Geochronology/Precambrian

From Wikiversity
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Def. "the time and geology dated before the Phanerozoic"[1] or the "eon (or supereon) and rock formations dated before 541.0±1.0 million years ago, coinciding with the first appearance of the fossils of hard-shelled animals"[1] is called the Precambrian.

Usage notes

The International Commission on Stratigraphy, which attempts to standardize the vocabulary of the field, is revising the boundaries between time periods based on physical-science methods rather than the kinds of fossils present.[1]

The boundary between the Precambrian and the Phanerozoic has been changed from time to time and will be subject to change.[1]

Periods[edit | edit source]

Precambrian
Name (English)[2] base/start (Ma)[3] top/end (Ma)[3] status subdivision of usage named after author, year
Adelaidean 1,300 542 age Proterozoic Australia Adelaide
Aimchanian 1100 age Proterozoic Siberia
Algonkian 543 age Proterozoic international Algonquian native peoples of Canada
Amazonian ~1,800 present Martian epoch Martian epoch Mars Amazonis Planitia
Animikean 2,225 1,400 age Proterozoic North America (obsolete)
Aphebian 2500 1600 age Proterozoic North America
Archean none 2,500 eon Precambrian ICS
Azoic eon Precambrian
Baikalian 850 650 age Proterozoic Siberia Lake Baikal
Basin Groups 1-9 4,150 3,850 subperiod Prenectarium Moon (unofficial) groups of impact basins
Brioverian ~680 ~600 age Neoproterozoic Armorican Massif, France
Burzyan 1,400 1,375 age Proterozoic Russia
Calymmian 1,600 1,400 period Proterozoic ICS
Carpentarian 1,800 1,300 age Proterozoic Australia Gulf of Carpentaria
Cryogenian 850 635.5 ± 1.2[4] period Proterozoic ICS frozen beginning
Cryptic 4,567 4,150 epoch Prenectarian Moon (unofficial) hidden
Early Imbrian 3850 3800 period Moon Mare Imbrium
Ectasian 1,400 1,200 period Proterozoic ICS
Ediacaran 635.5 ± 1.2[4] 542.0 ± 1.0 period Proterozoic ICS Ediacara Hills (Australia)
Eoarchean none 3.600 era Archean ICS
Eratosthenian 3,200 1,100 period Moon Eratosthenes
Fupingan 3,100 2,600 age Archaean China
Hadean none 4000 eon Precambrian ICS Hades, hell Cloud, 1972
Hadrynian 850 542 age Neoproterozoic North America
Helikian 1,600 850 age Proterozoic North America
Hesperian ~3,500 ~1,800 Martian epoch Mars Hesperia Planum
Huronian 2,500 1,400 age Proterozoic worldwide (obsolete)
Imbrian 3,850 3,200 period Moon Mare Imbrium
Isuan 3,800 3,500 age Archaean Europe
Jinningian 1,750 800 age Proterozoic China
Karatau 1,100 800 age Proterozoic Russia
Luliangian 2,350 1,750 age Proterozoic China
Mayanan 1100 850 age Proterozoic Siberia
Mesoarchean 3,200 2,800 era Archean ICS
Mesoproterozoic 1,600 1,000 era Proterozoic ICS
Mokolian 2,050 900 age Proterozoic South Africa
Namibian 900 542 age Neoproterozoic South Africa Namibia
Nectarian 3920 3850 period Moon Mare Nectaris
Neoarchean 2,800 2,500 era Archean ICS
Neoproterozoic 1,000 542.0 ± 1.0 era ICS
Noachian none ~3,500 Martian epoch Mars Noachis Terra
Nullaginian 2,500 1,800 age Proterozoic Australia
Orosirian 2,050 1,800 period Proterozoic ICS
Paleoarchean 3,600 3,200 era Archean ICS
Paleoproterozoic 2,500 1,600 era Proterozoic ICS
Precambrian none 542.0 ± 1.0 none (before: eon) worldwide before the Cambrian
Prenectarian 4567 3850 period Moon before the Nectarian
Proterozoic 2,500 542.0 ± 1.0 eon ICS
Randian 3,000 2,500 age Archaean South Africa
Rhyacian 2,300 2,050 period Proterozoic ICS
Riphean 1,650 650 age Proterozoic worldwide (obsolete)
Siderian 2,500 2,300 period Proterozoic ICS
Sinian 800 542 age Neoproterozoic China
Statherian 1,800 1,600 period Proterozoic ICS
Stenian 1,200 1,000 period Proterozoic ICS
Sturtian ~730 age Neoproterozoic worldwide, unofficial
Swazian 4,000 3,000 age Archaean South Africa
Tonian 1,000 850 period Proterozoic ICS
Vaalian 2,500 2,050 age Proterozoic South Africa
Vendian ~610 542.0 ± 1.0 subera Proterozoic worldwide (obsolete)
Wutaian 2,600 2,350 age Archaean-Proterozoic China
Yurmatian 1,375 1,100 age Proterozoic Russia

Proterozoic[edit | edit source]

Def. "the eon from 2,500 Ma to 541.0±1.0 Ma, the beginning of the Phanerozoic, marked by the build up of oxygen in the atmosphere and the emergence of primitive multicellular life"[5] is called the Proterozoic.

Upper Adelaidean[edit | edit source]

Early Adelaidean stratigraphic column of Umberatana and Wilpena Groups show locations of ages. Credit: K.H. Mahan, B.P. Wernicke, and M.J. Jercinovic.

The Adelaidean appears to encompass the Delamerian Granites and the Adelaide Rift Complex.

"The deposits include the type sections for the often globally correlated Sturtian and Marinoan glacial sequences (e.g., Preiss, 2000) and the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the newly defined Ediacaran Period (Knoll et al., 2004)."[6]

The later Adelaidean includes the Burra and Caliana Groups.[6]

Neoproterozoic[edit | edit source]

Def. "a geologic era within the Proterozoic eon; comprises the Tonian, Cryogenian and Ediacaran periods from about 1000 to 544 million years ago, when algae and sponges flourished"[7] is called the Neoproterozoic.

Ediacaran[edit | edit source]

Amongst the depositional sequences of the Ediacaran and Cambrian is the Ediacaran base GSSP. Credit: James G. Gehling and Mary L. Droser.
The 'golden spike' (bronze disk in the lower section of the image) or 'type section' of the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Ediacaran System. Credit: Peter Neaum.
The 'golden spike' marks the GSSP. Credit: Bahudhara.

"In the central Flinders Ranges the 4.5 km thick Umberatana Group encompasses the two main phases of glacial deposition (see Thomas et al., 2012). The carbonaceous, calcareous and pyritic Tindelpina Shale Member, of the interglacial Tapley Hill Formation, caps the Fe-rich diamictite and tillite formations of the Sturt glaciation. The upper Cryogenian glacials of the Elatina Formation are truncated by the Nuccaleena Formation at the base of the Wilpena Group and the Ediacaran System."[8]

"In 2004, the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the terminal Proterozoic was placed near the base of the Nuccaleena Formation in Enorama Creek in the central Flinders Ranges [in the image on the right], thus establishing the Ediacaran System and Period (Knoll et al., 2006). As the Nuccaleena Formation has not been accurately dated, a date of c. 635 Ma from near-correlative levels in Namibia and China is presumed for the base of the Ediacaran (Hoffmann et al., 2004; Condon et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2005)."[8]

Def. "a geologic period within the Neoproterozoic era from about 620 to 542 million years ago"[9] is called the Ediacaran.

Gucheng[edit | edit source]

The Gucheng is apparently comparable to the Marinoan.

Jiangkou[edit | edit source]

The Jiangkou spans the Chang'an through the Gucheng.

Chang'an[edit | edit source]

The Chang'an occurred about 715.9 ± 2.8 Ma.

Numees[edit | edit source]

The Numees has a Sturtian age.

Tereeken[edit | edit source]

The Tereeken occurred < 727 ± 8 Ma.

Port Nolloth[edit | edit source]

The Port Nolloth extends from the Kaigas formation upwards to the Murmees.

Kaigas formation[edit | edit source]

The Kaigas glaciation was a hypothesized snowball earth event in the Neoproterozoic Era, preceding the Sturtian glaciation inferred based on the interpretation of Kaigas Formation conglomerates in the stratigraphy overlying the Kalahari Craton as correlative with pre-Sturtian Numees formation glacial diamictites;[10] however, the Kaigas formation was later determined to be non-glacial, and a Sturtian age was assigned to the Numees diamictites.[11]

Vendian[edit | edit source]

The Vendian occurred about 740 Ma.

The Vendian concept was formed stratigraphically top-down, and the lower boundary of the Cambrian became the upper boundary of the Vendian.[12][13]

Paleontological substantiation of this boundary was worked out separately for the siliciclastic basin (base of the Baltic Stage of the Eastern European Platform[14]) and for the carbonate basin (base of the Tommotian Stage of the Siberian Platform).[15] The lower boundary of the Vendian was suggested to be defined at the base of the Varanger (Laplandian) tillites.[13][16]

The Vendian in its type area consists of large subdivisions such as Laplandian, Redkino, Kotlin and Rovno Regional stages with the globally traceable subdivisions and their boundaries, including its lower one.

The Redkino, Kotlin and Rovno regional stages have been substantiated in the type area of the Vendian on the basis of the abundant organic-walled microfossils, megascopic algae, metazoan body fossils and ichnofossils.[13][17]

The lower boundary of the Vendian could have a biostratigraphic substantiation as well taking into consideration the worldwide occurrence of the Pertatataka assemblage of giant acanthomorph acritarchs.[16]

Kundelungu[edit | edit source]

The Kundelungu is dated to 765 ± 5 Ma.

Sinian[edit | edit source]

The Sinian spans approximately 800 to 542 Ma.

Hadrynian[edit | edit source]

The Hadrynian (North America) spans 850 to 542 Ma.[18]

Namibian[edit | edit source]

The Namibian (South Africa) spans 900 to 542 Ma.[18]

Mesoproterozoic[edit | edit source]

Def. "a geologic era within the Proterozoic eon; comprises the Calymmian, Ectasian and Stennian periods from about 1600 to 900 million years ago, when the Rodinia supercontinent was formed"[19] is called the Mesoproterozoic.

Tonian[edit | edit source]

The Tonian spans 1000 to 850 Ma.[20][18]

The first putative metazoans (animal) fossils dated to the late Tonian (c. 800 Mya), e.g., the Otavia antiqua, which has been described as a sponge, where dating is consistent with molecular data recovered through genetic studies on modern metazoan species; more recent studies have concluded that the base of the animal phylogenetic tree is in the Tonian.[21]

Def. "a geologic period within the Neoproterozoic era from about 1000 to 850 million years ago"[22] is called the Tonian.

Karatau[edit | edit source]

The Karatau spans 1100 to 800 Ma.[18]

Stenian[edit | edit source]

The Stenian spans 1200 to 1000 Ma.[18]

Def. the "final geologic period in the Mesoproterozoic Era, from 1200 million to 1000 million years ago"[23] is called the Stenian.

The "Mount John Shale Member of the overlying Wade Creek Sandstone has been dated (Rb/Sr method) at 1.128±0.1 × 109 yr BP1."[24]

Adelaidean[edit | edit source]

The Adelaidean (Australia) spans 1300 to 542 Ma.[18]

Ectasian[edit | edit source]

Def. "a geologic period within the Mesoproterozoic era from about 1400 to 1200 million years ago"[25] is called the Ectasian.

Calymmian[edit | edit source]

Def. "a geologic period within the Mesoproterozoic era from about 1600 to 1400 million years ago"[26] is called the Calymmian.

Helikian[edit | edit source]

The Helikian (North America) spans 1600 to 850 Ma.[18]

Paleoproterozoic[edit | edit source]

Def. "a geologic era within the Proterozoic eon; comprises the Siderian, Rhyacian, Orosirian and Statherian periods from about 2500 to 1600 million years ago, when cyanobacteria increased the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere and changed life on Earth for ever"[27] is called the Paleoproterozoic.

Compilation of the reported Palaeoproterozoic diamictite units in the world[28]
Continent Name or strata Geography or locality Age (Ma) References
N. America Gowganda Fm., Cobalt Gp., Huronian SGp. 45°40′–48°40′ N, 79°–85° W; Ontario, Canada 2450–2217.5 Krogh et al. (1984), Andrews et al. (1986)
N. America Bruce Fm., Quirke Lake Gp., Huronian SGp. 45°40′–48°40′ N, 79°–85° W; Ontario, Canada 2450–2217.5 Krogh et al. (1984), Andrews et al. (1986)
N. America Ramsay Lake Fm., Hough Lake Gp., Huronian SGp. 45°40′–48°40′ N, 79°–85° W; Ontario, Canada 2450–2217.5 Krogh et al. (1984); Andrews et al. (1986)
N. America Chibougamau Fm. 49°40′–50°15′ N, 74°40′–73°50′ W; Quebec, Canada 2500–1800 Frakes (1979), Hambrey and Harland (1981)
N. America Padlei Fm., Hurwitz Gp. 61°–62°30′ N, 95°–99° W; Northwest Territories, Canada 2300–2100 Frakes (1979), Hambrey and Harland (1981)
N. America Northern Black Hills 43°50′–44°07′ N, 103°20′–103°45′ W; South Dakota, USA 2559–1870 Dahl et al. (1999)
N. America Bottle Creek, Singer Peak Fm., Snowy Pass Gp. Snowy Pass Group, Sierra Madre Mountains, Wyoming, USA <2450 Frakes (1979), Hambrey and Harland (1981)
N. America Headquarters Fm., Lower Libby Creek Gr., Snowy Pass SGp. 41°–41°30′ N, 107°15′–106°15′ W, Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming, USA 2451–2000 Premo and Van Schmus (1989), Cox et al. (2000)
N. America Vagner Fm., Deep Lake Gp., Snowy Pass SGp. 41°–41°30′ N, 107°15′–106°15′ W, Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming, USA 2451–2000 Premo and Van Schmus (1989), Cox et al. (2000)
N. America Campbell Lake Fm, Deep Lake Gr., Snowy Pass SGp. 41°–41°30′ N, 107°15′–106°15′ W, Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming, USA <2451 ± 9 Premo and Van Schmus (1989)
N. America Fem Creek Fm., Chocolay Gp., Marquette Range SGp. Menominee and Iron River–Crystal Falls Ranges, Amasa Uplift, WI and MI, USA 2302–2115 Bekker et al. (2006), Vallini et al. (2006)
N. America Enchantment Lake Fm., Chocolay Gp., Marquette Range SGp. 45°49′–46°30′ N, 87°30′–88°05′ W; Marquette Trough, Upper Peninsula Michigan, USA 2288–2131 Bekker et al. (2006), Vallini et al. (2006)
Africa Witwatersrand SGp. South Africa 2600–2300 Frakes, 1979; Hambrey and Harland, 1981
Africa Makganyene Diamictite, Postmasburg Group 28°47′ S, 23°15′ E; Griqualand West Basin, South Africa 2415–2222 Cornell et al. (1996), Gutzmer and Beukes (1998), Bau et al. (1999)
Africa Boshoek Fm, Lower Pretoria Group, Transvaal SGp. 25°50′ S, 28°25′ E; Transvaal Basin, South Africa 2316–2249 Dorland (2004), Hannah et al. (2004)
Africa Duitschland Fm, Lower Pretoria Group, Transvaal SGp. 25°50′ S, 28°25′ E; Transvaal Basin, South Africa 2480–2316 Pickard (2003), Hannah et al. (2004)
Australia Meteorite Bore Mb., Turee Creek Group 22°55′ S, 117° E; Hamersley basin, Western Australia 2209–2449 Barley et al. (1997), Trendall et al. (1998), Pickard (2002)
Antarctica Widdalen Fm. 71°51′ S, 2°43′ W or 71°05′ S, 2°21′ W >1700 Frakes (1979), Hambrey and Harland (1981)
Asia Gangau tillites 79°07′–79°55′ E, 24°20′–24°40′ N; Central India 2600–1850 Frakes (1979), Hambrey and Harland (1981)
Asia Sanverdam tillites 74°50′–73°10′ E, 15°30′–15°05′ N; South India 2600–2200 Frakes (1979), Hambrey and Harland (1981)
Europe Sakukan tillites Baikal, Russia 2640–1950 Melezhik and Fallick (1996), Melezhik et al. (1997b)
Europe Lammos tillites 68° N, 30° E; Kola Peninsula, Russia >1900 Melezhik and Fallick (1996), Melezhik et al. (1997b)
Europe Partanen tillites Southern Karelia, Russia 2150–1900 Melezhik and Fallick (1996), Melezhik et al. (1997b)
Europe Sarioli tillites, Karelian Sgp. Eastern Baltic Shield, Russia 2455–2180 Melezhik and Fallick (1996), Melezhik et al. (1997b)

Jinningian[edit | edit source]

The Jinningian (China) spans 1750 to 800 Ma.[18]

Carpentarian[edit | edit source]

View shows the diabase and gabbro dykes in the Koster Islands, Sweden. Credit: Svante Hultengren.

The Carpentarian spans 1800 to 1300 Ma.

"The 1400 to 1500 My old Kombolgie Formation [Carpentarian] of the MacArthur Basin of the Northern Territory overlies or has overlain unconformity-type uranium deposits".[29]

"A study of clay minerals isolated from carbonate rocks of the McMinn Formation provides an isochron age of 1429 ± 31 Ma and thus the age for cessation of the Proterozoic McArthur basin sedimentation."[30]

"A second sequence of measurements on a homogeneous dolomite siltstone ca. 23 km southeast of the McArthur River (H.Y.C.) Pb-Zn deposits yields an Rb-Sr age of 1537 ± 52 Ma for the Upper Barney Creek Formation in broad agreement with recent age determinations on feldspar beds of this horizon."[30]

The "sediments in the McArthur basin (the type locality of the Carpentarian) were deposited between 1800-1400 Ma."[30]

The "microflora of blue-green and green or red algal affinities is from chertified stromatolitic dolomites of the Bungle Bungle Dolomite which outcrops in the Osmond Range of Western Australia."[24]

The Bungle Bungle Dolomite [at least 1.3 km of dolomite, dolomitic shales, shales and sandstones] is considerably [older] and that an age of about 1.5×109 yr for the microbiota [...] is consistent with the data available."[24]

Radiometric dating has shown that the Kattsund-Koster dyke swarm is about 1421 million years old and the dyke swarm may be related to extensional tectonics.[31]

In the image on the right, the oldest rock is a gray sediment gneiss that was deformed, heated, and partly melted about 1,560 million years ago in the Gothic mountain range (no melted fragments visible in the rock). In its final phase, a gabbromagma penetrated, a mixed rock formed; rounded balls of dark gabbro in light gray gneiss, or bright networks of molten sediment gneiss in the gabbro. A younger gray-white pegmatite passes through the mixed rock at the lighthouses. Walks of the even younger black Koster diabase cut through all rocks.[31]

Statherian[edit | edit source]

Def. "a geologic period within the Paleoproterozoic era from about 1800 to 1600 million years ago"[32] is called the Statherian.

Orosirian[edit | edit source]

Vredefort crater, seen from space by STS-51-I, is believed to have formed in the Orosirian period. Credit: Júlio Reis.{{free media}}

Def. "a geologic period within the Paleoproterozoic era from about 2050 to 1800 million years ago"[33] is called the Orosirian.

The "isotope geochemistry of sulfate minerals from the Belcher Group, in subarctic Canada, [...] record ambient sulfate in the immediate aftermath of the GOE (ca. 2,018 Ma). These sulfate minerals captured negative triple-oxygen isotope anomalies as low as ∼ −0.8‰. Such negative values occurring shortly after the [Great Oxidation Event (ca. 2,400 to 2,050 Ma)] GOE require a rapid reduction in primary productivity of >80%, although even larger reductions are plausible. [...] A geologically unprecedented reduction in the size of the biosphere occurred across the end-GOE transition."[34]

On the right is an image of the Vredefort crater, located at 27°0'0"S 27°30'0"E, the largest verified impact crater on Earth, more than 300 kilometres (190 mi) across when it was formed.[35][36]

Mokolian[edit | edit source]

The Mokolian (South Africa) spans 2050 to 900 Ma.[18]

"Currently only two precisely dated Precambrian-age impact structures are known, the 2023 ± 4 Ma, >250 km Vredefort Dome in South Africa8,9, and the 1850 ± 1 Ma, >200 km Sudbury structure in Canada10."[37]

Animikean[edit | edit source]

Animikean General Stage is from 2225 to 1400 Ma.[38]

Rhyacian[edit | edit source]

The Yarrabubba crater in Western Australia is now believed to be the world's oldest impact crater, at some 2.2 billion years old. Credit: Chris Kirkland.{{fairuse}}

Def. "a geologic period within the Paleoproterozoic era from about 2300 to 2050 million years ago"[39] is called the Rhyacian.

"The ~70 km-diameter Yarrabubba impact structure in Western Australia is regarded as among Earth’s oldest [...] Shock-recrystallised monazite yields a precise impact age of 2229 ± 5 Ma, coeval with shock-reset zircon. This result establishes Yarrabubba as the oldest recognised meteorite impact structure on Earth, extending the terrestrial cratering record back >200 million years."[37]

"The age of Yarrabubba coincides, within uncertainty, with temporal constraint for the youngest Palaeoproterozoic glacial deposits, the Rietfontein diamictite in South Africa."[37]

"Numerical impact simulations indicate that a 70 km-diameter crater into a continental glacier could release between 8.7 × 1013 to 5.0 × 1015 kg of H2O vapour instantaneously into the atmosphere."[37]

"Yarrabubba is a recognised impact structure located within the Murchison Domain of the Archaean granite—greenstone Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia [...]. No circular crater remains at Yarrabubba; however, the structure has an elliptical aeromagnetic anomaly consisting of an even, low total magnetic intensity domain, measuring approximately 20 km N–S by 11 km E–W [...]. The present day exposure represents a deep erosional level, as neither impact breccias nor topographic expressions of the over-turned rim or central uplift are preserved. Therefore, the ~20 km diameter magnetic anomaly has been interpreted to represent the remnant of the deeply buried central uplift of the structure, which is consistent with an original crater diameter of 70 km18,19. Unshocked dolerite dykes formed during either ca. 1200 Ma Muggamurra20 or ca. 1075 Ma Warakurna21 regional volcanism cross-cut the elliptical magnetic anomaly and thus post-date the impact event."[37]

Siderian[edit | edit source]

Def. "a geologic period within the Paleoproterozoic era from about 2500 to 2300 million years ago"[40] is called the Siderian

Aphebian[edit | edit source]

The Byam Martin Mountains are in the Sirmilik National Park, Canada. Credit: Ansgar Walk.{{free media}}
Stirred but not shaken until broken, Aphebian-aged marble exercised its ductility. Credit: Mike Beauregard from Nunavut, Canada.{{free media}}

The Aphebian spans 2500 to 1600 Ma. The Penrhyn Group is a part of the Aphebian.[41]

The Byam Martin Mountains are made up of Archean-Aphebian igneous crystalline rock and Proterozoic metasedimentary and metamorphic rock, such as gneiss with sharp peaks and ridges, divided by deep glacier-filled valleys are typical features in the range.[42]

Nain Archean gneiss is overlain to the north of the community of Nain, Newfoundland and Labrador by the undeformed Ramah Group shale, sandstone and quartzite from the Aphebian.

Transvaal[edit | edit source]

The Transvaal is approximately 2700 Ma.

Neoarchean[edit | edit source]

Relief map shows the varying age of bedrock underlying North America. Credit: United States Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and the Mexican Consejo Recursos de Minerales.{{free media}}
This is the time scale for the North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain map. Credit: USGS.{{free media}}

Def. "a geologic era within the Archaean eon from about 2800 to 2500 million years ago"[43] or the "era from 2,800 Ma to 2,500 Ma"[44] is called the Neoarchean.

Randian[edit | edit source]

The Randian spans about 3000 to 2500 Ma.

"The Witwatersrand Basin formed over a period of 360 Ma between 3074 and 2714 Ma. Pulses of sedimentation within the sequence and its precursors were episodic, occurring between 3086-3074 Ma (Dominion Group), 2970-2914 Ma (West Rand Group) and 2894-2714 Ma (Central Rand Group). Detritus was derived from a mixed granite-greenstone source of two distinct ages; the first comprises Barberton-type greenstone belts and granitoids > 3100 Ma old, and the second consists of the greenstone belt-like Kraaipan Formation and associated granitoids ≤ 3100 Ma old."[45]

"Metamorphism of the Witwatersrand Basin occurred at ca. 2500, 2300 and 2000 Ma. The first two events coincided with the progressive loading of the basin by Ventersdorp and Transvaal cover sequences, whereas the last reflects intrusion of the Bushveld Complex and/or the Vredefort catastrophism."[45]

"The Kaapvaal Craton is the name given to the ancient segment of continental crust which formed in southern Africa between about 3.7 to 2.7 Ga. Much of this continental nucleus actually formed prior to 3.1 Ga by the formation of an extensive granitoid basement and amalgamation with arc-like oceanic terranes represented by mafic/ultramafic volcanics and associated sediments (De Wit et al., 1992)."[45]

"The minimum age of Witwatersrand deposition is provided by the age of the Ventersdorp lavas which immediately overlie the sequence over wide areas. The lower basaltic portion of these lavas has been dated at 2714 ± 8 Ma, whereas higher up in the succession quartz porphyries have been dated at 2709 ± 4 Ma [...]."[45]

"The Crown lava, which occurs just beneath the West Rand- Central Rand Group transition about half way up the sequence, has been provisionally dated at 2914 ± 8 Ma [...], a figure which provides approximate maximum and minimum constraints on Central Rand and West Rand Group deposition, respectively. Detrital zircon grains from the Orange Grove quartzite and the Promise reef, both in the West Rand Group, range in age between 3330 ± 5 and 2970 ± 3 Ma; the latter date represents a maximum constraint on the depositional age of the West Rand Group, with the minimum age determined by the Crown lava at 2914 Ma [...]."[45]

"Detrital zircon grains from conglomerate reefs in the auriferous Central Rand Group become progressively younger upwards in the stratigraphy and the youngest grains occur in the Elsburg and Ventersdorp Contact (VCR) reefs (2894 ± 10 and 2780 ± 5 Ma, respectively). The VCR must, therefore, have been laid down sometime after 2780 Ma ago, but before or at 2714 Ma which is the age of the Ventersdorp lavas (Armstrong et al., 1991)."[45]

"Dominion sedimentation occurred over a relatively brief interval some time after 3086 Ma but before 3074 Ma ago."[45]

"West Rand Group deposition commenced subsequent to 2970 Ma and, consequently, a significant hiatus of some 100 million years appears to exist between the Dominion and West Rand Groups. The latter pulse of sedimentation was largely complete by 2914 Ma, when the Crown lava was extruded, The onset of Central Rand Group deposition commenced after 2914 Ma but may have started as late as 2894 Ma, the age of the youngest detrital zircon grain in the Elsburg reef [...]."[45]

"The Gaborone granite and Kanye rhyolites were emplaced at 2785 ± Ma in an interlude which may have stimulated Turffontein Subgroup deposition (i.e the upper portion of the auriferous Central Rand Group; [...]), although no detrital zircons of this age have yet been found in the latter sequence."[45]

Mesoarchean[edit | edit source]

Def. "a geologic era within the Archaean eon from about 3200 to 2800 million years ago; stromatolites have existed from this time"[46] or the "era from 3,200 Ma to 2,800 Ma"[47] is called the Mesoarchean.

"The oldest record of impacts on Earth are Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic ejecta deposits found within the Kaapvaal craton of southern Africa and the Pilbara Craton in Western Australia, spanning ca. 3470 (ref. 6) to 2460 Ma7; however, no corresponding impact craters have been identified."[37]

Paleoarchean[edit | edit source]

Def. "a geologic era within the Archaean eon from about 3600 to 3200 million years ago; the first aerobic bacteria appeared at this time"[48] or the "era from 3,600 Ma to 3,200 Ma"[49] is called the paleoarchean.

Archean[edit | edit source]

During the Archean and Proterozoic, the cratons that would soon form the core of Canada were stitched together along vast mountain chains. Credit: Lesley Stokes.{{fairuse}}

Archaean is an alternate spelling of Archean.

Def. "the geologic eon from about 3,800 to 2,500 million years ago; comprises the Eoarchean, Paleoarchean, Mesoarchean and Neoarchean eras; marked by an atmosphere with little oxygen, the formation of the first continents and oceans and the emergence of simple life"[50] or the "eon from 2,500 Ma to 4,000 Ma"[51] is called the Archaean, or Archean.

"About 3 billion years ago, in the Archean eon, the emergence of plate tectonics moved thin and small rafts of rocks at a rate much faster than they do today. Over time, the volcanic islands butted together into large blocks of continental crust, with most of the action (in what is today’s Canada) starting around the Red Lake area, a prolific gold-mining camp in northwest Ontario."[52]

"During the Archean and Proterozoic, the cratons [image on the right] that would soon form the core of Canada were stitched together along vast mountain chains. The rocks, which were made up mostly of greenstone belts and intrusives, were variably metamorphosed and eroded, and the margins of the continents were blanketed with sediments. Orogenic gold mineralization, banded-iron formations, magmatic nickel-copper, volcanogenic massive sulphide and sedex deposits predominated. Uranium mineralization fluxed into major structures during near the end of the Proterozoic."[52]

Def. the "period of time determined to exist prior to 2.5 billion [thousand million] years ago"[53] is called the Archaeozoic or Archeozoic.

Isuan[edit | edit source]

The Isuan spans approximately 3800 to 3500 Ma.

Isuan Period – 3810–3490 MYA – named after the Isua Greenstone Belt.[54]

"The TTG basement of the Ancient Gneiss Complex of Swaziland contains minor relics which are as old as 3650-3500 Ma (Compston and Kröner, 1988) and, therefore, predate the Barberton greenstone belt."[45]

Swazian[edit | edit source]

The Swazian spans approximately 4000 to 3000 Ma.

The Swazian is a poorly defined geological stage in South Africa extending from about four billion years ago to 3 billion years ago,[55] encompassing some of the Hadean and much of the Archean on the Geologic time scale. Other scales assign the Swazian to parts of the Paleoarchean and Mesoarchean, 3.5 to 2.8 billion years ago.[56]

"The best exposed portion of the Archaean basement on the Kaapvaal Craton is the Barberton region and Swaziland to the east of the Witwatersrand Basin [...], where detailed study over several decades has provided an extensive data base for the study of early crustal evolution. The region is now known to comprise a collage of amalgamated terranes each of which consists of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses and an associated assemblage of metavolcano-sedimentary supracrustal rocks (Lowe, 1994). These terranes were mainly formed at ca. 3480-3440 and 3250-3220 Ma (Armstrong et al., 1990; De Ronde and De Wit, 1994; Kamo and Davis, 1994), although isolated remnants of TTG material and associated metavolcanics in the southwestern portion of the belt are as old as 3550-3530 Ma (Kröner et al., 1991 )."[45]

The "Westerdam granite (3086 ± 3 Ma) was emplaced just prior to Dominion sedimentation, the Coligny granite (3031 ± 11 Ma) was emplaced prior to West Rand Group deposition and the Schweizer-Reneke granite (2880 ± 2 Ma) may have preceded Central Rand Group sedimentation [...]."[45]

Azoic[edit | edit source]

Def. destitute "of any vestige of organic life, or at least of animal life; anterior to the existence of animal life; formed when there was no animal life on the globe"[57] is called the azoic.

The Azoic "stands as the first [age] in geologic history, whether science can point out unquestionably the rocks of that age or not." When fossils had been found in strata which had previously been classified as Azoic, the boundary was simply moved lower. "Such changes are part of the progress of the science."[58]

Hypozoic[edit | edit source]

Def. "older than the lowest rocks which contain organic remains"[59] is called hypozoic.

"In Scandinavia, as well as along the Alps, and Grampians, hypozoic strata are predominant, while mica schist and gneiss are rare in the Harz, Cornwall, and Wales."[60]

Eoarchean[edit | edit source]

Eoarchaean (3.8 b.y.) Greenlandite specimen (fuchsite-quartz gneiss) is from Nuup Kangerlua, Greenland. Credit: James St. John.{{free media}}
Fragment of Acasta gneiss is exhibited at the Natural History Museum in Vienna. Credit: Pedroalexandrade.{{free media}}
Another fragment of Acasta gneiss is from the Collection: H. Martin, Blaise Pascal University. Credit: Emmanuel Douzery.{{free media}}

Def. "a geologic era within the Archaean eon from about 4600 to 3600 million years ago; the first single-celled life began at this time"[61] or the "era from 4,000 Ma to 3,600 Ma"[62] is called the Eoarchean.

"Greenland greenlandite is part of a 3.8 billion year old, highly metamorphosed succession of rocks. These represent the oldest known supracrustal rocks on Earth (the oldest crustal Earth rocks include 4.03 billion year old Acasta Gneiss, 4.28 b.y. rocks from the eastern Hudson Bay area, and 4.45-4.55 b.y. rocks in the subsurface of Baffin Island, Canada)."[63]

The rock, in the images at left and right, a tonalite gneiss, of the Acasta Gneiss exposed on an island about 300 kilometres north of Yellowknife in the Slave craton in Northwest Territories, Canada, was metamorphosed 3.58 to 4.031 billion years ago and is the oldest known intact crustal fragment on Earth.[64]

The metamorphic rock exposed in the outcrop of the Acasta Gneiss Complex, northwestern Canada, was previously a granitoid that formed 4.2 billion years ago, an age based on radiometric dating of zircon crystals at 4.2 Ga.[65]

Hadean[edit | edit source]

Def. "the geologic eon from about 4,600 to 3,800 million years ago; marked by the formation of the solar system, a stable Earth-Moon orbit and the first rocks"[66] or the "eon before 4,000 Ma"[66] is called the Hadean.

Hypotheses[edit | edit source]

  1. Each time frame or span of time in geochronology has at least one dating technique.
  2. Late Proterozoic and Upper Proterozoic are different time frames.
  3. The overall size of—or efficiency of carbon export from—the biosphere decreased at the end of the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) (ca. 2,400 to 2,050 Ma).

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 DCDuring (4 November 2014). "Precambrian". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
  2. Names from local versions of the geologic timescale can often be found in the local language. The English name is usually found by replacing the suffix in the local language for -an or -ian. Examples for "local" suffices are -en (French), -ano (Spanish), -ium (German), -aidd (Welsh) or -aan (Flemish Dutch). The English name "Norian", for example, becomes Noriano in Spanish, Norium in German, Noraidd in Welsh or Norien in French.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Time is given in Megaannum (million years BP, unless other units are given in the table. BP stands for "years before present". For ICS-units the absolute ages are taken from Gradstein et al. (2004).
  4. 4.0 4.1 Hoffmann, K.H.; Condon, D.J.; Bowring, S.A.; Crowley, J.L. (2004-09-01). "U-Pb zircon date from the Neoproterozoic Ghaub Formation, Namibia: Constraints on Marinoan glaciation". Geology 32 (9): 817–820. doi:10.1130/G20519.1. 
  5. SemperBlotto (31 May 2005). "Proterozoic". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  6. 6.0 6.1 K.H. Mahan, B.P. Wernicke, and M.J. Jercinovic (15 January). "Th–U–total Pb geochronology of authigenic monazite in the Adelaide rift complex, South Australia, and implications for the age of the type Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 289 (1-2): 76-86. ftp://eclogite.geo.umass.edu/pub/probe/other/Mahan_etal_2010_Adelaide_Mzt.pdf. Retrieved 2015-01-17. 
  7. Neoproterozoic, In: Wiktionary. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 7 October 2013. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Neoproterozoic. Retrieved 13 February 2015. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 James G. Gehling and Mary L. Droser (March). "Ediacaran stratigraphy and the biota of the Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia". Episodes 35 (1): 236-46. http://www.episodes.co.in/contents/2012/march/p236-246.pdf. Retrieved 2015-01-19. 
  9. SemperBlotto (1 June 2005). "Ediacaran". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  10. Macdonald, F. A.; Schmitz, M. D.; Crowley, J. L.; Roots, C. F.; Jones, D. S.; Maloof, A. C.; Strauss, J. V.; Cohen, P. A. et al. (4 March 2010). "Calibrating the Cryogenian". Science 327 (5970): 1241–1243. doi:10.1126/science.1183325. PMID 20203045.  (Duration and magnitude are enigmatic)
  11. Rooney, A. D.; Strauss, J. V.; Brandon, A. D.; MacDonald, F. A. (2015). "A Cryogenian chronology: Two long-lasting synchronous Neoproterozoic glaciations". Geology 43 (5): 459. doi:10.1130/G36511.1. 
  12. B. M. Sokolov (1952). "On the age of the old sedimentary cover of the Russian Platform". Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Eologicheskaya 5: 21–31. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Sokolov, B.S. (1997). "Essays on the Advent of the Vendian System." 153 pp. KMK Scientific Press, Moscow. (in Russian)
  14. Sokolov B. S. (1965) "Abstracts of All-Union Symposium on Paleontology of the Precambrian and Early Cambrian." Nauka, Novosibirsk.
  15. Rozanov, A.Y.; Missarzhevskij, V.V.; Volkova, N.A.; Voronova, L.G.; Krylov, I.N.; Keller, B.M.; Korolyuk, I.K.; Lendzion, K. et al. (1969). "The Tommotian Stage and the problem of the lower boundary of the Cambrian". Trudy Geologičeskogo Instituta AN SSSR 206: 1–380. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 M. A. Fedonkin; B. S. Sokolov; M. A. Semikhatov; N. M. Chumakov (2007). "Vendian versus Ediacaran: priorities, contents, prospectives". Archived from the original on October 4, 2011. In: "The Rise and Fall of the Vendian (Ediacaran) Biota" (PDF). Origin of the Modern Biosphere. Transactions of the International Conference on the IGCP Project 493n Moscow: GEOS. August 20–31, 2007. (82mb)
  17. Khomentovsky, V. V. (2008). "The Yudomian of Siberia, Vendian and Ediacaran systems of the International stratigraphic scale". Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 16 (6): 581–598. doi:10.1134/S0869593808060014. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 James G. Ogg (2004). "Status on Divisions of the International Geologic Time Scale". Lethaia 37 (2): 183–199. doi:10.1080/00241160410006492. 
  19. SemperBlotto (31 May 2005). "Mesoproterozoic". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  20. "Tonian Period". GeoWhen Database. Archived from the original on May 12, 2006. Retrieved January 5, 2006.
  21. Kliman, Richard M. (Apr 14, 2016). Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology. Academic Press. p. 251. ISBN 9780128004265. 
  22. SemperBlotto (1 June 2005). "Tonian". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  23. Equinox (29 January 2013). "Stenian". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 W. L. Diver (8 February 1974). "Precambrian Microfossils of Carpentarian Age from Bungle Bungle Dolomite of Western Australia". Nature 247: 361–363. doi:10.1038/247361a0. https://www.nature.com/articles/247361a0. Retrieved 13 March 2019. 
  25. SemperBlotto (1 June 2005). "Ectasian". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  26. SemperBlotto (1 June 2005). "Calymmian". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  27. SemperBlotto (31 May 2005). Paleoproterozoic. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Paleoproterozoic. Retrieved 2015-02-13. 
  28. Haoshu Tanga and Yanjing Chen (September). "Global glaciations and atmospheric change at ca. 2.3 Ga". Geoscience Frontiers 4 (5): 583–596. doi:10.1016/j.gsf.2013.02.003. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1674987113000297. Retrieved 2017-01-24. 
  29. R. W. Ojakangas (1979-10-01). Sedimentation of the basal Kombolgie Formation (Upper Precambrian-Carpentarian) Northern Territory, Australia: possible significance in the genesis of the underlying Alligator Rivers unconformity-type uranium deposits. Duluth (USA): Minnesota Univ., Duluth (USA). Dept. of Geology. doi:10.2172/5722569. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5722569. Retrieved 12 March 2019. 
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 M. Kralik (May 1982). "Rb-Sb age determinations on Precambrian carbonate rocks of the Carpentarian McArthur basin, Northern Territories, Australia". Precambrian Research 18 (1–2): 157-170. doi:10.1016/0301-9268(82)90044-4. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0301926882900444. Retrieved 13 March 2019. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 Hageskov, Bjørn; Pedersen, Svend (1988). "Rb-Sr age determination of the Kattsund-Koster dyke swarm in the Østfold-Marstrand belt of the Sveconorwegian Province, W Sweden - SE Norway". Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 37: 51–61. 
  32. SemperBlotto (1 June 2005). "Statherian". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  33. SemperBlotto (1 June 2005). "Orosirian". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  34. Malcolm S. W. Hodgskiss, Peter W. Crockford, Yongbo Peng, Boswell A. Wing, and Tristan J. Horner (27 August 2019). "A productivity collapse to end Earth’s Great Oxidation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 116 (35): 17207-12. doi:10.1073/pnas.1900325116. https://www.pnas.org/content/116/35/17207. Retrieved 7 September 2019. 
  35. "Vredefort". Earth Impact Database. University of New Brunswick.
  36. "Deep Impact - The Vredefort Dome". Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory. 2006-08-01. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 37.5 Timmons M. Erickson, Christopher L. Kirkland, Nicholas E. Timms, Aaron J. Cavosie & Thomas M. Davison (21 January 2020). "Precise radiometric age establishes Yarrabubba, Western Australia, as Earth’s oldest recognised meteorite impact structure". Nature Communications 11: 300. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-13985-7. Retrieved 21 January 2020. 
  38. Robert A. Rohde (January 16, 2005). GeoWhen Database. Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley. http://www.stratigraphy.org/bak/geowhen/stages/Animikean.html. Retrieved 10 March 2019. 
  39. SemperBlotto (1 June 2005). "Rhyacian". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  40. SemperBlotto (1 June 2005). "Siderian". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  41. Henderson, J. R. Structure and Metamorphism of the Aphebian Penrhyn Group and Its Archean Basement Complex in the Lyon Inlet Area, Melville Peninsula, District of Franklin. Ottawa, Ont., Canada: Geological Survey of Canada, 1983. ISBN 0-660-11485-2
  42. "Canadian Arctic – Bylot Island". Retrieved 2009-03-14.
  43. SemperBlotto (31 May 2005). Neoarchean. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Neoarchean. Retrieved 2015-02-12. 
  44. DCDuring (8 November 2014). Neoarchean. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Neoarchean. Retrieved 2015-02-12. 
  45. 45.00 45.01 45.02 45.03 45.04 45.05 45.06 45.07 45.08 45.09 45.10 45.11 Laurence J. Robb and F. Michael Meyer (1995). "The Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa: Geological framework and mineralization processes". Ore Geology Reviews 10: 67-94. http://www.caraclecreek.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Wits-Basin-Framework-Robb_Meyer-1995_sm.pdf. Retrieved 12 March 2019. 
  46. SemperBlotto (31 May 2005). "Mesoarchean". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
  47. DCDuring (4 November 2014). "Mesoarchean". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
  48. SemperBlotto (31 May 2005). "Paleoarchean". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
  49. DCDuring (4 November 2014). "Paleoarchean". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
  50. SemperBlotto (31 May 2005). Archaean. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Archaean. Retrieved 2015-02-12. 
  51. DCDuring (4 November 2014). Archaean. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Archaean. Retrieved 2015-02-12. 
  52. 52.0 52.1 Lesley Stokes (11 April 2017). "A 4 billion-year-old story etched in stone: Geology and metal in Canada". Canada: Northern Miner. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  53. SnoopY (11 February 2006). "Archaeozoic". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  54. Van Kranendonk, Martin J. (2012). Felix M. Gradstein. ed. A Chronostratigraphic Division of the Precambrian: Possibilities and Challenges, In: The geologic time scale 2012 (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 359–365. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-59425-9.00016-0. ISBN 978-0-44-459425-9. 
  55. [1]
  56. [2]
  57. Curtisweyant (20 July 2004). "azoic". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
  58. Dana, James Dwight (1863) Manual of geology: Treating of the Principles of the Science with Special Reference to American geological history, for the use of colleges, academies, and schools of science T. Bliss & Co., Philadelphia, p.134;
  59. Embryomystic (16 November 2011). "hypozoic". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
  60. John Phillips (1852). Granite and other unstratified Rocks, the effect of Heat, In: A Treatise on Geology. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. pp. 111. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/A_Treatise_on_Geology/Chapter_4. Retrieved 12 August 2019. 
  61. SemperBlotto (31 May 2005). "Eoarchean". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
  62. DCDuring (4 November 2014). "Eoarchean". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
  63. James St. John (28 August 2014). "Greenlandite (fuchsite-quartz gneiss) (Eoarchean, 3.8 Ga; Godthabsfjord area or Nuuk area of southwestern Greenland)". Flickr. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  64. Bowring, S.A., and Williams, I.S., 1999. Priscoan (4.00–4.03 Ga) orthogneisses from northwestern Canada. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 134, 3–16
  65. Iizuka, Tsuyoshi; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Katayama, Ikuo; Uehara, Yosuke; Maruyama, Shigenori; Hirata, Takafumi; Johnson, Simon P. et al. (2007-03-01). "Geology and zircon geochronology of the Acasta Gneiss Complex, northwestern Canada: New constraints on its tectonothermal history". Precambrian Research 153 (3–4): 179–208. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2006.11.017. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301926806002737. 
  66. 66.0 66.1 SemperBlotto (31 May 2005). "Hadean". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-02-13.

External links[edit | edit source]

{{Archaeology resources}}