Dominant group/Materials science

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Here in this specimen of Tilly material clinochlore is definitely the dominant species with this freestanding crystal. Credit: Rob Lavinsky, iRocks.com.

"Materials science is studying the substances and their properties that make them useful in structures, machines, tools, devices, or products.

Dominant group[edit]

  1. Accident hypothesis: dominant group is an accident of whatever processes are operating.
  2. Artifact hypothesis: dominant group may be an artifact of human endeavor or may have preceded humanity.
  3. Association hypothesis: dominant group is associated in some way with the original research.
  4. Bad group hypothesis: dominant group is the group that engages in discrimination, abuse, punishment, and additional criminal activity against other groups. It often has an unfair advantage and uses it to express monopolistic practices.
  5. Control group hypothesis: there is a control group that can be used to study dominant group.
  6. Entity hypothesis: dominant group is an entity within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  7. Evolution hypothesis: dominant group is a product of evolutionary processes, such groups are the evolutionary process, produce evolutionary processes, or are independent of evolutionary processes.
  8. Identifier hypothesis: dominant group is an identifier used by primary source authors of original research to identify an observation in the process of analysis.
  9. Importance hypothesis: dominant group signifies original research results that usually need to be explained by theory and interpretation of experiments.
  10. Indicator hypothesis: dominant group may be an indicator of something as yet not understood by the primary author of original research.
  11. Influence hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article containing original research to indicate influence or an influential phenomenon.
  12. Interest hypothesis: dominant group is a theoretical entity used by scholarly authors of primary sources for phenomena of interest.
  13. Metadefinition hypothesis: all uses of dominant group by all primary source authors of original research are included in the metadefinition for dominant group.
  14. Null hypothesis: there is no significant or special meaning of dominant group in any sentence or figure caption in any refereed journal article.
  15. Object hypothesis: dominant group is an object within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  16. Obvious hypothesis: the only meaning of dominant group is the one found in Mosby's Medical Dictionary.
  17. Original research hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article by the author to indicate that the article contains original research.
  18. Primordial hypothesis: dominant group is a primordial concept inherent to humans such that every language or other form of communication no matter how old or whether extinct, on the verge of extinction, or not, has at least a synonym for dominant group.
  19. Purpose hypothesis: dominant group is written into articles by authors for a purpose.
  20. Regional hypothesis: dominant group, when it occurs, is only a manifestation of the limitations within a region. Variation of those limitations may result in the loss of a dominant group with the eventual appearance of a new one or none at all.
  21. Source hypothesis: dominant group is a source within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  22. Term hypothesis: dominant group is a significant term that may require a 'rigorous definition' or application and verification of an empirical definition.

Examples from primary sources are to be used to prove or disprove each hypothesis. These can be collected per subject or in general.

Chemicals[edit]

This piece of reedmergnerite is from Darai-Pioz Glacier, Alayskiy Range, Tien Shan Mts, Tajikistan. Credit: Dakota Matrix.

On the right is an image of a specimen of the tektosilicate reedmergnerite from Darai-Pioz Glacier, Alayskiy Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Tajikistan. Its formula is NaBSi3O8. It has an albite structural type of a plagioclase feldspar with boron replacing aluminum.

For the "reedmergnerite unit, BSi4O10 ... The spectra showed small amounts of it, and we saw no evidence of fragmentation (i.e., no corresponding smaller fragments that would appear to be constituents). Thus, it does not appear to be the dominant group in the glass network. ... The borate association remains dominant, however, even as we increase the soda content."[1]

Alloys[edit]

This is a close-up of a sphere of titanium-zirconium-nickel alloy melted by laser inside the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber. Credit: NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

"The dominant group of Al–Si foundry alloys contain between 5 and 25 wt.% Si, with Mg, Ni and Cu additions."[2]

"There is in reality a distribution of magnetic cluster sizes although the smallest magnetic clusters will constitute the dominant group."[3]

"From the above results we can see that the industry group metal alloys (33) is the dominant group in terms of number of employees, fixed capital and value added."[4]

"The dominant group is (SiGe)SiH, at T, = 190 "C and is replaced by (Ge,)SiH, at T, = 250 "C."[5]

Materials[edit]

Notation: let PE stand for polyethylene plastics.

There "is a dominant group (PE) that is still growing on the market. ... Pilot-scale composting tests are also suitable instruments for investigating any negative effects of the test materials on the composting process if sufficient test material is introduced."[6]

Materials sciences[edit]

In materials science, the cultural or technical term dominant group may be an artifact, an evolutionary process, or only an entity.

Def. "[m]atter which may be shaped or manipulated"[7] is called a material.

Def. "[a] region within a material having a single crystal structure or direction"[8] is called a grain.

Def. the "study of materials; their internal structures, properties and modes of failure"[9] is called materials science.

Def. an understanding of the nature of substances whose properties make them useful in structures, machines, devices, or products, leading to theories or descriptions that explain how structure relates to composition, properties, and behavior is called materials science.

Ceramics[edit]

The photograph shows a Chinese sancai sherd from the 9th to 10th century found in Samarra. Credit: PHGCOM.

Def. any nonmetallic solid that remains hard when heated is called a ceramic.

"The typology of the lustre ceramics shows that there is a small group (G1 = MZ2 + MZ6 + MZ12) with red lustre decoration on the interior and green-yellow lustre decoration on the exterior and a dominant group (G2) with yellowish lustre on both sides (Table 1)."[10]

"The different settlement ceramic assemblages present dominant technical sub-groups, which are different in aspect from one site to another (tab. 3). ... The ceramic entity A is characterised, from a technical and techno-petrographic point of view, by a discontinuity between one or two dominant sub-groups (quantitatively major) and a few satellite sub-groups (quantitatively minor). Ceramic entity B, on the contrary, shows a petrographic continuity with the dominant sub-groups A."[11]

Composites[edit]

The image shows a wood-plastic composite, a type of engineered wood. Credit: VarunRajendran.

"Both of the emission spectra present the characteristic emission bands originating from the transition 5 D 4 → 7 F J (J = 6,5,4,3), with the transition 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 green emission as the dominant group."[12]

"Both of the emission spectra present the characteristic emission bands originating from the transition 5 D 4 → 7 F J (J=6,5,4,3), with the transition 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 green emission as the dominant group."[13]

"Both of the emission spectra exhibit the characteristic emission of Tb3+ arising from the transition 5 D 4 → 7 F J (J = 6, 5, 4, 3), with the transition 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 green emission as the dominant group."[14]

"Also, the characteristic emission bands originating from the transition 5 D 4 → 7 F J (J = 6, 5, 4, 3), with the transition 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 green emission as the dominant group are observed in the emission spectra of the pure Tb(III) complex (Tb-L) and the hybrid materials as shown".[15]

"The ω-hydroxymonocarboxylates represented the dominant group with a contribution higher than one quarter of the total."[16]

Crystals[edit]

Def. "[a] solid composed of an array of atoms or molecules possessing long-range order and arranged in a pattern which is periodic in three dimensions", from Wiktionary crystal, is called a crystal.

“The dominant group V source is arsenic, although antimony and phosphorous sources are not atypical.”[17]

“We may assume, however, as has been suggested by Dunning (see the discussion in ref. 32) that these macrospirals are the result of a periodic perturbation due to an interaction of the spirals forming the dominant group of cooperating spirals.”[18]

Diamonds[edit]

"For as-deposited diamond, C---H is the dominant group on the hydrogen-terminated surfaces, and it has been found that ---OH [23] and C=O groups [24] are in fact generated on oxidized diamond surfaces."[19]

Dielectrics[edit]

"Our theory applies to parameters (to be identified below) for which the second group is dominant, allowing for the third group, labeled ψrem (mnemonic remainder) to be neglected in the calculation of the saddle-points."[20] "The dominance requirement constrains the remaining (first and third) terms of ψrem to be significantly smaller than the terms of the second group along the contour of integration. Since the two terms of the dominant group have comparable magnitudes, it suffices to make the comparison with only the second term in the dominant group."[20]

"Such work indicated that group III interdiffusion in InGaAs/InP is associated with a redshift, while a blueshift is associated with a dominant group V interdiffusion."[21]

"Hence we refer to this dominantly amplified magnon group as the dominant group."[22]

Fibers[edit]

"For example, As2 and P2 can sometimes be the dominant group V species in contrast to the equilibrium calculation, and, in addition, several kinds of internal compound between As and P are found."[23]

"Nearly 90% of L, in the "as-grown" ribbons belongs to class B and class C, with class B being the predominant group (Fig. 3a)."[24]

"Free fatty acids were the most dominant group of lipids in rice straw extract and the second most abundant class of lipophilic substances in rye straw extractives."[25]

Glasses[edit]

Notation: let the symbol KREEP be an acronym for potassium (the chemical symbol is K), rare earth element (REE), and phosphorus (chemical symbol is P).

"Because KREEP glasses are the dominant group at the Fra Mauro sampling site and because the Fra Mauro formation is considered part of the Imbrian ejecta blanket, KREEP basalts appear to have been part of the lunar crust prior to formation of the Imbrium Basin."[26] Bold added.

"This likely is the result of the fact that the six-membered ring group becomes the dominant structural group in the vicinity of x = 0.5, whereas the tetrahedral boron group is becoming the least prominent structural group in the glass."[27]

"In the other series of glasses, Li, Na, and K, in particular, that can be formed out to x = 0.75, the IR spectra clearly show that this structural group becomes the dominant group in the glass at this composition [4,5,43]."[27]

"Thus, it does not appear to be the dominant group in the glass network."[1]

Martensites[edit]

“In Section 3, we use group theory to present the system description of the microstructure of 2H martensite, including the correspondence variant dominant group.”[28]

“The dominant group always consisted of four habit-plane variants grouped round a particular {llO} pole of the austenite, except in the case of the crystal with compression axis close to [001] which developed only two habit planes.”[29]

Metals[edit]

Regarding the straggling of alpha particles in metal foils, "the Bi'" and Am'" sources each have two closely spaced alpha-particle groups and the Pu'" source has three such groups, it was found that the resolution obtained with the apparatus enabled one to obtain the location of the dominant group in each source with great accuracy."[30]

Metallurgy[edit]

"Then, metallurgical reactions occur between the fuel slug and the cladding. ... Lanthanide elements, a dominant group of fission products, will be less significant because the solubility of lanthanide elements in the U—Pu—Zr alloys is limited (~O.6 wt% or less)(9) and the eutectic point in the binary system of any lanthanide element and Fe is higher than that in the Pu—Fe system"[31].

Nanomaterials[edit]

“Mesopores were still the dominant group of pores for all derivatives, as confirmed by the good agreement between the values of V tot and V mp D.”[32]

Piezoelectrics[edit]

Notation: let the symbol PZT stand for lead zirconate titanate (Pb[ZrxTi1-x]O3, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1).

“Among [the] variety of piezoelectric materials, PZTs have been the dominant group for more than 40 years for their excellent properties.”[33]

Plastics[edit]

Plastics also refers to polymers.

Notation: let the symbol PE stand for polyethylene.

"Finally, there is a dominant group (PE) that is still growing on the market."[6]

"The first class consists of polymers such as cellulose (cotton, wood, etc.) and protein (gelatine, wool, etc.), while the dominant group in the second class is rubber, both synthetic and natural."[34]

Precious metals[edit]

"The alluvial sample shows multiple populations that reflect all the samples collected at the mine, a dominant group which corresponds to the mine shaking table gold, and a minor population with higher silver which is similar to that shown by the soil sample."[35]

Sands[edit]

"The behavior of some sandy soils is conditioned by a dominant group of pores larger than 1.5 µ."[36]

"The dominant group in which the median grain-size falls is indicated (M: mud; FS: fine sand; MS: medium sand) as well as the number of observations in that group (based on sedisurf@database, Gent University, Renard Centre of Marine Geology)."[37]

"In the hypersthene dominant group the hornblende content does not exceed 20 vol.%."[38]

Semiconductors[edit]

Notation: let the symbol CP indicate band structure critical points.

"The dominant group speed of a carrier can be estimated to occur at the energy, above or below the CP where is the reduced effective mass and is Planck's constant."[39] "The largest of the resulting fragments from the break-up of the prior dominant group is a cluster of eight papers dealing almost exclusively with n-type semiconductors, with papers originating primarily from two research labs."[40]

Degradation of "Id-Vd characteristics before and after stressing for (a) the charge-trapping-dominant (group Í) and (b) the interface-trap- generation dominant (group 2) devices. Note the similar degradation characteristics for electron and hoie trappings."[41]

Stones[edit]

"Although calcitic marbles represent the dominant group in the studied rocks, dolomitic marbles are also present (Raspenava marble, Strážné marble, Bílá Voda marble, Bohdaneč marble, Český Šternberk marble)."[42]

Superconductors[edit]

Notation: let the symbol dmit indicate the 2-thioxo-1,3-dithiole-4,5-dithiolate dianion, C3S52-.

"Various crystals, and consequently various conductivities, can be obtained by using different monocations in the 1:2 salts of Z[Ni(dmit)2]2, which form the most dominant group in the Z[M(dmit)2]n family."[43] Bold added.

Notation: let the symbol ERDA stand for elastic recoil detection analysis.

"The dominant group in the lower half results from the first oxygen-bearing layer in the Si02(0.5 pm)/Al(0.5 pm)/Si02(0.5 pm)/Al(2.0 pm) target stack."[44]

Notation: let the symbol TN (or TN) stand for the Néel transition temperature.

"Below TN, the description of the experimental data requires at least a twoband picture with a dominant group of electrons showing standard BCS-Eliashberg-type behavior with a clear single gap whereas a second group of electrons dominates κ(T,H)."[45] Bold added.

Woods[edit]

"The mean ratio of crown width to sapling height (DrIh) was significantly greater for the suppressed saplings than for the apically dominant group (t = 2.78, df= 18, P < .02) (Table 5), and DrIh was negatively correlated with h for the combined data set (r = -0.76, N = 20, P < .001)."[46]

Notation: let the symbol CWH stand for capillary water height.

"There was a significant difference in CWH for sapwood, between specimens from "wet dominant" group and specimens from both "dry suppressed" and "dry dominant" group during absorption for 7 days and 14-15 days."[47]

"The analysis of the the obtained results concerning the selected wood physical and mechanical properties of both pine species (Tables from 2 to 5) showed that the examined wood properties were higher, generally speaking, in the black pine trees in comparison with the Scots pine, with the exception of the co-dominant group of trees in the first of the two pine tree species."[48]

Hypotheses[edit]

  1. As each material is usually best suited for certain uses, each can be a dominant group within these uses.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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