Social Victorians/People/Louisa Montagu Cavendish

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Also Known As[edit | edit source]

  • Louise, Duchess of Devonshire
  • Louisa, Duchess of Manchester
  • Luise Friederike August Gräfin von Alten
  • Louisa Montagu
  • Louise Cavendish
  • The Double Duchess

Acquaintances, Friends and Enemies[edit | edit source]

Friends[edit | edit source]

  • Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (beginning about 1852)
  • Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington (later 8th Duke of Devonshire)
  • Daisy, Lady Warwick
  • Lady Mayoress, Mrs. Benjamin Samuel Faudel-Phillips, 2nd Baronet,[1] presented to Victoria by Louisa Cavendish at a Queen's Drawing-room on Wednesday, 24 February 1897 at Buckingham Palace.[2]:p. 5, Col. 6c
  • Mrs. J. E. Mellor, presented to Victoria by Louisa Cavendish at a Queen's Drawing-room on Wednesday, 24 February 1897 at Buckingham Palace.[2]:p. 5, Col. 6c

Enemies[edit | edit source]

  • Consuelo, Duchess of Marlborough[3]:pp. 31–32

Organizations[edit | edit source]

Timeline[edit | edit source]

1852 July 22, Luise Friederike Auguste Gräfin von Alten and William Drogo Montagu married.[4]

1863, early, or late 1862, Louise and Spencer Compton Cavendish began a relationship.[3]:p. 26

1873 December 10, Mary Louise Elizabeth Montagu (daughter) and William Douglas-Hamilton married.

1876 May 22, Consuelo Iznaga y Clement and George Victor Drogo Montagu (son) married in Grace Church, New York City.[5][6]

1876 August 10, Louisa Augusta Beatrice Montagu (daughter) and Archibald Acheson married.

1889 January 5, Alice Maude Olivia Montagu (daughter) and Edward Stanley married.

1890 March 22, William Drogo Montagu (7th Duke) died.[7]

1890 November 14, William Angus Drogo Montagu (grandson) and Helena Zimmerman married secretly, in London.[8]

1892 August 16, Louise Friederike Auguste Gräfin von Alten Montagu and Spencer Compton Cavendish, her second husband, married.[4]

1897 July 2, Friday, Louise Cavendish (#18 on the list of attendees) threw her famous fancy-dress ball at Devonshire House in London.

1897 July 20, Mary Louise Elizabeth Montagu Douglas-Hamilton and Robert Carnaby Foster married.

1900 November 14, William Angus Drogo Montagu and Helena Zimmerman married.[9]

1901 Spring, Paris, Consuelo Spencer-Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, describes a meeting with Louise Cavendish in the spring following Victoria's death at the horse racetrack, Longchamps:

A renowned character and virtually dictator of what was known as the fast set as opposed to the Victorian, Her Grace was a German aristocrat by birth. She had first been married to the impoverished Duke of Manchester, and when he died had improved her status by marriage to the rich Duke of Devonshire, who waged an undisputed influence in politics. Rumour had her beautiful, but when I knew her she was a raddled old woman, covering her wrinkles with paint and her pate with a brown wig. Her mouth was a red gash and from it, when she saw me, issued a stream of abuse. How could I, she complained, pointing to my white gloves, show so little respect to the memory of a great Queen? What a carefree world we must have lived in, that etiquette even in such small matters could assume so much importance?[10]:p. 115

Annual Events[edit | edit source]

Every year, as Duchess of Devonshire, Louise held a dance on the night after the Derby at Epsom Downs, which at this point was held on Wednesdays after Easter.

Costume at the Duchess of Devonshire's 2 July 1897 Fancy-dress Ball[edit | edit source]

Louise, Duchess of Devonshire in costume as Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra
Louise, Duchess of Devonshire as Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra

At their fancy-dress ball, Louisa, Duchess of Devonshire sat at Table 1 during the first seating for supper, escorted in to the table by the Prince of Wales.[11]:p. 7, Col. 4c

Her costume was designed by M. Comelli (Attillo Giuseppe Comelli, 1858–1925, artist and costumier for opera, ballet and theatre in London as well as Europe and the U.S.[12]), according to the Man of Ross,[13] the Belfast News-Letter[14]:p. 5, Col. 9a and the Westminster Gazette.[15] Elsewhere, the House of Worth gets credit. According to Russell Harris,

For her costume, the Duchess commissioned Monsieur Comelli (1858-1925), a well-known designer of opera costumes for the London theatre and opera stage, and then had the design made up by Worth of Paris. Munsey’s Magazine noted “it is safe to say that the Queen of Palmyra never owned such a sumptuous costume in her lifetime.”[16]

Lafayette's portrait of "Louise Frederica Augusta Cavendish (née von Alten), Duchess of Devonshire (formerly Duchess of Manchester)" in costume is photogravure #5 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[17] The printing on the portrait says, "The Duchess of Devonshire as Zenobia Queen of Palmyra," with a Long S in Duchess.[18] Often, the V&A Lafayette Archive contains more than one portrait of a sitter for this ball, but the uncropped portrait (above right), which shows the unfinished end of the balustrade in front of the Duchess and the edge of the painted flat behind it, seems to have been the only portrait taken by Lafayette of the Duchess in costume. The copy owned by the National Portrait Gallery in London and the copy included in the album are cropped so that those unfinished edges do not show.

In her entourage, besides the Duke of Devonshire, was her grandson, William Angus Drago Montagu, 9th Duke of Manchester, dressed as a Georgian courtier.

Newspaper Descriptions of Her Costume[edit | edit source]

She was dressed as Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra. These descriptions emphasize her entourage:

  • "The Duchess of Devonshire was dazzingly magnificent as 'Zenobia,' arrayed in the glistening fabrics and massive jewels in which artists have delighted to depict the Warrior Queen, the costume in this case being specially designed by the clever French artist, M. Comelli, who was also responsible for the splendid attire of the Queen's suite. This was composed of four children in white Assyrian robes, draped with pink shawls; four trumpeters in white cloth robes, embroidered in subdued tones of silks, with a purple shawl draped over, beautifully ornamented with embroidery, and wearing fringed steel helmets and leather cuirasses embossed in steel; and four fan-bearers attired in pale blue robes, with crimson shawls, enriched with gold and jewelled embroidery, adorned with jewelled diadems, and holding long-handled fans of white feathers, mounted in blue and gold — a gloriously magnificent pageant."[14]:p. 5, Col. 9a
  • "The duchess was dressed as Zenobia, in gold cloth, gorgeously embroidered in gold, brilliants, and coloured stones, and opening over an under dress of white crêpe de Chine, worked finely in brilliants. The train of light green velvet was lined with blue, and sumptuously embroidered in jewels and gold, the colouring being particularly artistic. With this dress were worn splendid jewels, and a large horn crown, encrusted with diamonds, emeralds, and rubies. The duchess was attended by a suite of children, trumpeters, and fan-bearers, all picturesquely attired in Assyian [sic] costumes — the whole group being specially designed by M. Comelli."[13]
  • "The host was dressed as Charles V. of Germany, in black velvet, satin, and fur; and the Duchess made the most gorgeous of Zenobias, in a gown of gold gauze, and a green velvet train — both a mass of exquisite oriental embroidery. The crown and hanging ropes of pearls, the jewelled girdle, and the train of children, fan-bearers, and trumpeters — all in Babylonish garb — as designed by M. Comelli, made a gloriously imposing and picturesque group."[15]

These almost exactly identical descriptions suggest scissors-and-paste journalism or a shared primary source:

  • "The Duchess of Devonshire was a dazzling vision, dressed as 'Zenobia,' in a glistening gold gauze gown, elaborately ornamented with suns and discs, wrought in purple and green gems outlined with gold, and having a large diamond as centre. The space between was fluted with fine silver spangles. This robe was open in front over an under dress of white crépe de chine, delicately worked in crystals, and at each side of the opening on the gold robe were large fan-shaped groups of peacock feathers, worked in multicoloured jewels. The corsage was to correspond, and had a magnificent girdle of jewels, the train of bright green velvet, hung like a fan, without folds, being fastened at each side of the shoulders by diamond brooches, and caught at the waist with a similar ornament. It was a mass of gorgeous embroidery, carried out in heliotrope velvet, lotus flowers studded with tinted gems, and other devices in terra-cotta and electric blue velvet — all enriched with gold, diamond, and jewelled embroidery — and lined with pale blue satin. The crown worn with this was high, and of filigree gold, surmounted with two horns, each tipped with a large diamond. It was encrusted with large diamonds, rubies, and emeralds, and long chains of pearls fell under the chin and about the head — one magnificent pear-shaped pearl resting on the forehead. Attending the hostess were four children, four fan-bearers, and four trumpeters, all magnificently arrayed in artistically embroidered Assyrian robes, helmets, and other accessories, correct in every detail."[19]:p. 5, Col. 6a
  • "The Duchess of Devonshire, as Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, wore a magnificent costume, supplied by Worth, of Paris. The skirt of gold tissue was embroidered all over in a star-like design in emeralds, sapphires, diamonds, and other jewels, outlined with gold, the corners where it opened in front being elaborately wrought in the same jewels and gold to represent peacocks' outspread tails. This opened to show an under-dress of cream crêpe de chine, delicately embroidered in silver, gold, and pearls, and sprinkled all over with diamonds. The train was attached to the shoulders by two slender points, and was fastened at the waist with a large diamond ornament. It was of green velvet of a lovely shade, and was superbly embroidered in Oriental designs, introducing the lotus flower in rubies, sapphires, amethysts, emeralds, and diamonds, in four borderings on contrasting grounds, separated with gold cord. The train was lined with turquoise satin. The bodice was composed of gold tissue to match the skirt, and the front was of crêpe de chine, hidden with a stomacher of real diamonds, rubies, and emeralds, and there was a jewelled belt. A gold crown encrusted with emeralds, diamonds, and rubies, with a diamond drop at each curved end, and two upstanding white ostrich feathers in the centre, and round the front were festoons of pearls, with a large pear-shaped pearl in the centre falling on the forehead."[20]:p. 3, Col. 2b
  • "The Duchess of Devonshire, as Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, wore a magnificent costume. The skirt of gold tissue was embroidered all over in a star-like design in emeralds, sapphires, diamonds, and other jewels outlined with gold, the corners where it opened in front being elaborately wrought in the same jewels and gold to represent peacocks' outspread tails. This opened to show an under-dress of cream crepe de chine, delicately embroidered in silver, gold, and pearls, and sprinkled all over with diamonds. The train was attached to the shoulders by two slender points, and waa fastened at the waist with a large diamond ornament. It was of green velvet of a lovely shade, and was superbly embroidered in Oriental designs, introducing the lotus flower in rubies, sapphires, amethysts, emeralds, and diamonds, in four borderings on contrasting grounds, separated with gold cord. The train was lined with turquoise satin. The bodice was composed of gold tissue to match the skirt, and the front was of crepe de chine, hidden with a stomacher of real diamonds, rubies, and emeralds, and there was a jeweled belt. A gold crown encrusted with emeralds, diamonds, and rubies with a diamond drop at each curved end and two upstanding white ostrich feathers in the centre, and round the front were festoons of pearls with a large pear-shaped pearl in the centre falling on the forehead."[11]:p. 7, Col. 7a
  • "The Duchess of Devonshire, as Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, wore a magnificent costume. The skirt of gold tissue was embroidered all over in a star-like design in emeralds, sapphires, diamonds, and other jewels outlined with gold, the corners where it opened in front being elaborately wrought in the same jewels and gold to represent peacocks’ outspread tails. This opened to show an underdress of cream crêpe de chine, delicately embroidered in silver, gold, and pearls and sprinkled all over with diamonds. The train, which was attached to the shoulders by two slender points and was fastened at the waist with a large diamond ornament, was a green velvet of a lovely shade, and was superbly embroidered in Oriental designs introducing the lotus flower in rubies, sapphires, amethysts, emeralds, and diamonds, with four borderings on contrasting grounds, separated with gold cord. The train was lined with turquoise satin. The bodice was composed of gold tissue to match the skirt, and the front was of crêpe de chine hidden with a stomacher of real diamonds, rubies and emeralds. Jewelled belt. A gold crown incrusted with emeralds, diamonds, and rubies, with a diamond drop at each curved end and two upstanding white ostrich feathers in the middle, and round the front festoons of pearls with a large pear-shaped pearl in the centre falling on the forehead."[21]:p. 12, Col. 3b
  • According to the article in The Graphic, written by Lady Violet Greville though this caption to the Lafayette photograph seems to have been boilerplate and printed in other places, the Duchess of Devonshire wore a "Skirt of gold tissue, embroidered all over with emeralds, sapphires, diamonds, and other jewels outlined with gold. This opened to show an underdress of crème crêpe de chine, embroidered in silver, gold, and pearls, and sprinkled all over with diamonds. The train was green velvet, superbly embroidered in Oriental designs. The bodice was composed of gold tissue, and the front was of crêpe de chine hidden with a stomacher of diamonds, rubies, and emeralds. A gold crown encrusted with emeralds, diamonds, and rubies, with a diamond drop at each curved end and two upstanding white ostrich feathers in the middle, and round the front festoons of pearls with a large pea-shaped pearl in the centre."[22]:p. 15, Col. 2b
  • The Guernsey Star describes first Spencer Compton Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire and then Louisa, Duchess: "The host himself personated Charles V. of Germany in a costume copied from a celebrated picture by Titian, while the hostess was attired with great Oriental magnificence as Zenobia. Her dress was tissue of silver in front, wrought with jewels. The over-dress was cloth of gold magnificently wrought with jewels, and Her Grace wore a bandeau of gold round her head, studded with diamonds, turquoise, and emeralds, and surrounded by hanging chains of superb pearls."[23]:p. 1, Col. 2a

Gossipy newspaper reports before the ball reported on how costumes were being made. For example, according to the Edinburgh Evening News on 21 June 1897, less than two weeks before the party, "The ball being a fancy dress one, men as well as women will be able in certain characters to wear jewels. The Duchess of Devonshire, who is to appear as Zenobia, is getting her jewels reset after the antique style."[24] While almost all descriptions of her mention her jewels because they were sewn onto the costume itself, these emphasize her jewelry:

  • "The Duchess was attired with great Oriental magnificence as Zenobia. Her dress was a tissue of silver, embroidered with gold and jewels, an overmantle of cloth of gold embroidered in the same manner hung from the shoulders, and she wore a bandeau of gold studded with gems, and surrounded by hanging chains of pearls over her elaborate headdress; strings and ropes of jewels and pearls were worn round the neck, and hung down almost to the knees."[25]:p. 32, Cols. 1c–2a
  • "A wonderfully beautiful dress was that which was worn by the Duchess of Devonshire as Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra. It was of golden tissue, sewn with silver paillettes, and jewelled with diamonds and other precious stones. In front there were silk embroideries, in many vivid shades of colour, and here the golden draperies opened to show a petticoat of white crêpe de chine, embroidered with pearls and gold. The short train was of brilliant green velvet, exquisitely embroidered. One of the Duchess of Devonshire’s beautiful diamond and emerald tiaras had been taken to pieces to form a stomacher, the effect of which was dazzling in its brilliancy. Long chains of pearls and other wonderful jewels were worn with this beautiful dress."[26]:p. 7, Col. 2b
  • In the article about the ball in the Graphic, Lady Violet Greville says, "The Ducal hostess herself elected to appear as Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, with lavish magnificence, and wearing a corruscation of jewels which must have eclipsed the state of even the all-subduing majesty the Duchess impersonated."[22]:p. 16, Col. 1a
  • The Duchess was dressed "as Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, her dress a marvel of soft tissues and exquisite ornament, and her tiara a still greater marvel of the jeweller's art."[21]:p. 12, Col. 2a [27]:p. 11, 4a

The Historical Zenobia[edit | edit source]

Zenobia (240 – c. 274) was queen of the Syrian Palmyrene Empire, ruling as regent for her son after her husband's assassination.[28] She was the subject of much art in the 19th century, including literature, opera, sculpture, and paintings. Middle-eastern traveller Lady Hester Stanhope (1776–1839) discussed Zenobia in her memoirs, published in 1847.[29]

Demographics[edit | edit source]

  • Nationality: born in Hanover, in what is now Germany[30]

Residences[edit | edit source]

As Duchess of Manchester[edit | edit source]

  • Kimbolton Castle, Huntingdonshire
  • Manchester House, London

As Duchess of Devonshire[edit | edit source]

  • Devonshire House, London (mid-April until mid-July, for the Season)
  • Compton Place, Eastbourne (mid-July until 12 August[3]:p. 32)
  • Bolton Abbey, Yorkshire (12 August until the middle of September[3]:p. 32)
  • Chatsworth, Derbyshire (middle of September until early Spring[3]:p. 32)
  • Lismore Castle, County Waterford (early Spring until the middle of April[3]:p. 32)

Family[edit | edit source]

  • Louisa (or Luise) Friederike Auguste Gräfin von Alten Montagu Cavendish (15 January 1832 – 15 November 1911)[4][30]
  • William Drogo Montagu, 7th Duke of Manchester (15 October 1823 – 22 March 1890)[7][31]
  1. George Victor Drogo Montagu, 8th Duke of Manchester (17 June 1853 – 18 August 1892)
  2. Mary Louise [Louisa?] Elizabeth Montagu Douglas-Hamilton Forster (27 December 1854 – 10 February 1934)
  3. Louisa Augusta Beatrice Montagu Acheson (c. 1856 – 3 March 1944)
  4. Charles William Augustus Montagu (23 November 1860 – 10 November 1939)
  5. Alice Maude Olivia Montagu Stanley (15 August 1862 – 23 July 1957)

Notes and Questions[edit | edit source]

  1. As Duchess of Manchester Luise was not invited to the wedding between Bertie and Alix, Victoria's punishment for Luise's having gotten the Duke of Derby to promise her the position of Mistress of the Robes (and then exacting that promise).[32]:pp. 47–48
  2. "As a young woman she was extremely beautiful; Princess Catherine Radziwill saw her at a reception given by the Empress of Germany and recalls on being introduced to her 'how she struck me as the loveliest creature I had ever set eyes upon. Indeed I have only met three women in my whole existence who could be compared to her.'"[3]:p. 21

Footnotes[edit | edit source]

  1. "Faudel-Phillips baronets". Wikipedia. 2020-08-25. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Faudel-Phillips_baronets&oldid=974879290. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "The Queen's Drawing Room" Morning Post 25 February 1897 Thursday: 5 [of 10], Col. 5a–7b [of 8]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000174/18970225/047/0005.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Murphy, Sophia. The Duchess of Devonshire's Ball. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1984.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Luise Friederike Auguste Gräfin von Alten." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
  5. "George Montagu, 8th Duke of Manchester". Wikipedia. 2020-08-24. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Montagu,_8th_Duke_of_Manchester&oldid=974659520. 
  6. "Consuelo Montagu, Duchess of Manchester". Wikipedia. 2020-07-27. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Consuelo_Montagu,_Duchess_of_Manchester&oldid=969888488. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "William Drogo Montagu, 7th Duke of Manchester." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
  8. "Helena Zimmerman." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
  9. "Helena, Countess of Kintore". Wikipedia. 2020-07-17. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Helena,_Countess_of_Kintore&oldid=968067371. 
  10. Balsan, Consuelo Vanderbilt. The Glitter and the Gold: The American Duchess — In Her Own Words. New York: St. Martin's, 1953.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Fancy Dress Ball at Devonshire House." Morning Post Saturday 3 July 1897: 7 [of 12], Col. 4a–8 Col. 2b. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000174/18970703/054/0007.
  12. Unruh, Delbert (2018-11-06). Forgotten Designers Costume Designers of American Broadway Revues and Musicals From 1900-1930 (in en). Page Publishing Inc. ISBN 978-1-64082-758-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=SZh2DwAAQBAJ&pg=PT207&lpg=PT207&dq=Attilio+Comelli&source=bl&ots=lFB0If7CwV&sig=ACfU3U1_Ost_lhmMvzMMs6NvuhK5SlRhJw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjKlsTw2sH3AhXYAp0JHVIxDWA4KBDoAXoECBAQAw#v=onepage&q=Attilio%20Comelli&f=false.  N.P.
  13. 13.0 13.1 “The Devonshire House Ball.” The Man of Ross 10 July 1897, Saturday: 2 [of 8], Col. 4b. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0001463/18970710/033/0002.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "The Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy Dress Ball. Special Telegram." Belfast News-Letter Saturday 03 July 1897: 5 [of 8], Col. 9 [of 9]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/BL/0000038/18970703/015/0005.
  15. 15.0 15.1 "By One Who Was There." “The Duchess’s Costume Ball.” Westminster Gazette 03 July 1897 Saturday: 5 [of 8], Cols. 1a–3b [of 3]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0002947/18970703/035/0005.
  16. Harris, Russell. "Louise, Duchess of Devonshire, née Countess von Alten of Hanover (1832-1911), as Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra". www.rvondeh.dircon.co.uk. Retrieved 2022-05-05. Narrated in Calm Prose: Photographs from the V&A's Lafayette Archive of Guests in Costume at the Duchess of Devonshire's Diamond Jubilee Ball, July 1897. http://www.rvondeh.dircon.co.uk/incalmprose/devonshiredss.html.
  17. "Devonshire House Fancy Dress Ball (1897): photogravures by Walker & Boutall after various photographers." 1899. National Portrait Gallery https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait-list.php?set=515.
  18. "Louise Frederica Augusta Cavendish (née von Alten), Duchess of Devonshire (formerly Duchess of Manchester) as Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra." Devonshire House Fancy Dress Ball Album. National Portrait Gallery https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw158357/Louise-Frederica-Augusta-Cavendish-ne-von-Alten-Duchess-of-Devonshire-formerly-Duchess-of-Manchester-as-Zenobia-Queen-of-Palmyra.
  19. "Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy Ball. A Brilliant Spectacle. Some of the Dresses." London Daily News Saturday 3 July 1897: 5 [of 10], Col. 6a–6, Col. 1b. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000051/18970703/024/0005 and http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/BL/0000051/18970703/024/0006.
  20. “The Ball at Devonshire House. Magnificent Spectacle. Description of the Dresses.” London Evening Standard 3 July 1897 Saturday: 3 [of 12], Cols. 1a–5b [of 7]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000183/18970703/015/0004.
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Ball at Devonshire House." The Times Saturday 3 July 1897: 12, Cols. 1A–4C The Times Digital Archive. Web. 28 Nov. 2015.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Greville, Violet, Lady. "Devonshire House Ball." The Graphic Saturday 10 July 1897: 15 [of 24]: Col. 1a–16, Col. 1c. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000057/18970710/019/0015.
  23. "Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy-Dress Ball. Brilliant Spectacle." The [Guernsey] Star 6 July 1897, Tuesday: 1 [of 4], Col. 1a–2b [of 7]. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000184/18970706/003/0001.
  24. “The Duchess of Devonshire’s Ball.” Edinburgh Evening News 21 June 1897, Monday: 4 [of 6], Col. 5c [of 7]. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000452/18970621/079/0004.
  25. “The Duchess of Devonshire’s Ball.” The Gentlewoman 10 July 1897 Saturday: 32–42 [of 76], Cols. 1a–3c [of 3]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0003340/18970710/155/0032.
  26. “The Devonshire House Ball. A Brilliant Gathering.” The Pall Mall Gazette 3 July 1897, Saturday: 7 [of 10], Col. 2a–3a [of 3]. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000098/18970703/019/0007.
  27. "The Duchess of Devonshire’s Historic Ball. Some of the Fancy Costumes." Supplement. The Leicester Chronicle and Leicestershire Mercury 10 July 1897, Saturday: 11 [of 12], Cols. 4a–b [of 7]. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000173/18970710/141/0011.
  28. "Zenobia". Wikipedia. 2022-05-03. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zenobia&oldid=1086005949.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zenobia.
  29. "Lady Hester Stanhope". Wikipedia. 2022-03-07. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lady_Hester_Stanhope&oldid=1075838273.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Hester_Stanhope.
  30. 30.0 30.1 "Louisa Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire". Wikipedia. 2020-07-27. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louisa_Cavendish,_Duchess_of_Devonshire&oldid=969824214. 
  31. "William Montagu, 7th Duke of Manchester". Wikipedia. 2020-09-07. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=William_Montagu,_7th_Duke_of_Manchester&oldid=977197445. 
  32. Leslie, Anita. The Marlborough House Set. New York: Doubleday, 1973.