Social Victorians/People/Sutherland

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Also Known As[edit | edit source]

  • Family name: Sutherland-Leveson-Gower
  • Duke of Sutherland
    • George Granville Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland (19 July 1833 – 22 February 1861)
    • George Granville William Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 3rd Duke (22 February 1861 – 22 September 1892)
    • Cromartie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 4th Duke (22 September 1892 — 27 June 1913)
  • Duchess of Sutherland
    • Lady Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Howard, 2nd Duke (28 May 1823 – 22 February 1861)
    • Anne Hay-Mackenzie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 3rd Duke (22 February 1861— 25 November 1888)
    • Mary Caroline Mitchell Blair Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 3rd Duke (4 March 1889 – 25 May 1912) (the 3rd Duke died in 1892 and she remarried in 1896)
    • Millicent Fanny St. Clair-Erskine Leveson-Gower, 4th Duke (22 September 1892 – 20 August 1955? [her death], 1914? [remarriage], 1919? [remarriage])
  • Subsidiary titles associated with the dukedom of Sutherland include the following[1]:

Demographics[edit | edit source]

  • Nationality:

Family[edit | edit source]

  • George Granville Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland (8 August 1786 – 22 February 1861)[2]
  • Lady Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Howard (21 May 1806 – 27 October 1868)[3]
    1. daughter Sutherland-Leveson-Gower
    2. daughter Sutherland-Leveson-Gower
    3. daughter Sutherland-Leveson-Gower
    4. Lady Elizabeth Georgiana Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (30 May 1824 – 25 May 1878)
    5. Lady Evelyn Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (8 August 1825 – 24 November 1869)
    6. Lady Caroline Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (15 April 1827 – 13 May 1887)
    7. George Granville William Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 3rd Duke of Sutherland (19 December 1828 – 22 September 1892)
    8. Lord Frederick George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (11 November 1832 – 6 October 1854)
    9. Lady Constance Gertrude Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (16 June 1834 – 19 December 1880)
    10. Lord Albert Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (21 November 1843 – 23 December 1874)
    11. Lord Ronald Charles Sutherland-Gower (2 August 1845 – 9 March 1916)


  • George Granville William Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 3rd Duke of Sutherland (19 December 1828 – 22 September 1892)[4]
  • Anne Hay-Mackenzie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, Countess of Cromartie (21 April 1829 – 25 November 1888)[5]
  1. George Granville Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, Earl Gower (27 July 1850 – 5 July 1858)
  2. Cromartie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 4th Duke of Sutherland (20 July 1851 – 27 June 1913)
  3. Francis Mackenzie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl of Cromartie (3 August 1852 – 24 November 1893)
  4. Florence Sutherland-Leveson-Gower Chaplin (17 April 1855 – 10 October 1881)
  5. Alexandra Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (13 April 1866 – 16 April 1891)
  • Mary Caroline Mitchell Blair Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (1848 – 25 May 1912)


  • Millicent Fanny St. Clair-Erskine Leveson-Gower (20 October 1867 – 20 August 1955)[6]
  • Cromartie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 4th Duke of Sutherland (20 July 1851 – 27 June 1913)
    1. Lady Victoria Elizabeth Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (5 August 1885 – 28 January 1888)
    2. George Granville Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 5th Duke of Sutherland (29 August 1888 – 1 February 1963)
    3. Lord Alastair St. Clair Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (24 January 1890 – 28 April 1921)
    4. Lady Rosemary Millicent Leveson-Gower (9 August 1893 – 21 July 1930)
  • Percy Desmond Fitzgerald (18 April 1873 – 17 August 1933)[7]
  • George Ernest Hawes ( – 1946)[8]


Acquaintances, Friends and Enemies[edit | edit source]

Lord Ronald Gower[edit | edit source]

Friends and Acquaintances[edit | edit source]

  • John O'Connor
  • Oscar Wilde (1876–1888, at least)
  • Rennell Rodd (December 1879–) (Bristow, Introduction, p. 15)
  • John Addington Symonds
  • Frank Hird
  • Roger Fry (met in Venice in 1891)

Organizations[edit | edit source]

  • Granville William Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 3rd Duke of Sutherland, was a member of the Marlborough House Set.
  • Lord Ronald Gower: the sculpting studio of Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse in Paris (1875).[9]

Timeline[edit | edit source]

1849 June 27, George Granville William Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (3rd Duke) and Anne Hay-Mackenzie married at Cliefden House, Buckinghamshire.[4]

1879, Lord Ronald Gower sued the newspaper The Man of the World because of "hints of his homosexual liaisons."[10]

1883, Arthur Kindersley Blair, land agent and business manager working for the 3rd Duke and Mary Caroline Mitchell Blair Sutherland-Leveson-Gower's first husband, died in an accident while hunting with the Duke.[11]

1884 October 20, Cromartie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (4th Duke) and Millicent Fanny St. Clair-Erskine married.[12]

1888 October 10, Lord Ronald Gower's group of statues memorializing Shakespeare was unveiled in Stratford-upon-Avon. Oscar Wilde was one of the speakers for the event.[13]

1889 March 4, George Granville William Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (3rd Duke) and Mary Caroline Mitchell married in Florida, less than four months after the Duchess's death.[14]

1892 September 22, George Granville William Sutherland-Leveson-Gower (3rd Duke) died, leaving essentially everything to Duchess Blair, leading to conflict and litigation.[15]

1896 November 12, Mary Caroline Mitchell Sutherland-Leveson-Gower and Albert Kaye Rollit married.[11]

1897 July 2, Cromartie, 4th Duke and Millicent, Duchess of Sutherland attended the Duchess of Devonshire's fancy-dress ball at Devonshire House.

1898, Lord Ronald Gower (who was about 43) adopted Frank Hird (about 25) as his son, although their relationship had been sexual.[10]

Costume at the Duchess of Devonshire's 2 July 1897 Fancy-dress Ball[edit | edit source]

At the Duchess of Devonshire's fancy-dress ball, Millicent, Duchess of Sutherland (at 33) sat at Table 1 for the first supper seating and was

  • (dressed as "Charlotte Corday), red crêpe de Chine; Empire gown with chiffon fichu and white roses."[16]:40, Col. 2b
  • dressed as "Charlotte Corday. A soft clinging gown of red crepe de chine, with long sleeves to the wrist, finely tucked white fichu fastened with roses, and muslin cap frilled with point d'Aleuçon, and having a red, white, and blue rosette."[17]:7, Col. 7B
  • dressed as "Charlotte Corday, in red crêpe, white fichu, and large cap with the tricolour."[18]:5, Col. 7C
  • dressed as "'Charlotte Corday' in red velvet and a white cap."[19]:6, Col. 1A
  • dressed as "Charlotte Corday — a soft clinging gown of red crêpe-de-chine, with long sleeves to the waiste, finely tucked white fichu fastened with roses, and muslin cap frilled with point d'Alençon, and having a red, white, and blue rosette."[20]
  • dressed as "Charlotte Corday, and belonged to the Louis Seize group of the Countess of Warwick. She was dressed in an Empire frock of red crêpe de chine, with a fichu of white lisse and a white lisse lace-edged cap, with a tricoloured rosette at one side."[21]
  • "a striking Charlotte Corday, in crimson crépe de chine, with a white muslin cap and a fichu draped around the shoulders."[22]
  • "very lovely, as Charlotte Corday, in a red gown, with white cap, and a dagger at the side."[23]:Col. 1

The Duke of Sutherland (at 624) was also present.[24]

Questions and Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. Oscar Wilde based his character Lord Henry in The Picture of Dorian Grey, and his story "The Portrait of Mr. W. H."[25] is said to depict Lord Ronald Gower's social network.[10]

Footnotes[edit | edit source]

  1. "Duke of Sutherland". Wikipedia. 2020-10-02. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Duke_of_Sutherland&oldid=981522236. 
  2. "George Granville Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland." "Person Page". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  3. "Lady Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Howard." "Person Page". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "George Granville William Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 3rd Duke of Sutherland." "Person Page". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  5. "Anne Hay-Mackenzie, Countess of Cromartie." "Person Page". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  6. "Lady Millicent Fanny St. Clair-Erskine." "Person Page". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  7. "Brig.-Gen. Percy Desmond FitzGerald." "Person Page". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  8. "Lt.-Col. George Ernest Hawes." "Person Page". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  9. Bristow, Joseph. "Introduction." Wilde Discoveries: Traditions, Histories, Archives. Ed., Joseph Bristow. University of Toronto Press, 2013.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "Lord Ronald Gower". Wikipedia. 2020-08-28. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lord_Ronald_Gower&oldid=975342587. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Mary Caroline Mitchell." "Person Page". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  12. "Cromartie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 4th Duke of Sutherland." "Person Page". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  13. Bristow, Joseph. "Oscar Wilde, Ronald Gower, and the Shakespeare Monument." Etudes Anglaises 2016 (vol. 69, no. 1), pp. 7–22. doi:10.3917/etan.691.0007. https://www.cairn.info/revue-etudes-anglaises-2016-1-page-7.htm.
  14. "George Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 3rd Duke of Sutherland". Wikipedia. 2020-09-22. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Sutherland-Leveson-Gower,_3rd_Duke_of_Sutherland&oldid=979773240. 
  15. "September 22, 1892 — The Duchess Blair." Hughes, Tom (2011-09-04). "Victorian Calendar: September 22, 1892 --- The Duchess Blair". Victorian Calendar. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  16. “The Duchess of Devonshire’s Ball.” The Gentlewoman 10 July 1897 Saturday: 32–42 [of 76], Cols. 1a–3c [of 3]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0003340/18970710/155/0032.
  17. "Fancy Dress Ball at Devonshire House." Morning Post Saturday 3 July 1897: 7 [of 12], Col. 4A–8 Col. 2B. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000174/18970703/054/0007.
  18. "Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy Ball. A Brilliant Spectacle. Some of the Dresses." London Daily News Saturday 3 July 1897: 5 [of 10], Col. 6A–6, Col. 1B. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000051/18970703/024/0005 and http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/BL/0000051/18970703/024/0006.
  19. "The Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy Dress Ball. Special Telegram." Belfast News-Letter Saturday 03 July 1897: 5 [of 8], Col. 9 [of 9]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/BL/0000038/18970703/015/0005.
  20. "Ball at Devonshire House." The Times Saturday 3 July 1897: 12, Cols. 1A–4C The Times Digital Archive. Web. 28 Nov. 2015.
  21. "Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy-Dress Ball. Brilliant Spectacle." The [Guernsey] Star 6 July 1897, Tuesday: 1 [of 4], Col. 1–2. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000184/18970706/003/0001.
  22. “The Devonshire House Ball. A Brilliant Gathering.” The Pall Mall Gazette 3 July 1897, Saturday: 7 [of 10], Col. 2A–3A. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000098/18970703/019/0007.
  23. “The Duchess’s Costume Ball.” Westminster Gazette 03 July 1897 Saturday: 5 [of 8], Cols. 1a–3b [of 3]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0002947/18970703/035/0005.
  24. "The Duchess of Devonshire’s Ball. Essex People Present. Lady Warwick Looking ‘Very Lovely, Very Queenly.’" Chelmsford Chronicle 9 July 1897: 2 [of 8], Col. 6 [of 9]B). British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000322/18970709/008/0002.
  25. Wilde, Oscar (1921). The portrait of Mr. W. H. The Library of Congress. New York, M. Kennerley. http://archive.org/details/portraitofmrwh01wild.