Social Victorians/People/Roxburghe

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Also Known As[edit | edit source]

  • Family name: Innes-Ker
  • Duke of Roxburghe (peerage of Scotland, created 1707)[1]
    • James Henry Robert Innes-Ker, 7th Duke (23 April 1879[2] – 23 October 1892)[3]
    • Henry John Innes-Ker, 8th Duke (23 October 1892 – 29 September 1932)[4]
  • Duchess of Roxburghe
    • Anne Emily Spencer-Churchill Innes-Ker,
    • Mary (May) Goelet Innes Ker (1903–1932)
  • Courtesy Titles[1]
    • Marquis of Bowmont and Cessford, the Duke of Roxburghe's eldest son
    • Earl of Innes (this one is UK peerage)
    • Lord Kerr

Acquaintances, Friends and Enemies[edit | edit source]

Organizations[edit | edit source]

Anne, Duchess of Roxburghe[edit | edit source]

  • Queen Victoria's household, Mistress of the Robes (1883–1885, appointed by Gladstone; 1892–1901, served in role with the Dowager Duchess of Atholl though neither took the position)[5]
  • Lady of the Bedchamber[6]

Timeline[edit | edit source]

1874, Owen Williams became owner of Sandown Park, a horse racecourse managed by Hwfa Williams, by way of Blanche Mary Williams' husband Lord Charles John Innes-Ker.[7]

1874 June 11, Anne Emily Spencer-Churchill and James Henry Robert Innes-Ker married.[5]

1897 July 2, Friday, Anne Emily Spencer-Churchill, at that point still the Duchess of Roxburghe though her son was Duke, attended the Duchess of Devonshire's fancy-dress ball along with two of her daughters: Lady Margaret Innes-Ker, who would have been about 22, and Lady Victoria Innes-Ker, who was about 20.

1898 July 25, Lady Margaret Frances Susan Innes-Ker and James Alexander Orr Ewing married.[5]

1900 May 26, James Alexander Orr Ewing died in South Africa.[5]

1901 August 17, Lady Victoria Alexandrina Innes-Ker and Charles Hyde Villiers married.[5]

1903 November 10, Henry John Innes-Ker and Mary Goelet married.[8]

1904 June 23, Lady Isabel Innes-Ker and Guy Greville Wilson married.[5]

1907 October 10, Lord Alastair Robert Innes-Ker and Anne Breese married.[5]

Costume at the Duchess of Devonshire's 2 July 1897 Fancy-dress Ball[edit | edit source]

Anne Emily Spencer-Churchill was at that point still the Duchess of Roxburghe even though her son was Duke. Both attended the Duchess of Devonshire's fancy-dress ball. Also attending were two of Anne, Duchess of Roxburghe's daughters: Lady Margaret Innes-Ker, who would have been about 22, and Lady Victoria Innes-Ker, who was about 20.

Black-and-white photograph of a standing woman richly dressed in an historical costume
Anne Emily (née Spencer-Churchill), Duchess of Roxburghe in costume as Bess of Hardwick. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.

Anne, Duchess of Roxburghe[edit | edit source]

Anne Emily, Duchess of Roxburghe (at 22) sat at Table 4 in the first seating for supper.

  • The Duchess of Roxburghe was "in an Elizabethan costume — black velvet gown with white satin front, embroidered in pearls; pointed bodice, jewelled girdle, and lace ruff; the big satin sleeves were inserted with white satin squares edged with pearls, and the black velvet cap and tulle veil were bordered with the same."[9]:p. 3, Col. 2c
  • She "was dressed in an "Elizabethan costume. Black velvet gown, with white satin front, embroidered in pearls; pointed bodice, jewelled girdle, and lace ruff; the big satin sleeves were inserted with white satin squares, edged with pearls, and the black velvet cap and tulle veil were bordered with the same."[10]:p. 7, Col. 7a
  • She "wore a splendid Elizabethan dress, which, like all the gowns of that period, as well as the Louis XVI. dresses, was well bunched out on the hips."[11]:p. 5, Col. 7a
  • She "was a Queen Elizabeth in black velvet and white satin, embroidered in pearls."[12]:p. 6, Col. 1a
  • She was "in an Elizabethan costume."[13]
  • She wore "(lady of Elizabethan period), black velvet and white satin, and pearls."[14]:p. 40, Col. 2b

Not all the sources agree about who the Duchess of Roxburghe was dressed as, but the only source that says she was dressed as Queen Elizabeth is the Belfast News-Letter. The Duchess of Tweedmouth was Queen Elizabeth. Most newspaper reports says the Duchess of Roxburghe was in Elizabethan dress; the Album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire says she was Bess of Hardwicke, possibly more likely than a newspaper report.[15] The Gentlewoman, among others, says she was dressed as the Countess of Shrewsbury and "looked very effective."[14]:p. 32, Col. 3c

Lafayette's portrait of "Anne Emily (née Spencer-Churchill), Duchess of Roxburghe as Bess of Hardwick" in costume is photogravure #159 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[15] The printing on the portrait says, "The Duchess of Roxburghe as Bess of Hardwick," with a Long S in Duchess and Bess.[16]

Bess of Hardwick (c. 1527 – 13 February 1608) was a successful woman in Elizabethan England, marrying 4 times. The children from her second marriage, to Sir William Cavendish, are the ancestors of the Dukes of Devonshire; Sir William Cavendish bought the Chatsworth estates, and Chatsworth House was one of her building projects.[17] Queen Elizabeth detained Mary, Queen of Scots in the custody of Bess and her 4th husband, George, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury for 15 years.[17]

Old painting of a big meeting with lots of soldiers
The Field of the Cloth of Gold
Old painting of a richly dressed king on a white horse and surrounded by soldiers
Detail of the Field of the Cloth of Gold, focusing on Henry VIII and showing soldiers' uniforms

Henry, Duke of Roxburghe[edit | edit source]

Henry John Innes-Ker, 8th Duke of Roxburghe (at 49), her son, sat at Table 8 in the first supper seating. He was in the Queen Elizabeth procession.

  • "Four yeomen held a canopy over Her Majesty's head. Their uniforms were exactly copied from the picture of the Field of the Cloth of Gold at Hampton Court. These were the Duke of Roxburghe, the Hon. Dudley Marjoribanks, Captain Maunde Thompson, and Mr. Rose attired in scarlet and black."[14]:p. 32, Col. 3c
  • "One of the six Halberdiers attending on Queen Elizabeth, from Holbein's picture in Hampton Court Palace."[10]:p. 7, Col. 7c
  • The London Daily News has almost exactly the same description: "The Duke of Roxburghe was one of the six halberdiers attending on the Queen, their costumes copied from Holbein's picture at Hampton Court."[11]:p. 5, Col. 7a
  • He walked as a Yeoman in the Queen Elizabeth procession[10]:p. 7, Col. 6b

The Duke of Roxburgh was dressed as a halberdier attending on Queen Elizabeth. His original costume appeared in the Drury Lane production of The White Heather.[18]

Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1497 – fall 1543) was in England 1526–1528 and 1532–1540, and by 1536 he was Henry VIII's King Painter.[19] However, he does not seem to have been the artist of The Field of the Cloth of Gold, which is still at Hampton Court (right and detail). The painting, c. 1545, is the name of a meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I of France in June 1520, with both sides exhibiting wealth.[20]

Black-and-white photograph of a standing woman richly dressed in an historical costume
Lady Margaret Frances Susan Orr-Ewing (née Innes-Ker) in costume as Lady Eglinton and Lady Victoria Alexandrina Villiers (née Innes-Ker) in costume as Elizabeth Linley, after miniatures by Cosway. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.

Lady Margaret Innes-Ker and Lady Victoria Innes-Ker[edit | edit source]

Also present were Lady Margaret Innes-Ker (at 23) and Lady Victoria Innes-Ker (at 383), identified in the newspapers as "the Ladies Innes-Ker," confirmed by their portrait in the Album given to the Duchess of Devonshire. The Ladies Innes-Ker were in the Cosway Quadrille with the Ladies Villiers. They were dressed as a group based on miniatures probably by late 18th-, early 19th-century painter Richard Cosway:

  • "The Ladies Innes-Ker wore dresses copied from Cosway miniatures, made of soft white satin, covered with lisse, with short-waisted sash of narrow blue satin ribbon; the hair powdered and threaded with blue ribbon."[10]:p. 7, Col. 7a
  • "Very artistic was the "Cosway" quadrille, in which the Ladies Ker and the Ladies Villiers took part. The long clinging gowns of Oriental cream satin were veiled in pink muslin, and had very short waists and coloured silk sashes — two of blue and two of pink."[11]:p. 6, Col. 1a
  • "Very artistic was the "Cosway" quadrille, in which the Ladies Ker and the Ladies Villiers took part. The long, clinging gowns of Oriental cream satin were veiled in sink [sic] muslin, and had very short waists and coloured silk sashes — two of blue and two of pink."[12]:p. 5, Col. 9c

The dresses worn by Lady Margaret and Lady Victoria Innes-Ker look very similar to the one worn by Miss Madeline Stanley (at 552), as well as the dress worn by Lady Edith Villiers (at 282).

Miss Stanley was probably dressed as Elizabeth, Lady Hopetoun, also based on a portrait by Richard Cosway. She was not a Miss Villiers, so possibly she was not part of the Cosway quadrille, and her dress is not identical to the one worn by Lady Edith Villiers, especially the sash; the shawl, however, does seem similar. Violet Manners was also dressed in a costume after Cosway and seems clearly not to have been part of that quadrille.

Lafayette's portrait of "Lady Margaret Frances Susan Orr-Ewing (née Innes-Ker) as Lady Eglinton and Lady Victoria Alexandrina Villiers (née Innes-Ker) as Elizabeth Linley, after miniatures by Cosway" in costume is photogravure #160 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[15] The printing on the portrait says, "Lady Margaret Innes-Ker as Lady Eglinton. Lady Victoria Innes-Ker as Elizabeth Linley / after miniatures by Cosway."[21]

Richard Cosway (5 November 1742 – 4 July 1821)[22] painted a miniature of Lady Eleanor Eglinton, who may be Eleanor, daughter of Susanna Montgomerie, Countess of Eglinton (1690 – 18 March 1780)[23]. Well-known soprano Elizabeth Linley (September 1754 – 28 June 1792), who eventually married Richard Brinsley Sheridan, was the subject of portraits by Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds besides Cosway; she was friends with Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire.[24]

Demographics[edit | edit source]

  • Nationality: Scots

Residences[edit | edit source]

  • Floors Castle, near Kelso, Scotland[1]

Family[edit | edit source]

  • James Henry Robert Innes-Ker, 7th Duke of Roxburghe (5 September 1839 – 23 October 1892)[3]
  • Anne Emily Spencer-Churchill (14 November 1854 – 20 June 1923)[5]
  1. Lady Margaret Frances Susan Innes-Ker Ewing (1875–1930)
  2. Henry John Innes-Ker, 8th Duke of Roxburghe (24 July 1876 – 29 September 1932)
  3. Lady Victoria Alexandrina Innes-Ker Villiers (1877– 22 May 1970)
  4. Lady Isabel Innes-Ker Wilson (1879–1905)
  5. Lord Alastair Robert Innes-Ker (1880–19??)
  6. Lady Evelyn Anne Innes-Ker (1882–1958)
  7. Lord Robert Edward Innes-Ker (22 July 1885 – 19 July 1958)


  • Henry John Innes-Ker, 8th Duke of Roxburghe (24 July 1876 – 29 September 1932)[4]
  • Mary Goelet (6 October 1878 – 26 April 1937)[8]
  1. George Victor Robert John Innes-Ker (7 September 1913 – 26 September 1974)[25]

Relations[edit | edit source]

  • Anne Emily Spencer-Churchill was the daughter of the 7th Duke of Marlborough, so siblings include Lord Randolph Churchill and Sarah Spencer-Churchill Wilson.
  • Lord Charles John Innes-Ker was the son of James Henry Robert Innes-Ker, 6th Duke of Roxburghe, brother of the 7th duke.
    • Lt.-Col. Lord Charles John Innes-Ker (31 December 1842 – 19 November 1919)[26]
    • Blanche Mary Williams (1844 – 1 July 1914)[27]
      1. Charles James Innes-Ker (19 January 1867 – 13 April 1906)
      2. Bertram Harry Innes-Ker (5 April 1870 – 1 April 1951)

Questions and Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. The Duchess of Roxburghe was the mother of the Ladies Innes-Ker — not sure how many of her daughters attended: Lady Margaret Innes-Ker would have been about 22 and Lady Victoria Innes-Ker about 20. These are the Ladies Innes-Ker associated with the Cosway Quadrille in the Album.
  2. Lady Isabel Innes-Ker was about 18 and Lady Evelyn Innes-Ker about 15.

Footnotes[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Duke of Roxburghe". Wikipedia. 2020-09-19. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Duke_of_Roxburghe&oldid=979225009.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duke_of_Roxburghe.
  2. "James Innes-Ker, 6th Duke of Roxburghe". Wikipedia. 2021-11-11. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=James_Innes-Ker,_6th_Duke_of_Roxburghe&oldid=1054668923.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Innes-Ker,_6th_Duke_of_Roxburghe.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "James Innes-Ker, 7th Duke of Roxburghe". Wikipedia. 2020-09-26. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=James_Innes-Ker,_7th_Duke_of_Roxburghe&oldid=980441760.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Innes-Ker,_7th_Duke_of_Roxburghe.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Henry Innes-Ker, 8th Duke of Roxburghe". Wikipedia. 2020-09-26. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henry_Innes-Ker,_8th_Duke_of_Roxburghe&oldid=980441969.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Innes-Ker,_8th_Duke_of_Roxburghe.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 "Anne Innes-Ker, Duchess of Roxburghe". Wikipedia. 2020-07-06. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anne_Innes-Ker,_Duchess_of_Roxburghe&oldid=966292493.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Innes-Ker,_Duchess_of_Roxburghe.
  6. "Lady Anne Emily Spencer-Churchill." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2021-12-04. https://www.thepeerage.com/p10633.htm#i106322.
  7. "Owen Williams (British Army officer)". Wikipedia. 2021-05-21. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Owen_Williams_(British_Army_officer)&oldid=1024399380.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owen_Williams_(British_Army_officer).
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Mary Goelet". Wikipedia. 2020-11-23. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mary_Goelet&oldid=990260921.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Goelet.
  9. “The Ball at Devonshire House. Magnificent Spectacle. Description of the Dresses.” London Evening Standard 3 July 1897 Saturday: 3 [of 12], Cols. 1a–5b [of 7]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000183/18970703/015/0004.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 "Fancy Dress Ball at Devonshire House." Morning Post Saturday 3 July 1897: 7 [of 12], Col. 4a–8 Col. 2b. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000174/18970703/054/0007.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy Ball. A Brilliant Spectacle. Some of the Dresses." London Daily News Saturday 3 July 1897: 5 [of 10], Col. 6a–6, Col. 1b. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000051/18970703/024/0005 and http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/BL/0000051/18970703/024/0006.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "The Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy Dress Ball. Special Telegram." Belfast News-Letter Saturday 03 July 1897: 5 [of 8], Col. 9 [of 9]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/BL/0000038/18970703/015/0005.
  13. "Ball at Devonshire House." The Times Saturday 3 July 1897: 12, Cols. 1a–4c The Times Digital Archive. Web. 28 Nov. 2015.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 “The Duchess of Devonshire’s Ball.” The Gentlewoman 10 July 1897 Saturday: 32–42 [of 76], Cols. 1a–3c [of 3]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0003340/18970710/155/0032.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 "Devonshire House Fancy Dress Ball (1897): photogravures by Walker & Boutall after various photographers." 1899. National Portrait Gallery https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait-list.php?set=515 (accessed February 2020).
  16. "Duchess of Roxburghe as Bess of Hardwick." Diamond Jubilee Fancy Dress Ball. National Portrait Gallery https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw158522/Anne-Emily-ne-Spencer-Churchill-Duchess-of-Roxburghe-as-Bess-of-Hardwick (accessed February 2020).
  17. 17.0 17.1 "Bess of Hardwick". Wikipedia. 2021-11-10. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bess_of_Hardwick&oldid=1054566057.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bess_of_Hardwick.
  18. "The Morning’s News." London Daily News 18 September 1897, Saturday: 5 [of 8], Col. 2B. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000051/18970918/027/0005.
  19. "Hans Holbein the Younger". Wikipedia. 2021-11-25. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hans_Holbein_the_Younger&oldid=1057103305.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Holbein_the_Younger.
  20. "Field of the Cloth of Gold". Wikipedia. 2021-09-24. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Field_of_the_Cloth_of_Gold&oldid=1046185773.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_of_the_Cloth_of_Gold.
  21. "Lady Margaret and Lady Victoria Innes-Ker." Diamond Jubilee Fancy Dress Ball. National Portrait Gallery https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw158523/Lady-Margaret-Frances-Susan-Orr-Ewing-ne-Innes-Ker-as-Lady-Eglinton-and-Lady-Victoria-Alexandrina-Villiers-ne-Innes-Ker-as-Elizabeth-Linley-after-miniatures-by-Cosway(accessed February 2020).
  22. "Richard Cosway". Wikipedia. 2021-11-13. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Richard_Cosway&oldid=1054984066.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Cosway.
  23. "Susanna Montgomerie, Countess of Eglinton". Wikipedia. 2021-06-10. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Susanna_Montgomerie,_Countess_of_Eglinton&oldid=1027921337.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susanna_Montgomerie,_Countess_of_Eglinton.
  24. "Elizabeth Ann Linley". Wikipedia. 2021-07-21. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elizabeth_Ann_Linley&oldid=1034783923.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_Ann_Linley.
  25. "George Innes-Ker, 9th Duke of Roxburghe". Wikipedia. 2020-07-18. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Innes-Ker,_9th_Duke_of_Roxburghe&oldid=968275663. 
  26. "Lt.-Col. Lord Charles John Innes-Ker." "Person Page". thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2021-08-08. https://thepeerage.com/p17270.htm#i172698.
  27. "Thomas Peers Williams". Wikipedia. 2021-07-21. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thomas_Peers_Williams&oldid=1034634989.