon (at 601), as Chief of the Janissaries
  82. Mr. R. Sassoon, probably Reuben David Sassoon (at 571), as a Persian Prince
  83. Miss Sassoon, probably Louise Judith Sassoon (at 572), as a "Japanese Lady"
  84. Mary, Countess of Suffolk (at 538), as a Countess of Suffolk in 1766
  85. Miss Daisy Leiter (at 684), in what looks to be an 18th-century dress and headdress
  86. H. H. Asquith (at 381), as a roundhead
  87. Lord St. Oswald, Rowland Winn, 2nd Baron St. Oswald, (at 650) was dressed as an officer of the Regiment de Pondichery, 1772
  88. The Hon. Maud Winn (at 651), as Madame La Motte
  89. Herr Von André (at 386), as Benvenuto Cellini
  90. Lady Ethel Maud Warrender (at 520) as "Duchesse de Lauzun, La Grande Mademoiselle"
  91. Clara (Mrs. John) Hay (at 153), as one of the Princesses de Lamballe
  92. Candida Hay, Marchioness of Tweeddale (at 399), as Josephine, wife of Napoleon, with her sons Lord Arthur Vincent Hay and Lord William George Montagu Hay bearing her train (also at 399)
  93. William Montagu Hay, the Marquis of Tweeddale (at 400), as Saint Bris
  94. Lady Clementine Hay (at 629), as Valentina
  95. Mr. Reginald Balioll Brett (at 603), as a gentleman of France from a picture by Vandyke
  96. Mrs. Eleanor Frances Brett (at 604), as Manon Lescaut
  97. Lady Emily Hart Dyke (at 556), as an Elizabethan lady
  98. Violet Dunville (at 660), as Edith Plantagenet
  99. John Dunville (at 659), as the Emperor Yuan of China
  100. Lucy Charlewood Cole-Hamilton (at 666), as Amy Robsart
  101. Claud George Cole-Hamilton (at 667), as Edmund Tressilian
  102. Hon. Mrs. Cadogan (at 689), in Elizabethan costume
  103. Henry, Lord Belper (at 559), as Gentleman at Arms, time of Charles II
  104. Hon. Maurice Baring (at 690), as Marlborough
  105. Mr. R. (Charles Robert) Spencer (at 493), in Elizabethan dress
  106. Hon. Alexander McDonnell (at 676), as Mercutio
  107. Mr. Ian Malcolm (at 692), as a Courtier, time of Henry VIII
  108. Lord Churchill (at 653), as Columbus
  109. Captain Gerard Leigh (at 570), as a member of the Life Guard, time of Charles II
  110. James Hamilton, Marquis of Hamilton (at 693), in the period of Charles II
  111. Albertha Frances Anne Hamilton Spencer-Churchill, Marchioness of Blandford (at 694), as a 16th-century Abbess
  112. Mrs. Edith Lyttelton (at 580), as a parson's daughter, after a picture by Romney
  113. Georgina Cavendish Coke, Countess of Leicester (at 516), as a Venetian lady
  114. Lady Clementine Walsh (at 523) wore an Empire costume
  115. Lady Violet Brassey (at 531), as Juliet
  116. Lord Alwyne Frederick Compton (at 434), as Sir William Compton, time of Charles I
  117. Lady Mary Compton (at 435), as Mme. de Chevreuse, time of Louis XIII
  118. The Hon. Mrs. Gwendoline Lowther (at 672), as Madame de Tallion (Incroyable)
  119. Mr. J. E. Baillie (at 698), as an early 19th-century soldier
  120. The Hon. William Erskine (at 699), as an Incroyable
  121. Mr. William Wyndham Portal (at 549) in Court dress, period Marie Thérèse
  122. Mr. Ernest Cassel (at 462), as Velasquez
  123. Mr. Alfred Beit (at 384), as Frederick of Nassau, period 1630
  124. Stephen Frederick Wombwell (at 671), as George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham

Notes and Questions[edit | edit source]

  1. Work this info in:

There is intense excitement (says a lady correspondent) about the Duchess of Devonshire's historical and fancy dress ball to take place to-night. One of the prettiest of Princesses, daughter of a lovely Irish mother, goes as Queen of Sheba, her sister representing an Ethiopian attendant. An illustrious personage is to head the list of old-world knights, and a beautiful Marchioness is to represent Guinevere, her fair young daughter going as Elaine. A most lovely lady is to personate Queen Marie Thérèse, surrounded by her Court. There is to be a procession of young girls dressed after Cosway's miniatures, and an Elizabethan quadrille is to be danced, in which the Virgin Queen herself is to appear, as well as Essex, Raleigh, Shakespeare, and other well-known characters. Another quadrille will be made up of ladies and gentlemen costumed after the style of Catherine II.'s Russian Court, but none will be more pictorially effective than that in which Catherine de Medici will appear, some of the gentlemen representing Henri II., Francis II., Charles IX., Henri III., Gaspard de Collini, Comte de la Marck, and the Duc de Guise.[21]

Bibliography for Courts[edit | edit source]

Footnotes[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 "Fancy Dress Ball at Devonshire House." Morning Post Saturday 3 July 1897: 7 [of 12], Col. 4A–8 Col. 2B. British Newspaper Archive
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 “The Duchess of Devonshire’s Ball.” The Gentlewoman Saturday 10 July 1897: 32–42 [of 76], Cols. 1a–3c [of 3]. British Newspaper Archive
  3. “The Duchess’s Costume Ball.” Westminster Gazette 03 July 1897 Saturday: 5 [of 8], Cols. 1a–3b [of 3]. British Newspaper Archive
  4. 4.0 4.1 "The Duchess of Devonshire's Great Ball. Remarkable Social Function. Crowds of Mimic Kings & Queens. Panorama of Historical Costume. An Array of Priceless Jewels." Western Gazette 9 July 1897: 2 [of 8], Col. 7A–C. British Newspaper Archive
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 "Ball at Devonshire House." Times Saturday 3 July 1897: 12, Cols. 1A–4C The Times Digital Archive. Web. 28 Nov. 2015.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 "Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy Ball. A Brilliant Spectacle. Some of the Dresses." London Daily News Saturday 3 July 1897: 5 [of 10], Col. 6A–6, Col. 1B. British Newspaper Archive and
  7. "Fancy Dress Ball: Unparalleled Splendour." Carlisle Patriot Friday 9 July 1897: 7 [of 8], Col. 4A–B. British Newspaper Archive
  8. “The Duchess’s Costume Ball.” Westminster Gazette 03 July 1897 Saturday: 5 [of 8], Cols. 1a–3b [of 3]. British Newspaper Archive
  9. 9.0 9.1 “The Devonshire House Ball. A Brilliant Gathering.” The Pall Mall Gazette 3 July 1897, Saturday: 7 [of 10], Col. 2A–3A. British Newspaper Archive
  10. "Margaret ('Daisy') Stuyvesant Rutherford White (née Rutherfurd) as Morosina Morosini, Dogaressa of Venice and Henry White as Henri de Lorraine, Duc de Guise Margaret ('Daisy') Stuyvesant Rutherford White (née Rutherfurd) as Morosina Morosini, Dogaressa of Venice and Henry White as Henri de Lorraine, Duc de Guise." Devonshire House Fancy Dress Ball Album. National Portrait Gallery
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 "Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy-Dress Ball. Brilliant Spectacle." The [Guernsey] Star 6 July 1897, Tuesday: 1 [of 4], Col. 1–2. British Newspaper Archive
  12. "The Morning’s News." London Daily News 18 September 1897, Saturday: 5 [of 8], Col. 2b. British Newspaper Archive
  13. "Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy Ball. A Brilliant Spectacle. Some of the Dresses." London Daily News Saturday 3 July 1897: 5 [of 10], Col. 6A–6, Col. 1B. British Newspaper Archive and
  14. “The Duchess of Devonshire’s Ball.” Chelmsford Chronicle9 July 1897, Friday: 2 of 8. British Newspaper Archive
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 "Devonshire House Fancy Dress Ball (1897): photogravures by Walker & Boutall after various photographers." 1899. National Portrait Gallery
  16. "Leslie as Earl Darnley." Diamond Jubilee Fancy Dress Ball. National Portrait Gallery
  17. "Corisande Evelyn Vere." Diamond Jubilee Fancy Dress Ball. National Portrait Gallery
  18. "Grosvenor Hood as Sir Galahad." Diamond Jubilee Fancy Dress Ball. National Portrait Gallery
  19. "Violet Manners, Duchess of Rutland as Mary Isabella, Duchess of Rutland after Cosway." Diamond Jubilee Fancy Dress Ball. National Portrait Gallery
  20. "Emily, Lady Ampthill as The Princesse de Lamballe." Diamond Jubilee Fancy Dress Ball. National Portrait Gallery
  21. "This Morning's News." London Daily News 2 July 1897, Friday: 5 [of 10], Col. 3B. British Newspaper Archive