Social Victorians/People/Cavendish

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Also Known As[edit | edit source]

  • Family name: Cavendish
  • Duke of Devonshire (peerage of England)[1]
    • William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire (18 January 1858 – 21 December 1891)[2]
    • Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire (21 December 1891 – 24 March 1908)[3]
  • Duchess of Devonshire
  • Subsidiary titles for the eldest son and heir apparent of each title holder[1]
    • Marquis or Marquess of Hartington, eldest son of the Duke of Devonshire
    • Earl of Burlington, eldest son of the Marquis of Hartington
    • Lord Cavendish, eldest son of the Earl of Burlington

Acquaintances, Friends and Enemies[edit | edit source]

Timeline[edit | edit source]

1865 August 3, Edward Cavendish and Hon. Emma Elizabeth Lascelles married.[4]

1892 July 30, Victor Cavendish and Evelyn Petty-Fitzmaurice married.[5]

1892 August 16, Spencer Compton Cavendish (8th Duke) and Louisa Friederike Auguste Gräfin von Alten Montagu, the Duchess of Manchester, married in Christ Church, Mayfair.[3]

1897 July 2, Friday, Spencer, 8th Duke and Luisa, Duchess of Devonshire hosted the Duchess of Devonshire's fancy-dress ball at Devonshire House. Also attending were Lady Edward Cavendish, Mr. R. Cavendish, the Hon. Victor Cavendish, and Lady E. Cavendish. Also, a Lady M. Cavendish was present.

Costume at the Duchess of Devonshire's 2 July 1897 Fancy-dress Ball[edit | edit source]

Members of the family who attended the 1897 Duchess of Devonshire's fancy-dress ball at Devonshire House:

  • Spencer, 8th Duke and Luisa, Duchess of Devonshire, as hosts
  • Lady Edward Cavendish (at 393)
  • Mr. R. Cavendish (possibly Rt. Hon. Lord Richard Cavendish, at 107, because at the time he might have been a Mr.)
  • The Hon. Victor Cavendish (at 121)
  • Lady E. Cavendish (probably Lady Evelyn Cavendish, at 164)
  • Lady M. Cavendish, who if Moyra was married to Richard Frederick Cavendish (at 366)
  • Mr. S. Cavendish (at 700)
Old portrait of a seated woman richly dressed, wearing a veil on her head and holding a book
Pierre Mignard - Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon (1694)

Lady Edward Cavendish[edit | edit source]

Lady Edward Cavendish (probably Emma Cavendish, at 393)

  • was dressed as "Madame de Maintenon."[6]:p. 5, Col. 7c
  • "came as Madame de Maintenou [sic?], in violet velvet and grey satin, embroidered with diamonds and silver."[7]

Madame de Maintenon is probably Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon (1635–1719).[8] She was secretly married to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King," in the winter of 1783–84, a morganatic marriage for him.[8] She was interested in high-quality education for girls, especially daughters of impoverished aristocrats in France.

Lady Emma Cavendish, who was married to Edward Cavendish, was 60 years old at the time of the ball. The portrait (right), painted by Pierre Mignard I in about 1694, when Françoise, Marquise de Maintenon was 50, has been at Versailles since 1841.[9] It does not show Lady Edward Cavendish dressed in violet velvet and gray satin, so it is not likely the original for her costume, if one exists.

Black-and-white photograph of a standing woman richly dressed in an historical costume with a white wig and big hat
Lady Moyra Cavendish in costume as Countess Lazan. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.

Mr. R. and Lady Moyra Cavendish[edit | edit source]

Lady M. Cavendish (probably Lady Moyra Cavendish, at 366) was dressed as Countess Lützau "(a lady-in-waiting to Maria Theresa)" in the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille.[10]:p. 7, Col. 6b [11]:p. 12, Col. 1b So if Lazan, as used in the Album, is the same as Lützau, then this is Lady Moyra Cavendish.

Gunn & Stuart's portrait of "Lady Moyra de Vere Cavendish (née Beauclerk) as Countess Lazan" in costume is photogravure #63 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[12] The printing on the portrait says, "Lady Moyra Cavendish as Countess Lazan," with a Long S in Countess.[13]

Who Lady Moyra Cavendish meant by Countess Lazan or Countess Lützau is not perfectly clear. Francisco de Goya painted a portrait of Marquesa de Lazan in 1804, María Gabriela de Palafox y Portocarrero.[14] Having been born in 1779, she would have been too young to be a Lady in Waiting in the court of Marie Thérèse.[15]

Danish king Frederick V had 5 children by his mistress Else (Cathrine Marie Mahs) Hansen, one of whom was Friederika Katherina (1748–1822), who married Colonel Hans Frederik von Lützau.[16] These children were officially recognized, and the 4 daughters who survived childhood married into the upper-middle class or aristocracy.[16] This Madame von Lützau, then, was alive at the time of Empress Marie Thérèse and had perhaps sufficient money and influence to end up in a court like hers. In 1764 Jens Thrane the Younger painted portraits of Madame de Hansen as well as Friederika Katherina and Hans Frederik von Lützau, now at the National History Museum at Frederiksborg Castle.[16]

Mr. R. Cavendish (probably Rt. Hon. Lord Richard Cavendish, at 107) was present. (He was Mr. Cavendish because he was a Member of Parliament, and he was not Lord Cavendish until 1908). Lord Richard Frederick Cavendish was married to Lady Moyra Cavendish. Mr. R. Cavendish wore

  • "(period of Marie Thérèse), maroon brocade, with maroon cords and steel."[17]:p. 36, Col. 3b
  • a "Costume of the period of Marie Thérèse, in maroon brocade, trimmed maroon cords, and steel."[10]:p. 8, Col. 1c

Mr. S. Cavendish[edit | edit source]

A Mr. S. Cavendish (at 700) was also present.

Black-and-white photograph of a standing man richly dressed in an historical costume
S. Cavendish in costume as Count Chotak. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.
Caricature of a Member of Parliament, 1900, profile, facing to the right
Caricature of Richard Frederick Cavendish by Leslie Ward, Vanity Fair, 26 April 1900

Mr. S. Cavendish's name is a possible error in the Album. He is not mentioned in any press reports findable at this time (summer 2021) in the British Newspaper Archive 1890–1900 (except for an American explorer named S. H. Cavendish or H. S. H. Cavendish who was in London about this time), which suggests that no Mr. S. Cavendish notable enough to be invited to the party existed. His portrait was in the commemorative album of portraits, however, suggesting that he was quite notable.

Gunn & Stuart's portrait of "S. Cavendish as Count Chotak" in costume is photogravure #64 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[12] The printing on the portrait says, "Mr. S. Cavendish as Count Chotak."[18]

One Count Chotek — Johann Karl, Count Chotek of Chotkow and Wognin (1704–1787) — knew Marie Thérèse when she was Empress.[19] In 1753, the Empress recognized Johann Karl, Count Chotek of Chotkow's service with a palace, the Palais Strozzi in Josefstadt (Vienna).[19]

It is conceivable, then, because Mr. S. Cavendish's photographer was Gunn & Stuart, who also took Lady M. Cavendish's portrait, that Mr. S. Cavendish is actually Mr. R. Cavendish. The man in the portrait as Count Chotak and the man in the caricature by Leslie Ward for Vanity Fair, published in 1900, could be the same, as they seem to resemble each other strongly, although one could also expect a strong family resemblance in any case.

The Hon. Victor Cavendish[edit | edit source]

Black-and-white photograph of a standing man richly dressed in an historical costume and wearing the insignia of the Golden Fleece
Mr. Victor Cavendish in costume as an Ambassador after Holbein's picture in the National Gallery. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.
Detail of a portrait of an ambassador, richly dressed in fur and black
Holbein's The Ambassadors, showing Jean de Dinteville on the left, possibly wearing the original of Victor Cavendish's costume.

The Hon. Victor Cavendish (at 121), later 9th Duke of Devonshire, was seated in the first seating for supper.

  • He "was admirably dressed in a black velvet Tudor coat and a cerise shirt, slashed and puffed with cream-coloured satin, the revers of the coat faced with light-hued fur, and wearing a little quaintly-fashioned black cap. The costume was a copy of one worn by an Ambassador in Holbein’s famous pictures in the National Gallery."[20]
  • He was wearing the "Costume of an Ambassador, copied from Holbein's picture in the National Gallery. (The figure to the left of the spectator is the one represented.)"[10]:p. 8, Col. 2a Possibly the portrait on the right (a Holbein in the National Portrait Gallery) has, on the left of the spectator, the original for the Hon. Victor Cavendish's costume.
  • "The Hon. Victor Cavendish (Ambassador, from Holbein's picture in the National Gallery)."[17]:p. 40, Col. 1c

Lafayette's portrait of "Victor Christian William Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire as an Ambassador after Holbein's picture in the National Gallery" in costume is photogravure #46 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[12] The printing on the portrait says, "Mr. Victor Cavendish as an Ambassador after Holbein's picture in the National Gallery," with a Long S in Ambassador.[21]

Black-and-white photograph of a standing woman richly dressed in an historical costume with a feather coming out of the top of her hat and a fan
Lady Evelyn Cavendish in costume as a Lady of the Court of Marie Therese. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.

Lady E. Cavendish[edit | edit source]

Lady E. Cavendish (probably Lady Evelyn Cavendish, at 164) sat at Table 5 and was dressed as Countess Trautmannsdorf in the Austrian Court of Maria Theresa Quadrille, leading one section of the quadrille with Mr. Mildmay.[10]:p. 7, Col. 6b [11]:p. 12, Col. 1b

Lafayette's portrait of "Evelyn Emily Mary Cavendish (née Petty-Fitzmaurice), Duchess of Devonshire when Lady Evelyn Cavendish as a Lady of the Court of Marie Therese" in costume is photogravure #45 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[20] The printing on the portrait says, "Lady Evelyn Cavendish as a Lady of the Court of Marie Therese."[22]

Two possible Countesses Trauttmansdorff could have been at the court of Empress Marie Thérèse: Countess Maria Antonie von Trauttmansdorff-Weinsberg (1746-1817) and her mother, Countess Maria Anna von Herberstein (1723-1815), wife of Count Franz Norbert von Trauttmansdorff.[23] At this point, it is not possible to know which Countess Trauttmansdorff that Lady E. Cavendish was thinking of.

Demographics[edit | edit source]

  • Nationality: English

Residences[edit | edit source]

  • Family estate: Derbyshire
  • Chatsworth House

Family[edit | edit source]

  • William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire (27 April 1808 – 21 December 1891)[2]
  • Blanche Georgiana Howard Cavendish (11 January 1812 – 27 April 1840)
  1. Louisa Caroline Cavendish ( – 21 September 1907)
  2. William Cavendish (8 October 1831 – 15 May 1834)
  3. Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire (23 July 1833 – 24 March 1908)
  4. Frederick Charles Cavendish (30 November 1836 – 6 May 1882)
  5. Edward Cavendish (28 January 1838 – 18 May 1891)



  • Edward Cavendish (28 January 1838 – 18 May 1891)[24]
  • Hon. Emma Elizabeth Lascelles Cavendish (17 November 1838 – 24 September 1920)[4]
  1. Victor Christian William Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire (31 May 1868 – 6 May 1938)
  2. Rt. Hon. Lord Richard Frederick Cavendish (31 January 1871 – 7 January 1946)
  3. Major John Spencer Cavendish (25 March 1875 – 20 October 1914)


  • Rt. Hon. Lord Richard Frederick Cavendish (31 January 1871 – 7 January 1946)
  • Lady Moyra de Vere Beauclerk (20 January 1876 – 7 February 1942)[25]
  1. Elizabeth Vere Cavendish (22 Jan 1897 – 5 Jun 1982)
  2. Alix Cavendish (5 Aug 1901 – 29 Jun 1925)
  3. Mary Katherine Cavendish (20 Jul 1903 – 20 Nov 1994)
  4. John Edward Compton Cavendish (10 Oct 1907 – 29 May 1908)
  5. Diana Cavendish (15 Sep 1909 – 1992)
  6. Sybil Moyra Cavendish (10 Aug 1915 – 3 Aug 2004)
  7. Richard Edward Osborne Cavendish (23 Nov 1917 – 14 Aug 1972)


  • Victor Christian William Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire (31 May 1868 – 6 May 1938)[26]
  • Lady Evelyn Emily Mary Petty-FitzMaurice Cavendish (27 August 1870 – 2 April 1960)[27]
  1. Edward William Spencer Cavendish, 10th Duke of Devonshire (6 May 1895 – 26 November 1950)
  2. Lady Maud Louisa Emma Cavendish (20 April 1896 – 30 March 1975)
  3. Lady Blanche Katherine Cavendish (2 February 1898 – 1987)
  4. Lady Dorothy Evelyn Cavendish (28 July 1900 – 21 May 1966)
  5. Lady Rachel Cavendish (22 January 1902 – 2 October 1977)
  6. Lord Charles Arthur Francis Cavendish (29 August 1905 – 23 March 1944)
  7. Lady Anne Cavendish (20 August 1909 – 1981)

Notes and Questions[edit | edit source]

Footnotes[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Duke of Devonshire". Wikipedia. 2021-06-22. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Duke_of_Devonshire&oldid=1029878561.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duke_of_Devonshire.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Spencer Compton Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Hon. Emma Elizabeth Lascelles." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  5. "Victor Christian William Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  6. "Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy Ball. A Brilliant Spectacle. Some of the Dresses." London Daily News Saturday 3 July 1897: 5 [of 10], Col. 6a–6, Col. 1b. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000051/18970703/024/0005 and https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/BL/0000051/18970703/024/0006.
  7. “The Devonshire House Ball. A Brilliant Gathering.” The Pall Mall Gazette 3 July 1897, Saturday: 7 [of 10], Col. 2a–3a. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000098/18970703/019/0007.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon". Wikipedia. 2022-01-28. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fran%C3%A7oise_d%27Aubign%C3%A9,_Marquise_de_Maintenon&oldid=1068474414.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Françoise_d%27Aubigné,_Marquise_de_Maintenon.
  9. I, Pierre Mignard (c. 1694), Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon (1635-1719)label QS:Lfr,"Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon (1635-1719)", retrieved 2022-02-02. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pierre_Mignard_-_Françoise_d%27Aubigné,_marquise_de_Maintenon_(1694).jpg.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 "Fancy Dress Ball at Devonshire House." Morning Post Saturday 3 July 1897: 7 [of 12], Col. 4a–8 Col. 2b. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000174/18970703/054/0007.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Ball at Devonshire House." The Times Saturday 3 July 1897: 12, Cols. 1a–4c The Times Digital Archive. Web. 28 Nov. 2015.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 "Devonshire House Fancy Dress Ball (1897): photogravures by Walker & Boutall after various photographers." 1899. National Portrait Gallery https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait-list.php?set=515.
  13. "Lady Moyra de Vere Cavendish (née Beauclerk) as Countess Lazan." Diamond Jubilee Fancy Dress Ball. National Portrait Gallery https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw158417/Lady-Moyra-de-Vere-Cavendish-ne-Beauclerk-as-Countess-Lazan.
  14. Goya, Francisco de (1804), Español: Retrato de la Marquesa de Lazán, retrieved 2022-02-02. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Marquesa_de_lazan_-Liria.jpg.
  15. "María Gabriela de Palafox y Portocarrero". www.wikidata.org. Retrieved 2022-02-02. https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q5964258.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 "Madam Hansen". Wikipedia, den frie encyklopædi. 2021-12-28. https://da.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Madam_Hansen&oldid=10967906.  https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madam_Hansen.
  17. 17.0 17.1 “The Duchess of Devonshire’s Ball.” The Gentlewoman 10 July 1897 Saturday: 32–42 [of 76], Cols. 1a–3c [of 3]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0003340/18970710/155/0032.
  18. "S. Cavendish as Count Chotak." Diamond Jubilee Fancy Dress Ball. National Portrait Gallery https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw158418/S-Cavendish-as-Count-Chotak.
  19. 19.0 19.1 "Johann Karl Chotek von Chotkow". Wikipedia. 2020-03-30. https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Johann_Karl_Chotek_von_Chotkow&oldid=198270227.  https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Karl_Chotek_von_Chotkow.
  20. 20.0 20.1 “Fancy Dress Ball at Devonshire House. A Brilliant Spectacle.” Derbyshire Advertiser and Journal 10 July 1897, Saturday: 6 [of 8], Cols. 5a–6a. British Newspaper Archive http://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0001084/18970710/136/0006.
  21. "Victor Christian William Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire as an Ambassador after Holbein's picture in the National Gallery." Diamond Jubilee Fancy Dress Ball. National Portrait Gallery https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw158399/Victor-Christian-William-Cavendish-9th-Duke-of-Devonshire-as-an-Ambassador-after-Holbeins-picture-in-the-National-Gallery.
  22. "Evelyn Emily Mary Cavendish (née Petty-Fitzmaurice), Duchess of Devonshire when Lady Evelyn Cavendish as a Lady of the Court of Marie Therese." Diamond Jubilee Fancy Dress Ball. National Portrait Gallery https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw158398/Evelyn-Emily-Mary-Cavendish-ne-Petty-Fitzmaurice-Duchess-of-Devonshire-when-Lady-Evelyn-Cavendish-as-a-Lady-of-the-Court-of-Marie-Therese.
  23. "Ferdinand von Trauttmansdorff". Wikipedia. 2021-06-02. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ferdinand_von_Trauttmansdorff&oldid=1026460018.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_von_Trauttmansdorff.
  24. "Lord Edward Cavendish." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  25. "Lady Moyra de Vere Beauclerk." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  26. "Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire". Wikipedia. 2020-10-05. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Victor_Cavendish,_9th_Duke_of_Devonshire&oldid=982008303. 
  27. "Lady Evelyn Emily Mary Petty-FitzMaurice." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-21.