Dominant group/Physics

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This collage of images exhibits a variety of physics subfields. Credit: Aushulz.

The exploration of physics with respect to the use of the two-word term dominant group is the purpose of this subtopic/subpage.

Many of the various areas of physics, especially the major ones, have refereed journal articles within which there is an author chosen need to describe observations using a dominant group differentiation.


A high-temperature superconductor is image demonstrating the Meissner Effect. Credit: Peter nussbaumer.

Def. the nature and properties of "matter and energy and their interactions"[1] is called physics.

Many of the early laws begin to make sense and increase understanding of the phenomena observed when coupled to experimental and theoretical studies performed in a laboratory here on Earth under controlled conditions.

Dominant group[edit]

Is dominant group a universal in human nature? Or, is dominant group used outside humanities, in fields like physics, because there are a few humans who believe dominant group and the concept behind it is a universal?

"Humanism is a group of philosophies and ethical perspectives which emphasize the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers individual thought and evidence (rationalism, empiricism), over established doctrine or faith (fideism)."[2]

Examples from primary sources are to be used to prove or disprove each hypothesis. These can be collected per subject or in general.

  1. Accident hypothesis: dominant group is an accident of whatever processes are operating.
  2. Artifact hypothesis: dominant group may be an artifact of human endeavor or may have preceded humanity.
  3. Association hypothesis: dominant group is associated in some way with the original research.
  4. Bad group hypothesis: dominant group is the group that engages in discrimination, abuse, punishment, and additional criminal activity against other groups. It often has an unfair advantage and uses it to express monopolistic practices.
  5. Control group hypothesis: there is a control group that can be used to study dominant group.
  6. Entity hypothesis: dominant group is an entity within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  7. Evolution hypothesis: dominant group is a product of evolutionary processes, such groups are the evolutionary process, produce evolutionary processes, or are independent of evolutionary processes.
  8. Identifier hypothesis: dominant group is an identifier used by primary source authors of original research to identify an observation in the process of analysis.
  9. Importance hypothesis: dominant group signifies original research results that usually need to be explained by theory and interpretation of experiments.
  10. Indicator hypothesis: dominant group may be an indicator of something as yet not understood by the primary author of original research.
  11. Influence hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article containing original research to indicate influence or an influential phenomenon.
  12. Interest hypothesis: dominant group is a theoretical entity used by scholarly authors of primary sources for phenomena of interest.
  13. Metadefinition hypothesis: all uses of dominant group by all primary source authors of original research are included in the metadefinition for dominant group.
  14. Null hypothesis: there is no significant or special meaning of dominant group in any sentence or figure caption in any refereed journal article.
  15. Object hypothesis: dominant group is an object within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  16. Obvious hypothesis: the only meaning of dominant group is the one found in Mosby's Medical Dictionary.
  17. Original research hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article by the author to indicate that the article contains original research.
  18. Primordial hypothesis: dominant group is a primordial concept inherent to humans such that every language or other form of communication no matter how old or whether extinct, on the verge of extinction, or not, has at least a synonym for dominant group.
  19. Purpose hypothesis: dominant group is written into articles by authors for a purpose.
  20. Regional hypothesis: dominant group, when it occurs, is only a manifestation of the limitations within a region. Variation of those limitations may result in the loss of a dominant group with the eventual appearance of a new one or none at all.
  21. Source hypothesis: dominant group is a source within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  22. Term hypothesis: dominant group is a significant term that may require a 'rigorous definition' or application and verification of an empirical definition.

Causal analysis[edit]

Perhaps the fundamental question is "Why are physicists using the term, dominant group, that apparently has its origin in entomology or culture?"

The term "dominant group" appears to be used in physics as in astronomy to identify entities of importance. The genera differentia for possible definitions of "dominant group" fall into the following set of orderable pairs:

Genera differentia for "dominant group"[3]
Synonym for "dominant" Category Number Category Title Synonym for "group" Category Number Catgeory Title
“superior” 36 SUPERIORITY "arrangement" 60 ARRANGEMENT
“influential” 171 INFLUENCE "class" 61 CLASSIFICATION
“musical note” 462 HARMONICS "assembly" 74 ASSEMBLAGE
“most important” 670 IMPORTANCE "size" 194 SIZE
“governing” 739 GOVERNMENT "painting", "grouping" 572 ART
"master" 747 MASTER "association", "set" 786 ASSOCIATION
----- --- ------- "sect" 1018 RELIGIONS, CULTS, SECTS

'Orderable' means that any synonym from within the first category can be ordered with any synonym from the second category to form an alternate term for "dominant group"; for example, "superior class", "influential sect", "master assembly", "most important group", and "dominant painting". "Dominant" falls into category 171. "Group" is in category 61. Further, any word which has its most or much more common usage within these categories may also form an alternate term, such as "ruling group", where "ruling" has its most common usage in category 739, or "dominant party", where "party" is in category 74. "Taxon" or "taxa" are like "species" in category 61. "Society" is in category 786 so there is a "dominant society".

"A related, but separate, definition relies on a linguistic identity that differs from that of the dominant society [5]."[4]

Subdivision popularity[edit]

As a natural science, physics may be subdivided.

Popularity of "dominant group" and relative synonyms in each subdivision may be helpful.

Number of articles on Google scholar.
Subdivision Number of articles Relative synonym Popularity in articles Percentage
"accelerator physics" 11,900 "dominant group" 0 0
"acoustical physics" 3,680 "dominant group" 2 0.054
"acoustics" 645,000 "dominant group" 993 0.154
"agrophysics" 8,210 "dominant group" 2 0.024
"applied physics" 770,000 "dominant group" 72 0.009
"astrophysics" 748,000 "dominant group" 327 0.044
"atmospheric physics" 82,200 "dominant group" 12 0.015
"atomic physics" 131,000 "dominant group" 45 0.034
"biophysics" 630,000 "dominant group" 590 0.094
"chemical physics" 700,000 "dominant group" 38 0.005
"classical mechanics" 156,000 "dominant group" 26 0.017
"clinical physics" 5,220 "dominant group" 1 0.019
"condensed matter physics" 151,000 "dominant group" 48 0.032
"econophysics" 7,450 "dominant group" 6 0.081
"electricity" 2,190,000 "dominant group" 6,590 0.301
"electromagnetism" 80,100 "dominant group" 327 0.408
"experimental physics" 135,000 "dominant group" 32 0.024
"geophysics" 818,000 "dominant group" 970 0.119
"gravity" 2,280,000 "dominant group" 3,190 0.140
"heat" 5,630,000 "dominant group" 5,600 0.099
"high energy physics" 493,000 "dominant group" 46 0.009
"light" 4,170,000 "dominant group" 38,600 0.926
"magnetism" 624,000 "dominant group" 1,900 0.304
"magnetohydrodynamics" 62,200 "dominant group" 7 0.011
"mechanics" 2,030,000 "dominant group" 4,250 0.209
"medical physics" 354,000 "dominant group" 9 0.003
"modern physics" 327,000 "dominant group" 121 0.037
"molecular physics" 194,000 "dominant group" 13 0.007
"neurophysics" 3,350 "dominant group" 4 0.119
"nuclear physics" 631,000 "dominant group" 131 0.021
"optical physics" 40,600 "dominant group" 2 0.005
“optics” 1,830,000 "dominant group" 2,670 0.146
"particle physics" 630,000 "dominant group" 77 0.012
“physicists” 286,000 "dominant group" 1,100 0.385
“physics” 4,230,000 "dominant group" 4,060 0.096
“plasma physics” 273,000 "dominant group" 17 0.006
"psychophysics" 254,000 "dominant group" 234 0.092
"quantum field theory" 310,000 "dominant group" 7 0.002
"quantum mechanics" 1,090,000 "dominant group" 160 0.015
"radiation physics" 86,800 "dominant group" 4 0.005
"relativistic mechanics" 5,250 "dominant group" 2 0.038
"sociophysics" 1,110 "dominant group" 11 0.991
"soil physics" 24,700 "dominant group" 12 0.049
"solid state physics" 646,000 "dominant group" 32 0.005
"sound" 2,930,000 "dominant group" 18,600 0.635
"spintronics" 29,300 "dominant group" 3 0.010
"statistical mechanics" 836,000 "dominant group" 46 0.006
"theoretical physics" 827,000 "dominant group" 107 0.013
"thermodynamics" 842,000 "dominant group" 426 0.051

The extremely low percentages suggests that usage of "dominant group" may be author preference.

Like any other subject, physics has its entities such as

  1. physicists,
  2. physics journals,
  3. physics departments at universities,
  4. physics laboratories, and others, some of which are natural including sources and objects.

Accelerator physics[edit]

This image shows the BEP — booster of electrons and positrons at VEPP-2000 collider complex (BINP, Novosibirsk). Credit: Eto shorcy.

"In a European dominant group in the USA, having a help with Asian spirit was invaluable."[5] "A plasma-based accelerator is a promising candidate for a next generation accelerator."[5]

Acoustical physics[edit]

This image is an acoustic profile of castanets. Credit: Acapulco007.

"Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound."[6]

"Indeed, among the dominant group of signals, ie, whistles (W), we did not detect any signals of this type."[7]

"This ridge can be used to trace out the dominant group velocity packet as a function of frequency for this site."[8]

"The number of modes having a reverberation time in a specified time interval is expressed as a function of the total allowed degrees of freedom and it is shown that even when the number of degrees of freedom of the model is large there is, in general, no one dominant group."[9]


"Agrophysics is closely related to biophysics, but is restricted to the biology of the plants, animals, soil and an atmosphere involved in agricultural activities and biodiversity. It is different from biophysics in having the necessity of taking into account the specific features of biotope and biocoenosis, which involves the knowledge of nutritional science and agroecology, agricultural technology, biotechnology, genetics etc."[10]

"In the small basin (station 1) a mass development of the chrysophyte Dinobryon divergens was observed, so the dominant group in both abundance and biomass was Chrysophyceae. On the two deeper sampling stations the dominant groups changed from Cryptophyceae (mainly Rhodomonas lacustris) to Chlorophyceae and Dinophyceae (Fig. 1)."[11]

"According to Kim et al. [1997], fungi constitute a dominant group among microorganisms decomposing humus substances in terms of the number of species."[12]

Applied physics[edit]

This is a magnetic resonance image (MRI) of a head from the side. Credit: TheBrain.

"Applied physics is a general term for physics which is intended for a particular technological or practical use.[13] It is usually considered as a bridge or a connection between "pure" physics and engineering.[14]"[15]

"This implies that, in the former range, the disturbance will consist of a single dominant group whose frequency increases as tito increases; in the second range of ... two dominant groups, differing in frequency and wavelength, will arrive simultaneously at the point considered."[16]

"A deconvoluted inhomogeneous linewidth broadening of 14.9 meV from the dominant group of QDs in the crystal is obtained."[17]

"[T]he current across the dominant group of shunts and the two point-like shunts is 150mA."[18]


A bubbling cauldron of star birth is highlighted in this new image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Harvard-Smithsonian CfA.

"Astrophysics at its simplest is the application of laboratory physics, i.e., physics demonstrated in a laboratory and described with logical laws, to natural astronomical entities. This is done to understand these astronomical entities, their origin, history, and current constitution."[19]

Notation: let the symbol AR stand for active region.

Notation: let the symbol SDR stand for surface differential rotation.

Notation: let the symbol ΔP stand for a change in rotational period.

"[A] star lacking one dominant AR, or with several ARs spaced in longitude, might not show a clear rotational signal."[20]

SDR "will most easily be detected among stars that have relatively stable modulation over several rotations within a season from a dominant group of ARs that experience a noticeable change in mean AR latitude (corresponding to a change in mean rotational period) between consecutive observing seasons."[20]

"On very active stars with large filling factors, ΔP may be minimized because the periods determined might only result from a limited latitude band where enough "gaps" in the plage exist to permit detection of rotation modulation."[20] ΔP equals the maximum observed rotational period (Pmax) minus the minimum (Pmin).[20]

Notation: let the symbol Z stand for atomic number.

let the symbol PeV stand for 1015 electron volts.

"The most dominant group is the iron group (Z = 25 − 27), at energies around 70 PeV more than 50% of the all-particle flux consists of these elements."[21]

Notation: let the symbol keV stand for 103 electron volts.

Compact groups of galaxies are tight associations of galaxies.[22] Their compactness suggests extremely short crossing times and a very rapid evolution.[22] Computer simulations suggest that a compact "group coalesces into a giant dominant galaxy in a small number of crossing times."[22] "Alternately, compact groups may be transient unbound cores of loose groups".[22] A third alternative is that they are mostly chance alignments within larger loose groups of galaxies.[22]

"In a physically dense group one would expect that the majority of the galaxies would exhibit visible signs of interaction."[22]

"At the same time, the dominant group members are as likely to be spirals as ellipticals, hence suggesting that systematic merging has not (yet) occurred".[22]

The microdensitometer tracings from a low-inductance vacuum spark are compared with spectra from the OSO 3 satellite.[23]

"The preflare spectrum and the 14 kV spectrum both have Fe XVIII as the dominant group of lines"[23]

Atmospheric physics[edit]

Brightness can indicate reflectivity as in this 1960 weather radar image (of Hurricane Abby). The radar's frequency, pulse form, and antenna largely determine what it can observe. Credit: NOAA's National Weather Service.

"Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere."[24]

"There is a dominant group of periodicities around 4±7 years, which may be associated with the ENSO phenomena."[25]

Atomic physics[edit]

This is an atomic interferometer called the Atomic Fountain at Stanford University. Credit: Steve Jurvetson.

Def. "[t]he branch of physics that studies the internal structure of atomic nuclei"[26] is called atomic physics.

"Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change."[27]

"To cope with all reasonable ranges of dynamic thermal plasma in low- to medium-density plasma excluding short-period observations of the most highly impulsive events, the group of dominant populations is expanded to include low lying metastable states of ions and the collisional-radiative coefficients are renamed the generalized collisional-radiative coefficients."[28]


This image represents osmosis in eggs. Credit: Theresa knott.

"Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of, and theories from physics to study biological systems.[29]"[30]

"Finally, microflagellates were the dominant group in slope and basin regions of the model, where the different size classes of autotrophic flagellates constituted ~74% of the carbon biomass in August 1994 [Booth and Horner, 1997]."[31]

"In many sediments, the bacteria probably account for 90–99% of the biomass, thus making the prokaryotes by far the dominant group in terms of metabolic potential."[32]

"Statements regarding initial protofibril network are: (i) A dominant group of Aproto fibrils appears first."[33]

Chemical physics[edit]

A wave packet without dispersion.

"Chemical physics is a subdiscipline of chemistry and physics that investigates physicochemical phenomena using techniques from atomic and molecular physics and condensed matter physics; it is the branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics. While at the interface of physics and chemistry, chemical physics is distinct from physical chemistry in that it focuses more on the characteristic elements and theories of physics. Meanwhile, physical chemistry studies the physical nature of chemistry."[34]

"In condensed matter physics, the Keldysh formalism is a general framework for describing the quantum mechanical evolution of a system in a non-equilibrium state, e.g. in the presence of time varying fields (an electrical field, a magnetic field, both, etc.). The main mathematical object in the Keldysh formalism is the non-equilibrium Green's function."[35]

"In physics, a wave packet (or wave train) is a short "burst" or "envelope" of wave action that travels as a unit. A wave packet can be analyzed into, or can be synthesized from, an infinite set of component sinusoidal waves of different wavenumbers, with phases and amplitudes such that they interfere constructively only over a small region of space, and destructively elsewhere.[36]"[37]

"Depending on the evolution equation, the wave packet's envelope may remain constant (no dispersion, see figure) or it may change (dispersion) while propagating. Quantum mechanics ascribes a special significance to the wave packet: it is interpreted to be a "probability wave" describing the probability that a particle or particles in a particular state will be measured to have a given position and momentum. It is in this way similar to the wave function."[37]

With respect to dominance, "[t]he components with maximum velocity become increasingly dominant in the determination of the front of the wave packet."[38]

"[T]he dominant group velocity manifests as a linear dependence of the wave packet maxima with time."[38]

Classical mechanics[edit]

This image shows a davit with a block and tackle. Credit: Georges Jansoone.

Def. "all of the physical laws of nature that account for the behaviour of the normal world, but break down when dealing with the very small ... or the very fast or very heavy"[39] is called classical mechanics.

"During the Restoration, each time two theories presented radical differences in their structures the dominant group of physicists misinterpreted the theoretical differences as mere innovations to be derived from the old Newtonian RPM."[40]

Clinical physics[edit]

The image shows two similar clinical thermometers. Credit: Biol.

Def. the physical observation prior to medical treatment of actual outpatients in a place or hospital department is called clinical physics.

Def. a small medical thermometer with a short, finely calibrated range, for taking a person's temperature is called a clinical thermometer.

"The difference with the area upon stimulation of the non-dominant eye was statistically significant in the right eye dominant group."[41]

"[T]he dominant eye actually activates a larger area of the primary visual cortex than the non-dominant eye."[41]

Condensed matter physics[edit]

The image shows ice melting into water. Liquid water has continuous translational symmetry, which is broken in crystalline ice. Credit: .

"Condensed matter physics is a branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of condensed phases of matter.[42]"[43]

"Thus, it does not appear to be the dominant group in the glass network."[44]


This is lightning over Las Cruces, New Mexico. Credit: U.S. Air Force photo by Edward Aspera Jr.

Def. a "branch of science dealing with electrical phenomena"[45] is called electricity.


This is a VLF spectrogram of an electromagnetic chorus, as received by the Stanford University VLF group's wave receiver at Palmer Station, Antarctica. The chorus can be seen between 1000 Hz and 3000 Hz, sandwiched between components of sferics. Credit: Drdan14.

Def. "a field of study ... that combines the aspects of electricity and magnetism"[46] is called electromagnetism.

Experimental physics[edit]

An XPS spectrometer for student experimentation at the Institute for Experimental Physics of the University of Hamburg at the DESY research center is shown. Credit: MichaelBueker.

"[E]xperimental physics is the category of disciplines and sub-disciplines concerned with the observation of physical phenomena in order to gather data about the universe."[47]


This is a map of the age of oceanic lithosphere. Credit: Elliot Lim, CIRES & NOAA/NGDC.

Def. "[a] branch of earth science dealing with the physical processes and phenomena occurring in the earth and in its vicinity"[48] is called geophysics.

"The dominant group frequency, Ip, which is the frequency of the peak energy over the time length tg."[49]

"The dominant group wave height, hp, which can be obtained from the time series as the maximum trough-to-crest wave height over the time length tg."[49]


The diagram shows the dissymmetrical gravity field of the Earth. Credit: NASA.

Def. a field of study that combines the "[r]esultant force on Earth's surface, of the attraction by the Earth's masses, and the centrifugal pseudo-force caused by the Earth's rotation [with] [g]ravitation, [a] universal force exercised by two bodies onto each other"[50] is called gravity.

"These values yield a dominant group velocity consistent with the Eady lee wave extension along the y axis in Fig. 5f: Cg ≈ (6 ; −20) ms−1."[51]


High energy physics[edit]

The image shows a portion of the beam line for the Large Hadron Collider at Dubna, Russia. Credit: Sergey Pyatakov / Сергей Пятаков.

Def. physics that consists of theory, experiment, accelerators and detection-device technology to study high-energy interactions, usually at relativistic speeds, is called high-energy physics.

"The problems encountered in measuring quadrupole moments of sd shell nuclei are the low excitation cross sections and the difficulty of separating the inelastically scattered particles from the dominant group of elastically scattered projectiles."[52]


The image shows ocean, ice, and clouds as representative of Hydrology. Credit: NASA, MODIS, USGS, and DMSP.

"Waters of “local” rainfall and imported, “Colorado” River aqueduct origins are easily distinguished from dominant, “native” Santa Ana river compositions by use of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis."[53]

"The Santa Ana river isotopic signature will also be shown to be nearly identical to that observed for the dominant group of Orange County groundwater wells sampled in this study".[53]

Materials physics[edit]

"Also, the characteristic emission bands originating from the transition 5 D 4 → 7 F J (J = 6, 5, 4, 3), with the transition 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 green emission as the dominant group are observed in the emission spectra of the pure Tb(III) complex (Tb-L) and the hybrid materials as shown".[54]

Metal physics[edit]

"There is in reality a distribution of magnetic cluster sizes although the smallest magnetic clusters will constitute the dominant group."[55]

Nuclear physics[edit]

Notation: let the symbol ERDA stand for elastic recoil detection analysis.

"The dominant group in the lower half results from the first oxygen-bearing layer in the Si02(0.5 pm)/Al(0.5 pm)/Si02(0.5 pm)/Al(2.0 pm) target stack."[56]

Particle physics[edit]

Def. "[a] branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them"[57] is called particle physics.

"Interpretation of the results has customarily proceeded by assuming the WIMP interacts with only the dominant group of nucleons."[58]


"It seemed clear to me that academic physicists represented a 'dominant group'. Their values and interests shaped the traditional curriculum for school physics, and they had the power to control its content."[59]

"Perhaps thirty years is not long enough for examiners to adapt their methods to the circumstance that professional physicists and not school teachers are now the dominant group in their classes."[60]

"Professors of the MV Lomonosov Moscow State University make up the dominant group of authors."[61]

Plasma physics[edit]

"The dominant group of particles is especially vulnerable to local disturbances in the plasma created by a wave, by turbulence, or simply by particle collisions, which can disturb their phases or even untrap them."[62]

"The most dominant group of the Fourier modes with exists around the Mercier-unstable region, and other two groups with and extend from the Mercier-unstable region into the Mercier-stable region."[63]

Radiation physics[edit]

"In physics, X-waves are localized solutions of the wave equation that travel at a constant velocity in a given direction. X-waves can be sound, electromagnetic, or gravitational waves. They are built as a non-monochromatic superposition of Bessel beams. X-waves carry infinite energy. Electromagnetic X-waves travel faster than the speed of light. Finite-energy realizations have been observed in various frameworks. In optics, X-waves solution have been reported within a quantum mechanical formulation.[64]"[65]

"In physics, a nonlinear X-wave (NLX) is a multi-dimensional wave that can travel without distortion. At variance with X-waves, a nonlinear X-wave does exist in the presence of nonlinearity, and in many cases it self-generates from a Gaussian (in any direction) wave packet."[66]

"Nonlinear X waves are indeed stationary localized wave packets WP's which have shown to play a key role in the [spatiotemporal] ST dynamics in focusing media with normal group-velocity dispersion GVD or dominant group-velocity mismatch (GVM)".[67]


Seismic refraction studies in Morocco provide the most valuable constraints on the crustal structure of the Middle, High and Anti Atlas Mountains. Credit: NASA.

"The four dominant group of peaks coincide precisely with the frequencies of the diurnal, semidiurnal, 8 h and 6 h components of the gravitational tides."[68]

"The last principal arrival considered is the Rayleigh surface wave, R, which has a dominant group velocity of about 2.75 km/sec."[69]

Solid state physics[edit]

"Detailed examination of the calculations shows that although charged quartets can be neglected (xql < xqo) it is not possible for the neutral quartets to pick out a small dominant group of geometries."[70]

"The dominant group is (SiGe)SiH, at T, = 190 "C and is replaced by (Ge,)SiH, at T, = 250 "C."[71]


"Spintronics (a neologism meaning "spin transport electronics"[72][73]), also known as magnetoelectronics, is an emerging technology that exploits both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, in solid-state devices."[74]

"This group, the dominant group, is characterized by the lowest damping and the highest coupling to the pump field".[75]


"[I]n the first case there are dominant group-group interactions and in the second case dominant group-solvent interactions."[76]


  1. The most dominant group in physics are the married male PhD's who fund themselves.

See also[edit]


  1. Philip B. Gove, ed. (1963). Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts: G. & C. Merriam Company. p. 1221. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  2. "Humanism, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. January 26, 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-28.
  3. Peter Mark Roget (1969). Lester V. Berrey and Gorton Carruth (ed.). Roget's International Thesaurus, third edition. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. p. 1258. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  4. Mariam Naqshbandi, Stewart B. Harris, James G. Esler, Fred Antwi-Nsiah (2008). "Global complication rates of type 2 diabetes in Indigenous peoples: A comprehensive review". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 82 (1): 1–17. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2008.07.017. Retrieved 2011-12-23. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Kei Nakamura (November 20, 2008). "Control of Laser Plasma Based Accelerators up to 1 GeV". Berkeley, California, USA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Retrieved 2011-12-14.
  6. "Acoustics, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-23.
  7. R. A. Belikov and V. M. Bel’kovich (2007). "Whistles of beluga whales in the reproductive gathering off Solovetskii Island in the White Sea" (PDF). Acoustical Physics. 53 (4): 528–34. doi:10.1134/S1063771007040148. Retrieved 2011-11-15. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  8. TenCate, J.A.; Muir, T.G.; Caiti, A.; Kristensen, A.; Manning, J.F.; Shooter, J.A.; Koch, R.A.; Michelozzi, E. (1995). "Beamforming on seismic interface waves with an array of geophones on the shallow sea floor". Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of. 20 (4): 300–10. doi:10.1109/48.468245. Retrieved 2011-11-28. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. Easwaran, V.; Craggs, A. (1996). "An application of acoustic finite element models to finding the reverberation times of irregular rooms". Acta Acustica united with Acustica. 82 (1): 54–64. Retrieved 2011-11-28. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. "Agrophysics, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. March 14, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-18.
  11. Agnieszka Budzynska, Elzbieta Szelag-Wasielewska (2006). "Species Richness and Spatial Heterogeneity of Spring Plankton in a Lake with Varying Morphometry". Acta Agrophysica. 7 (2): 309–16. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  12. Alicja Księżopolska, Teresa Włodarczyk, Jan Gliński (2010). "Effect of Synthetic Organomineral Complexes on the Process of Respiration of a Haplic Luvisol" (PDF). Teka Kom. Ochr. Kszt. Srod. Przyr. 7: 163–75. Retrieved 2012-01-16.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. "Applied Physics". ArticleWorld. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  14. "Applied Physics at Caltech - Overview". Caltech. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
  15. "Applied physics, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 12, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-18.
  16. R M Davies (1956). "Stress waves in solids". British Journal of Applied Physics. 7 (6): 203–9. doi:10.1088/0508-3443/7/6/302. Retrieved 2012-01-16. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  17. S. Kiravittaya, A. Rastelli and O. G. Schmidt (2006). "Photoluminescence from seeded three-dimensional InAs∕ GaAs quantum-dot crystals". Applied Physics Letters. 88 (4): 043112–4. doi:10.1063/1.2168494. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
  18. Otwin Breitenstein, Jan Bauer, Thorsten Trupke, Robert A. Bardos (2008). "On the detection of shunts in silicon solar cells by photo‐ and electroluminescence imaging" (PDF). Progress in Photovoltaics. 16 (4): 325–30. doi:10.1002/pip.803. Retrieved 2012-01-16. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. Marshallsumter (December 16, 2011). "Astrophysics, In: Wikiversity". Retrieved 2013-06-18.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Robert A. Donahue, Steven H. Saar, and Sallie L. Baliunas (1996). "A Relationship between Mean Rotation Period in Lower Main-Sequence Stars and Its Observed Range". The Astrophysical Journal. 466 (7): 384–91. Bibcode:1996ApJ...466..384D. doi:10.1086/177517. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. Jörg R Hörandel, N N Kalmykov and A V Timokhin (2006). "The end of the galactic cosmic-ray energy spectrum-a phenomenological view". Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 47 (1): 132–41. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/47/1/017. Retrieved 2011-12-31. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 Gary A. Mamon (1986). "Are compact groups of galaxies physically dense?". The Astrophysical Journal. 307 (8): 426–30. Bibcode:1986ApJ...307..426M. doi:10.1086/164431. Retrieved 2011-08-06. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  23. 23.0 23.1 U. Feldman and L. Cohen (1968). "An Iron Spark Line List in the 10-18 Å Range and its Comparison with Flare Spectra". The Astrophysical Journal. 151 (1): L55-8. Bibcode:1968ApJ...151L..55F. doi:10.1086/180140. Retrieved 2011-08-07. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  24. "Atmospheric physics, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 22, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-18.
  25. M. Indeje and F. H. M. Semazzi (2000). "Relationships Between QBO in the Lower Equatorial Stratospheric Zonal Winds and East African Seasonal Rainfall" (PDF). Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics. 73 (3–4): 227–44. doi:10.1007/s007030050075. Retrieved 2012-05-22. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  26. "atomic physics, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 16, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
  27. "Atomic physics, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 17, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
  28. H P Summers, N R Badnell, M G O'Mullane, A D Whiteford, R Bingham, B J Kellett, J Lang, K H Behringer, U Fantz, K-D Zastrow, S D Loch, M S Pindzola, D C Griffin and C P Ballance (2002). "Atomic data for modelling fusion and astrophysical plasmas". Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. 44 (12B): B323-38. doi:10.1088/0741-3335/44/12B/323. Retrieved 2013-06-19. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. "Careers in Biophysics brochure" (PDF). Biophysical Society.
  30. "Biophysics, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 10, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-18.
  31. John J. Walsh, D. A. Dieterle, W. Maslowski, T. E. Whitledge (2004). "Decadal Shifts in Biophysical Forcing of Arctic Marine Food Webs: Numerical Consequences". Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans. 109 (C5). doi:10.1029/2003JC001945. Retrieved 2012-03-07. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  32. Kenneth H. Nealson (1997). "Sediment bacteria: who's there, what are they doing, and what's new?" (PDF). Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 25: 403–34. doi:10.1146/ Retrieved 2012-03-07. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  33. John K. Wolfe, David F. Waugh (1981). "Relations between enzymatic and association reactions in the development of bovine fibrin clot structure". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 211 (1): 125–42. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(81)90438-0. Retrieved 2012-03-07. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  34. "Chemical physics, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 6, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-23.
  35. "Keldysh formalism, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 19, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-23.
  36. Joy Manners (2000). Quantum Physics: An Introduction. CRC Press. p. 53–56. ISBN 9780750307208.
  37. 37.0 37.1 "Wave packet, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 19, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-23.
  38. 38.0 38.1 Ernesto P. Danieli, Horacio M. Pastawski and Patricia R. Levstein (2004). "Spin Projection Chromatography". Chemical Physics Letters. 384 (4–6): 306–11. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2003.11.104. Retrieved 2011-09-09. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  39. "classical mechanics, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 18, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
  40. Antonino Drago (2013). Evelyne Barbin and Raffaele Pisano (ed.). The Relationship Between Physics and Mathematics in the XIXth Century: The Disregarded Birth of a Foundational Pluralism. The Dialectic Relation Between Physics and Mathematics in the XIXth Century History of Mechanism and Machine Science. 16. Springer Netherlands. pp. 159–79. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5380-8_8. ISBN 978-94-007-5379-2. Retrieved 2013-06-19. line feed character in |journal= at position 76 (help)
  41. 41.0 41.1 Serge A.R.B. Rombouts, Frederik Barkhof, Michiel Sprenger, Jaap Valk, Philip Scheltens (1996). "The functional basis of ocular dominance: functional MRI (fMRI) findings" (PDF). Neuroscience Letters. 221 (1): 1–4. PMID 9014166. Retrieved 2011-09-10. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  42. Philip L. Taylor (2002). A Quantum Approach to Condensed Matter Physics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77103-X.
  43. "Condensed matter physics, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 13, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-18.
  44. Mario Affatigato, Steve Feller, Allison K Schue, Sarah Blair, Dale Stentz, Garret B Smith, Dan Liss, Matt J Kelley, Cole Goater and Raghuvir Leelesagar (2003). "Studies of oxide glass structure using laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometry". Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 15 (31): S2323-34. doi:10.1088/0953-8984/15/31/308. Retrieved 2012-02-23. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  45. "electricity, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 1, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
  46. "electromagnetism, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 3, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
  47. "Experimental physics, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 10, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
  48. "geophysics, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. April 1, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
  49. 49.0 49.1 Paul C. Liu (1994). Efi Foufoula-Georgiou and Praveen Kumar (ed.). Wavelet Spectrum Analysis and Ocean Wind Waves, In: Wavelets in geophysics, Volume 4. San Diego, California: Academic Press. pp. 151–66. ISBN 0-12-262850-0.
  50. "gravity, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 18, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
  51. Armel Martin and François Lott (2007). "Synoptic Responses to Mountain Gravity Waves Encountering Directional Critical Levels". Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 64 (3): 828–48. doi:10.1175/JAS3873.1. Retrieved 2013-06-19. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  52. D. Pelte, O. Häusser, T. K. Alexander, H. C. Evans (1969). "Coulomb excitation of 24Mg with 35Cl ions". Canadian Journal of Physics. 47 (18): 1929–40. doi:10.1139/p69-243. Retrieved 2011-12-14. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  53. 53.0 53.1 Alan E. Williams (1997). "Stable isotope tracers: natural and anthropogenic recharge, Orange County, California" (PDF). Journal of Hydrology. 201 (1–4): 230–48. doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(97)00042-5. Retrieved 2011-12-04. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  54. Jun Xu, Yufei Ma, Lei Jia, Xiaoguang Huang, Zhimin Deng, Haiping Wang, Weisheng Liu, Yu Tang (2012). "Assembly, stabilities, and photophysical behaviors of highly efficient luminescent materials fabricated from a terbium complex doped silica/polymer hybrids". Materials Chemistry and Physics. 133 (1): 78–86. doi:10.1016/j.matchemphys.2011.12.054. Retrieved 2012-02-24. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  55. J C Ododo (1980). "Magnetic inhomogeneity of the onset of ferromagnetism in randomly disordered alloys". Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics. 10 (6): 1261. doi:10.1088/0305-4608/10/6/026. Retrieved 2012-02-24. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  56. B. Gebauer, D. Fink, P. Goppelt, M. Wilpert, Th. Wilpert (1990). "Multidimensional ERDA measurements and depth profiling of medium-heavy elements". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 50 (1–4): 159–66. doi:10.1016/0168-583X(90)90350-4. Retrieved 2012-02-23. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  57. "Particle physics, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 31, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
  58. F Giuliani (2004). "Model-independent assessment of current direct searches for spin-dependent dark matter". Physical Review Letters. 93 (16): 4. arXiv: Check |arxiv= value (help). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.161301. Retrieved 2013-06-19. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  59. Christina Hart (2002). "Framing curriculum discursively: Theoretical perspectives on the experience of VCE physics". International Journal of Science Education. 24 (10): 1055–77. Bibcode:2002IJSEd..24.1055H. doi:10.1080/09500690110098930. Retrieved 2011-11-14. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  60. N. Thompson (1979). "The assessment of candidates for degrees in physics". Studies in Higher Education. 4 (2): 169–80. doi:10.1080/03075077912331376947. Retrieved 2011-11-15.
  61. Sergei B Popov (2000). "Physics in the Soros Educational Journal" (PDF). Physics-Uspekhi. 43 (2): 211–4. doi:10.1070/PU2000v043n02ABEH000736. Retrieved 2011-12-14. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  62. Alfred Y. Wong and Robert J. Taylor (1969). "Trapped particles and echoes". Physical Review Letters. 23 (17): 958–61. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.23.958. Retrieved 2011-12-19. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  63. J. Chen, N. Nakajima, and M. Okamoto (1999). "Global mode analysis of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes in a heliotron/torsatron system: I. Mercier-unstable equilibria". Physics of Plasmas. 6 (5): 1562–74. Retrieved 2011-12-31. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  64. A. Ciattoni and C. Conti. "Quantum electromagnetic X-waves". arXiv:0704.0442v1.
  65. "X-wave, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. March 4, 2011. Retrieved 2012-06-23.
  66. "Non-linear X-wave, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. March 6, 2011. Retrieved 2012-06-23.
  67. Trull, J.; Jedrkiewicz, O.; di Trapani, P.; Matijosius, A.; Varanavicius, A.; Valiulis, G.; Danielius, R.; Kucinskas, E.; Piskarskas, A.; Trillo, S. (2004). "Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X waves" (PDF). Physical Review E. 69 (2): 1–4. Bibcode:2004PhRvE..69b6607T. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.69.026607. Retrieved 2011-09-10. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  68. Barbara Romanowicz, Debra Stakes, David Dolenc, Douglas Neuhauser, Paul McGill, Robert Uhrhammer and Tony Ramirez (2006). "The Monterey Bay broadband ocean bottom seismic observatory" (PDF). Annals of Geophysics. 49 (2/3): 607–23. Retrieved 2011-12-04. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); line feed character in |author= at position 81 (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  69. V. V. Adushkin (2001). "Yield estimation for Semipalatinsk underground nuclear explosions using seismic surface-wave observations at near-regional distances" (PDF). Pure and Applied Geophysics. 158 (11): 2217–26. doi:10.1007/PL00001146. Retrieved 2011-12-04. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  70. A R Allnatt and E L Allnatt (1980). "Point defect cluster concentrations and electrical conductivity in AgCl doped with CdCl2" (PDF). Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics. 13 (30): 5529–42. doi:10.1088/0022-3719/13/30/017. Retrieved 2011-11-28. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  71. D. Della Sala, C. Giovannella, F. Evangelisti (1984). "Study of Bonding Configurations in Amorphous GexSi1−x: H Alloys". physica status solidi b basic solid state physics. 126 (1): 125–31. doi:10.1002/pssb.2221260116. Retrieved 2012-02-24. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  72. "IBM RD 50-1, Spintronics—A retrospective and perspective".
  73. "Physics Profile: "Stu Wolf: True D! Hollywood Story"".
  74. "Spintronics, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 21, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-23.
  75. C. W. Sandweg, Y. Kajiwara, A. V. Chumak, A. A. Serga, V. I. Vasyuchka, M. B. Jungfleisch, E. Saitoh, and B. Hillebrands (2011). "Spin pumping by parametrically excited exchange magnons". Physical Review Letters. 106 (21): 1–5. Bibcode:2011PhRvL.106u6601S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.216601. Retrieved 2011-09-10. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  76. S. S. Davis (1973). "Determination of thermodynamics of halogen groups in solutions of drug molecules". Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 25 (10): 769–78. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7158.1973.tb09940.x. Retrieved 2011-12-14. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

{{Radiation astronomy resources}}

{{Geology resources}}{{Terminology resources}}