Hydrology

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Rain near the village Lunde, The north of Funen, Denmark.

Hydrology is a science concerned with the properties of the Earth's water, especially its movement in relation to land.

The science of hydrology is also being applied to astronomical objects that contain water in various forms. For students interested in off-world water, several lectures have been included.

More appropriately, hydrology directly applied to the Earth may be called geohydrology.

Content summary[edit]

Hydrology is the study of the water cycle. Natural and man-made processes guide water in its varied forms to a variety of ends. Use as irrigation, drinking water and process water by man is very common.

Def. "hydrology as used in the processing of radioactive materials"[1] is called radiohydrology.

Def. the "study of the ecological processes associated with hydrology"[2] is called ecohydrology.

Def. "the science that uses dendrochronology to investigate and reconstruct hydrologic processes, such as river flow and past lake levels"[3] is called dendrohydrology.

Theoretical hydrology[edit]

Def. the "science of the properties, distribution, and effects of water on a planet's surface, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere"[4] is called hydrology.

Learning Materials[edit]

Lectures[edit]

Texts[edit]

Hydrology Lessons[edit]

Diffusion[edit]

For a source contaminant concentration \ C_0 entering a flow of velocity  \vec U at a distance \ x upstream from a point, the downstream concentration \ C at that point is determined by the ratio...

 \frac{C}{C_0} = e^{\frac{x*\vec U}{D}}

Where... \ D is the local dispersion coefficient determined by \ D = 0.067 * depth * V_f

and where friction velocity is V_f = \sqrt{g*depth*ChannelSlope}

Velocity Distribution in an Open Channel (River)[edit]

Velocity distribution within a river follows a standard velocity profile for a confined space (pipe-flow)with the exception that the vertical distribution is truncated at the surface due to reduced friction with atmospheric gases versus the high friction against riverbed materials.

Boundary Layer thickness, also known as the displacement thickness, is defined by:

 \delta_d = \int_0^H \frac{1}{H} \left( 1-\frac{\vec u}{\vec U} \right) dz

where  \vec U is the average velocity and  \vec u(x) is the velocity distribution in a channel of uniform depth \ H.

 \bar U = \frac{\int_A \left( \rho \vec V \cdot \hat n \right) dA}{\rho A}

So in the case of this river, where the current is always normal to the cross-sectional area of the river (idealized)...

 \bar U = \frac{\int_x \int_y \left( \rho \vec V \right) dydx}{\rho A}

Assignments[edit]

Activities:[edit]

Readings:[edit]

  • ...

Study guide:[edit]

  • Physical Properties of the Oceans
  1. Wikipedia article:Temperature
  2. Wikipedia article:Density

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. SemperBlotto (7 December 2006). "radiohydrology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-21. 
  2. SemperBlotto (28 February 2009). "ecohydrology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-21. 
  3. SemperBlotto (25 October 2005). "dendrohydrology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-21. 
  4. SemperBlotto (27 February 2005). "hydrology, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-21. 

External links[edit]

Additional helpful readings include: