Social Victorians/People/Rothschild Family

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Members[edit | edit source]

  • Mr. Alfred de Rothschild
  • Miss Alice de Rothschild
  • Mr. and Mrs. Leopold de Rothschild

Titles[edit | edit source]

  • Some of the Barons de or von Rothschild have a European, especially an Austrian, French, or Italian title. These are the U.K. titles.
    • Baron de Rothschild [U.K.], created 29 June 1885[1]
      • Nathan Mayer de Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild (29 June 1885 – 31 March 1915), the U.K. title
    • 1st Baronet Rothschild [U.K.], created 12 January 1847[2]
      • Sir Anthony Nathan Rothschild, 1st Bt. (12 January 1847 – 4 January 1876)
    • 1st Baron Battersea of Battersea, co. London and of Overstrand, Norfolk [U.K.], created 5 September 1892[3]
      • Cyril Flower, 1st and last Baron Battersea of Battersea (5 September 1892 – 27 November 1907)

Acquaintances, Friends and Enemies[edit | edit source]

Friends[edit | edit source]

Ferdinand de Rothschild[edit | edit source]

Organizations[edit | edit source]

Alfred Charles de Rothschild[edit | edit source]

  • Bank of England, director[4]

Timeline[edit | edit source]

1840 March 30, Sir Anthony Nathan Rothschild and Louisa Montefiore married.[5]

1867 April 17, Nathan Mayer de Rothschild and Emma Louisa Rothschild married.[6]

1877 November 22, Constance de Rothschild and Cyril Flower married.[7]

1881 January 19, Leopold de Rothschild and Marie Perugia married.[8]

1885, Nathaniel de Rothschild "was sworn into the House of Lords on a copy of the Torah with his head covered."[9] (118 [of 194])

1897, sometime during the Jubilee ceremonies, probably June, Nathaniel Rothschild played an official role:

When Queen Victoria celebrated her Jubilee in 1897, the highest ranking Catholic cardinal in England gave an address in her honor on behalf of English Catholics; the corresponding address from English Jews might have been expected to come from England's chief Rabbi, but instead it was given by Lord Rothschild.[9] (143–144 [of 1940])

1897 July 2, Friday, a number of members of the extended Rothschild family attended the Duchess of Devonshire's fancy-dress ball at Devonshire House, including Lady (Emma Louise von Rothschild) and Lord Rothschild (Nathan Mayer de Rothschild), Baron F. de Rothschild, Mr. and Mrs. L. Rothschild (possibly Leopold and Marie Perugia Rothschild), Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, Alfred Rothschild (?), Cyril Flower, Lord Battersea, and Constance de Rothschild Flower, Lady Battersea as well as Mr. Louis Flower. Louisa, Lady de Rothschild also attended.

Costume at the Duchess of Devonshire's 2 July 1897 Fancy-dress Ball[edit | edit source]

At the Duchess of Devonshire's fancy-dress ball, at least two women who might be called Lady Rothschild attended, I think. Because of the photographs in the album in the National Portrait Gallery, however, they can be distinguished. Louisa, Lady Rothschild was married in 1840, so she was born probably somewhere around 1920; her husband, Sir Anthony Nathan Rothschild, was born in 1810 and died in 1876; so she was possibly around 75 at the ball. Emma, Lady Rothschild and Nathan Mayer de Rothschild were married in 1867, a generation later; she was born in 1844, so she was 53 or so at the time of the ball; her portrait is not in the album. Emma, Lady Rothschild and Nathan, Lord Rothschild were in the first seating for supper, the highest status of the Rothschilds at the ball, in this social network in any case.

  1. Cyril Flower, Lord Battersea is at 110
  2. Constance de Rothschild Flower, Lady Battersea, is at 328
  3. Emma Louise von Rothschild, Lady Rothschild is at 112
  4. Nathan Mayer de Rothschild, Lord Rothschild is at 216
  5. Louisa, Lady de Rothschild is at 674
  6. Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild is at 330
  7. Mr. L. Rothschild, possibly Leopold de Rothschild, is at 527
  8. Mrs. L. Rothschild, possibly Marie Perugia Rothschild, is at 528
  9. Alfred Rothschild is at 605
  10. Evelyn de Rothschild is at 669
  11. Anthony de Rothschild is at 670
Black-and-white photograph of a standing man richly dressed in an historical costume with a sword and garter
Cyril Flower, 1st Baron Battersea in costume as Lord Hunsdon in the Elizabethan Procession. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.

Cyril Flower, Lord Battersea and Constance de Rothschild Flower, Lady Battersea[edit | edit source]

Cyril Flower (at 110), Lord Battersea was dressed

  • as "(gentleman of the Court of Queen Elizabeth), in cerise and silver brocade; from an old picture by Jacquemin."[10]:36, Col. 3b
  • as Lord Hunsdon, a "Gentleman of the Court of Queen Elizabeth, in cerise and silver brocade, copied from an old picture by Jacquemin."[11]:p. 8, Col. 1c
  • "in cerise and silver brocade copied from an old Jacquemin."[12]:p. 5, Col. 7a

Elliott & Fry's portrait of "Cyril Flower, 1st Baron Battersea as Lord Hunsdon in the Elizabethan Procession" in costume is photogravure #74 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[13] The printing on the portrait says, "Lord Battersea as Lord Hunsdon in the Elizabethan procession," with a Long S in procession.[14]

Constance de Rothschild Flower (at 328), Lady Battersea, was dressed as Lady Hunsdon in the Queen Elizabeth procession.

  • "Lady Battersea was dressed as a lady of the Elizabethan period, in a cream velvet train and bodice, with stomacher and front of red velvet, the latter studded with exquisite pearls. This was trimmed with old silver galon and a Medici collar of lace embroidered in pearls."[15]:p. 3, Col. 4b
  • Lady Battersea "was perfectly dressed as a lady of the Elizabethan period, in a cream velvet train and bodice, with stomacher and front of red velvet, the latter studded with exquisite pearls. This was trimmed with old silver galon and a Medici collar of lace embroidered in pearls."[12]:p. 6, Col. 1b
  • "Lady Battersea was perfect [sic?] dressed as a lady of the Elizabethan period in a cream velvet train and bodice, with stomacher and front of red velvet, the latter studded with exquisite pearls. This was trimmed with old silver gallon, and a Medici collar of lace embroidered in pearls."[16]:p. 6, Col. 1b
  • "Lady Battersea was, perhaps, the best dressed of the ladies of the Elizabethan period."[17]:p. 5, Col. 1

Mr. Lewis Flower[edit | edit source]

Cyril Flower's brother Lewis Peter Flower seems a likely candidate for the man whom the Gentlewoman calls Mr. Louis Flower. Mr. Flower (at 506) was dressed as a "French Commissary General, First Empire" in a "regimental coat, slightly open at neck, showing stock, dark blue cloth, collar and cuffs scarlet, embroidered in silver; riding breeches, buff cloth; large cocked hat of the First Empire, bound with black braiding; tricolour badge and silver cord on left side."[10]:p. 42, Col. 1a

Emma, Lady Rothschild and Nathan Mayer, Lord Rothschild[edit | edit source]

Emma Louise von Rothschild, Lady Rothschild (at 112) sat at Table 11 in the first seating for supper, escorted by the Earl of Suffolk.

  • "Lady Rothschild’s costume, as Anne of Cleves, looked beautiful with its petticoat and undersleeves of old blue and gold brocade, embroidered with gold, and its black satin skirt and bodice of black velvet. All Lady Rothschild’s jewels were authentic antique gems of the period."[18]
  • "Lady Rothschild, as Anne of Cleves, wore one of the most splendid dresses in the room; over a petticoat of old gold and blue hung an overmantle of satin literally encrusted with gold and precious stones, which were taken from her own museum, and which were actually the jewels of the period she represented."[10]:p. 32, Col. 3b
  • She was dressed as "Anne of Cleves. Bodice in black velvet, black satin skirt and facings, petticoat and undersleeves in old blue and gold brocade, embroidered in gold. All the jewels were real old ones of the period."[11]:p. 8, Col. 1c
  • "Lady Rothschild was beautifully attired as a Lady of the Tudor period, after a picture by Holbein."[12]:p. 6, Col. 1b [15]:p. 3, Col. 4b
  • "Lady Rothschild was beautifully attired as a lady of the Tudor period, after a picture by Holbein."[16]:p. 6, Col. 1b
  • "[S]uch dresses as those of ... Messrs. Ferdinand and Alfred Rothschild, as an Austrian and French noble of the 16th century, were of extraordinary truth and beauty."[19]

Nathan Mayer de Rothschild, Lord Rothschild (at 216) sat at Table 12 in the first seating for supper and was dressed as a Swiss Burgher in the Queen Elizabeth procession.

Elizabeth Vaux, after Hans Holbein the Younger, painted c. 1600 – c. 1630

Louisa, Lady de Rothschild[edit | edit source]

Black-and-white photograph of a standing woman richly dressed in an historical costume
Louisa, Lady de Rothschild in costume as Lady Vaux (after Holbein). ©National Portrait Gallery, London.

Louisa Montefiore, Lady de Rothschild (at 674) was the widow of Sir Anthony Nathan Rothschild, 1st Bt., who died in 1876. Like others of the Rothschilds, she attended the ball in a costume that was much admired:

  • "[S]uch dresses as those of Lady Rothschild, after Holbein's Lady Vaux, of Messrs. Ferdinand and Alfred Rothschild, as an Austrian and French noble of the 16th century, were of extraordinary truth and beauty."[19]

Henry Van der Weyde's portrait of "Louisa (née Montefiore), Lady de Rothschild as Lady Vaux (after Holbein)" in costume is photogravure #182 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[13] The printing on the portrait says, "Lady Rothschild as Lady Vaux (after Holbein)."[20]

Elizabeth Cheyne (or Cheney), Lady Vaux (1505–1556) was married to Thomas Vaux, 2nd Baron Vaux of Harrowden (1509 – 1556), an Elizabethan poet.[21] She was first cousin of Catherine Parr, Henry VIII's sixth wife.[21] This portrait of her is in the Royal Collection at Hampton Court, which is where Louisa, Lady de Rothschild would likely have seen it.

Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild[edit | edit source]

Black-and-white photograph of a standing man richly dressed in an historical costume
Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild in costume as Casimir Count Palatine. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.
old portrait of a standing man with gloves, sword, cloak and hat
Johann Casimir

Baron F. de Rothschild or Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild (at 330) was the widower of Evelina de Rothschild, who had died in 1866. He attended the ball dressed as Casimir Count Patatine of Bavaria in the Queen Elizabeth procession. Like others of the Rothschilds, his costume was notable.

  • "Baron F. de Rothschild appeared as Casimir, Count Palatine of Bavaria."[22]
  • Baron F. de Rothschild was dressed "as an Austrian noble of the 16th century."[19]
  • "[S]uch dresses as those of ... Messrs. Ferdinand and Alfred Rothschild, as an Austrian and French noble of the 16th century, were of extraordinary truth and beauty."[19]

Lafayette's portrait of "Ferdinand James Anselm de Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild as Casimir Count Palatine" in costume is photogravure #218 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[13] The printing on the portrait says, "Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild as Casimir Count Palatine."[23]

The portrait (right) of Ioannes Casimirvs Palatinus Rheini Dux Bavaria is from Thesaurus Picturarum, no earlier than 1568.

Leopold de Rothschild and Marie Perugia Rothschild[edit | edit source]

Black-and-white photograph of a standing woman richly dressed in an historical costume
Marie Rothschild (née Perugia) in costume as Zobeida. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.
Black-and-white photograph of a standing man richly dressed in an historical costume with a sword, cape and plumed hat
Leopold de Rothschild in costume as Duc de Sully. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.

Mrs. Leopold (Marie Perugia) Rothschild (at 528): Alice Hughes's portrait of "Marie Rothschild (née Perugia) as Zobeida" in costume is photogravure #114 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[13] The printing on the portrait says, "Mr. Leopold de Rothschild as Zobeida."[24]

Zubaidah bint Ja`far ibn Mansur ( – 831, C.E.) was an Abbasid princess and queen who managed her properties and wealth independent of her husband, Harun al-Rashid.[25]

Mr. Leopold de Rothschild (at 527): John Thomson's portrait of "Leopold de Rothschild as Duc de Sully" in costume is photogravure #115 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[13] The printing on the portrait says, "Mr. Leopold de Rothschild as Duc de Sully."[26]

Maximilien de Béthune, 1st Duke of Sully (1560–1641) was an advisor to French King Henry IV and noted for being a good businessman.[27] Leopold Rothschild is wearing insignias for some orders in this portrait.

Black-and-white photograph of a standing boy richly dressed in an historical costume with a cape and ruff around his neck
Evelyn de Rothschild, as a page to the Doge's Wife. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.

Two children of Leopold and Marie de Rothschild also attended, as pages of the "wife of the Doge," Evelyn Achille de Rothschild (at 669) and Anthony Gustav de Rothschild (at 670). Their portraits appear in the Album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[13] One person is described as Dogaressa in the Album: Louise (Mrs. Arthur) Sassoon (at 202); two men are called doges: Lord Wilbraham Egerton of Tatton (at 591) and Edward Bootle-Wilbraham, the Earl of Lathom (at 125).

Black-and-white photograph of a boy sitting on a window seat, richly dressed in an historical costume as a page, with a large hat next to him, a cape and a ruff around his neck
Anthony de Rothschild, as a page to the Doge's Wife. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.

Evelyn and Anthony de Rothschild[edit | edit source]

Evelyn de Rothschild (at 668) and Anthony de Rothschild (at 669) were pages, attending Louise (Mrs. Arthur) Sassoon. They were too young, probably, to have been invited in their own right: Evelyn was 11 and Anthony was 10 years old.

Alice Hughes's portrait of "Evelyn Achille de Rothschild as a page to the Doge's Wife" in costume is photogravure #165 in the album. The printing on the portrait says, "Master Evelyn de Rothschild as a page to the Doge's Wife."[28]

Alice Hughes's portrait of "Anthony Gustav de Rothschild as a page to the Doge's Wife" in costume is photogravure #166 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[13] The printing on the portrait says, "Master Anthony de Rothschild as a page to the Doge's Wife."[29]

Black-and-white photograph of a standing man richly dressed in an historical costume
Alfred de Rothschild in costume as King Henry III. ©National Portrait Gallery, London.

Alfred Rothschild[edit | edit source]

Old panel showing King Henry the 3rd of England in two scenes
Henry III visiting Louis IX of France (left) and visiting St. Denis (right)

Alfred Rothschild (at 605) was present as well in a costume described variously, from King Henry III of England to a 16th-century French and Austrian noble.

  • Alfred Rothschild was dressed "as [a] French noble of the 16th century.[19]
  • "[S]uch dresses as those of ... Messrs. Ferdinand and Alfred Rothschild, as an Austrian and French noble of the 16th century, were of extraordinary truth and beauty."[19]

John Thomson's portrait of "Alfred Charles de Rothschild as King Henry III" in costume is photogravure #224 in the album presented to the Duchess of Devonshire and now in the National Portrait Gallery.[13] The printing on the portrait says, "Mr. Alfred Charles de Rothschild as Henry III."[30]

No available portraits of King Henry III of England (1207–1272)[31] show him dressed in anything similar to what Alfred Rothschild is wearing in his portrait. The panel (right) with two scenes of Henry III is from an illuminated manuscript now held by the British Museum, which acquired it in 1757, when King George II presented it to them.[32] The costume looks more like a late-Victorian interpretation of 16th-century clothing than it does of 13th-century clothing.

Early in the reign of King Henry III of England, policies protected Jews in England, mostly for the financial benefit of the English, but by 1239 he had begun to put anti-Jewish policies into place.[31]

Snapshots[edit | edit source]

Leopold Rothschild[edit | edit source]

Brother of Nathaniel and Alfred, of the English branch. A general sketch of Leopold:

Outside the office, Leopold was primarily occupied with horses, while Alfred was a connoisseur of the arts. Though Leo de Rothschild was one of the first people ever to own an automobile, and was also a famous breeder and racer of horses, he was best known for his kindness, which was characterized not just by the expenditure of large sums of money, but by tremendous thoughtfulness. One Rothschild employee wrote that Leo "devoted himself to the welfare of the clerks, not so much as a duty or in a spirit of noblesse oblige as because it was in his character to do so ... [sic] One man suffering from a chest complaint ws sent by Leopold to Australia for six months; another, distraught by the death of his wife, was given a sea trip around the world.[9]:p. 121 [of 194]

Alfred Rothschild[edit | edit source]

Brother of Nathaniel and Leopold, of the English branch. Alfred in general:

Alfred de Rothschild, by comparison, was more of a typical late Victorian aesthete [than Leopold]. Unusually for a Rothschild, he was slender, slight, blonde haired and blue eyed. He employed himself principally in the pursuit of luxury — music, fine clothes, antique furniture, paintings, etc. Yet his most enduring legacy was the French chateau he built in Buckinghamshire, called Halton House. Despite the fact that tAlfred was one of the most highly regarded art experts in England, Halton House was famous for its ugliness. "An exaggerated nightmare of gorgeousness / and senseless and ill-applied magnificent," wrote one guest. "I have seldom seen anything more terribly vulgar," wrote another. "Outside it is a combination of a French chateau and a gambling house. Inside it is badly planned, gaudily decorated ... O, but the hideousness of everything, the showiness! The sense of lavish wealth thrust up your nose! The coarse moldings, the heavy gildings always in the wrong place, the color of the silk hangings! Eye hath not seen nor pen can write the ghastly coarseness of the sight!"[9]:pp. 123–124 [of 194]

Daisy, Lady Warwick wrote about Alfred Rothschild:

In the famous white drawing-room at Seamore Place I have heard the greatest artistes in the world, who were paid royal fees to entertain a handful of his friends. Unfortunately, he could not share in the hospitality that he lavished upon those he esteemed, for he suffered from some obscure form of dyspepsia which no doctor could cure. Many a time I have seen him sit at the head of the table, exercising all the graces of a host, while he himself took neither food nor wine. He used to ride every morning in the park, followed by his brougham. Park-keepers soon learnt how generous the millionaire was; they used to put stones on the road by which he would enter, then, when he came in sight, they would hasten to removed [sic] them — a courtesy which was invariably rewarded. He was shrewd enough to know just how the stones got there, but this childish / device amused him, so he pretended ignorance.[9]:pp. 124–125 [of 194]

Demographics[edit | edit source]

Anselm Salomon von Rothschild

  • Nationality: Austrian
  • Branch of the family: Vienna branch

Residences[edit | edit source]

  • Anselm Salomon von Rothschild and then his unmarried younger sister Alice Charlotte Rothschild (1847–1922): Waddesdon Manor, Buckinghamshire[33]
  • Cyril and Constance Flower, Lord and Lady Battersea: Aston Clinton, Buckinghamshire, England

Family[edit | edit source]

  • Anselm Salomon von Rothschild, baron (29 January 1803 – 27 July 1874)[33]
  • Charlotte Nathan Rothschild (1807–1859)
  1. Mayer Anselm Leon (1827–1828)
  2. "Julie" Caroline Julie Anselm (1830–1907), married Adolph Carl von Rothschild (1823–1900), son of Carl Mayer von Rothschild at Naples
  3. Mathilde Hannah von Rothschild (1832–1924), married Freiherr Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild (1828–1901)
  4. Sarah Luisa (1834–1924), married Baron Raimondo Franchetti (1829–1905)
  5. Nathaniel Anselm (1836–1905)
  6. Ferdinand James (1839–1898)
  7. Albert Salomon (1844–1911)
  8. Alice Charlotte (1847–1922)


  • Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild (22 November 1807 – 3 June 1879)[34]
  • Charlotte de Rothschild (1819 – 13 March 1884)[35]
  1. Evelina de Rothschild (1839 – 4 December 1866)
  2. Leonora de Rothschild ( – 6 January 1911)
  3. Nathan Mayer de Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild (8 November 1840 – 31 March 1915)
  4. Alfred Charles de Rothschild (20 July 1842 – 31 January 1918)
  5. Leopold de Rothschild (22 November 1845 – 29 May 1917)


  • Evelina de Rothschild (1839 – 4 December 1866)
  • Ferdy (Ferdinand James Anselm), Freiherr von Rothschild (17 December 1839 – 17 December 1898)[36]


  • Natty (Nathan Mayer) de Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild (8 November 1840 – 31 March 1915)[1]
  • Emma Louise von Rothschild (1844 – January 1935)[6]
  1. Walter (Lionel Walter) Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild (8 February 1868 – 27 August 1937)
  2. Charlotte Louisa Adela Evelina Rothschild (3 April 1873 – 9 May 1947)
  3. Nathaniel Charles Rothschild (9 May 1877 – 12 October 1923)


  • Leopold de Rothschild (22 November 1845 – 29 May 1917)
  • Marie Perugia Rothschild (1862-1937)[8]
  1. Lionel Nathan de Rothschild (25 January 1882 – 28 January 1942)
  2. Evelyn Achille de Rothschild (6 January 1886 – )
  3. Anthony Gustav de Rothschild (26 June 1887 – 5 February 1961)


  • Sir Anthony Nathan Rothschild, 1st Bt. (29 May 1810 – 4 January 1876)[2]
  • Louisa Montefiore ( – 22 September 1910)[5]
  1. Constance de Rothschild (1843 – 22 November 1931)
  2. Annie Rothschild (1844 – 21 November 1926)


  • Constance de Rothschild (1843 – 22 November 1931)[7]
  • Cyril Flower, 1st and last Baron Battersea of Battersea (30 August 1843 – 27 November 1907)


  • Walter (Lionel Walter) Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild (8 February 1868 – 27 August 1937)[37] (unmarried relationship)
  • Marie Barbara Fredenson ()[38]
    1. Olga Alice Muriel Rothschild ( – 1992)

Family of Cyril Flower[edit | edit source]

  • Philip William Flower (1809 – 22 February 1872)[39]
  • Mary Flower (1816–1857)[40]
    1. Hugh Philip Flower (1842–1862)
    2. Cyril Flower, 1st and last Baron Battersea of Battersea (30 August 1843 – 27 November 1907)
    3. Arthur Flower (1847 – 1 March 1911)
    4. Clara Flower (1849–1871)
    5. Horace Flower (1850–1885)
    6. Augustus Flower (1851–1863)
    7. Herbert Flower (1853 – 30 December 1881)
    8. Alfred Flower (1854–1855)
    9. Lewis Peter Flower (1856 – December 1902)

Relations[edit | edit source]

  • Marie Perugia Rothschild's sister was Louise Perugia Sassoon; Marie Rothschild's sons Evelyn Rothschild and Anthony Rothschild attended Louise Sassoon as her pages for the Duchess of Devonshire's 1897 fancy-dress ball.

Questions and Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild and Sir Anthony Nathan Rothschild were brothers.
  2. Natty (Nathan Mayer) de Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild and Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, met and became friends at Cambridge; neither graduated.[41]
  3. I'm guessing that Mr. and Mrs. L. Rothschild were Leopold and Marie Perugia Rothschild because Lionel Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, Nathan and Emma's son, never married.
  4. The letterpress on the portrait in the Album in the NPG calls Louisa (née Montefiore), Lady de Rothschild Lady Rothschild.
  5. Mayer Amschel Rothschild (23 February 1744 – 19 September 1812), who founded the banking and family dynasty, stipulated that only male descendants could take part in the family business, which meant that female descendants had to marry cousins in order to stay part of it.[9] (50 [of 194]) He also stipulated Rothschild children were to marry 1st or 2nd cousins, though some — like Anselm Salomon von Rothschild's sister Betty, who married her uncle — married other near relatives.[33]

Footnotes[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Nathan Mayer de Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-26.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Sir Anthony Nathan Rothschild, 1st Bt." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  3. "Cyril Flower, 1st and last Baron Battersea of Battersea." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  4. "Alfred Charles de Rothschild." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-26.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Louisa Montefiore." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Emma Louise Rothschild." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-26.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Constance de Rothschild." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Marie Perugia." "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2020-10-26.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Simmons, Michael W. The Rothschilds: The Dynasty and the Legacy. Make Profits Easy, LLC, 17 January 2017.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 “The Duchess of Devonshire’s Ball.” The Gentlewoman 10 July 1897 Saturday: 32–42 [of 76], Cols. 1a–3c [of 3]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0003340/18970710/155/0032.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Fancy Dress Ball at Devonshire House." Morning Post Saturday 3 July 1897: 7 [of 12], Col. 4a–8 Col. 2b. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000174/18970703/054/0007.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 "Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy Ball. A Brilliant Spectacle. Some of the Dresses." London Daily News Saturday 3 July 1897: 5 [of 10], Col. 6a–6, Col. 1b. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000051/18970703/024/0005 and https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/BL/0000051/18970703/024/0006.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 "Devonshire House Fancy Dress Ball (1897): photogravures by Walker & Boutall after various photographers." 1899. National Portrait Gallery https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait-list.php?set=515.
  14. "Cyril Flower, 1st Baron Battersea as Lord Hunsdon in the Elizabethan Procession." Diamond Jubilee Fancy Dress Ball. National Portrait Gallery https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw158430/Cyril-Flower-1st-Baron-Battersea-as-Lord-Hunsdon-in-the-Elizabethan-Procession.
  15. 15.0 15.1 “The Ball at Devonshire House. Magnificent Spectacle. Description of the Dresses.” London Evening Standard 3 July 1897 Saturday: 3 [of 12], Cols. 1a–5b [of 7]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000183/18970703/015/0004.
  16. 16.0 16.1 "The Duchess of Devonshire's Fancy Dress Ball. Special Telegram." Belfast News-Letter Saturday 03 July 1897: 5 [of 8], Col. 9c [of 9]–6, Col. 1a. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/BL/0000038/18970703/015/0005.
  17. “The Duchess’s Costume Ball.” Westminster Gazette 03 July 1897 Saturday: 5 [of 8], Cols. 1a–3b [of 3]. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0002947/18970703/035/0005.
  18. “The Devonshire House Ball. A Brilliant Gathering.” The Pall Mall Gazette 3 July 1897, Saturday: 7 [of 10], Col. 2a–3a. British Newspaper Archive https://www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/viewer/bl/0000098/18970703/019/0007.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 "Ball at Devonshire House." The Times Saturday 3 July 1897: 12, Cols. 1a–4c The Times Digital Archive. Web. 28 Nov. 2015.
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