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Halogens are elements in column 7A of the periodic table. They occur as a principal component in a variety of minerals.

Impurities can give color. Some halogen minerals are called halides.

Acuminites[edit | edit source]

Acuminite (IMA symbol: Acu[1]) is a rare halide mineral of with chemical formula: SrAlF
). Its name comes from the Latin word acumen, meaning "spear point". Its Mohs scale of mineral hardness rating is 3.5.

Acumenite has only been described from its type locality of the cryolite deposit in Ivigtut, Greenland.[2]

Bromyrites[edit | edit source]

This is a butterscotch colored bromargyrite cube from Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia. Credit: Lou Perloff / Photo Atlas of Minerals.

Bromyrite, or bromargyrite, is a cubic silver bromide mineral (AgBr) that is 50 at % bromine.

The image on the right shows a butterscotch colored bromargyrite cube from Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia.

Cryolites[edit | edit source]

This sample of cryolite is a topotype for the mineral. Credit: Didier Descouens.{{free media}}

Cryolite (Na3AlF6) is 60 % fluorine. It occurs on Earth primarily in pegmatites.

Fluorapatites[edit | edit source]

This fluorapatite specimen is primarily violet. Credit: Vassil.{{free media}}
The color of the purple apatites (which are to almost 1 cm in size) leaps out at you. Credit: Rob Lavinsky.{{free media}}

Fluorapatite a sample of which is shown at right is a mineral with the formula Ca5(PO4)3F (calcium fluorophosphate). Fluorapatite as a mineral is the most common phosphate mineral. It occurs widely as an accessory mineral in igneous rocks and in calcium rich metamorphic rocks. It commonly occurs as a detrital or diagenic mineral in sedimentary rocks and is an essential component of phosphorite ore deposits. It occurs as a residual mineral in lateritic soils.[3]

At left is another fluorapatite example that is violet in color on quartz crystals.

Fluorites[edit | edit source]

Octahedral blue fluorite crystal specimen is from Yaogangxian Mine, China. Credit: Yoga Pacific.
A 3.1 cm, very distinctive and diagnostic, blue-green fluorite octahedron is nicely set on and partially enclosed by glassy quartz crystals. Credit: Robert Lavinsky.{{free media}}
This large cabinet specimen is a solid plate of lustrous and translucent, octahedral, emerald green fluorite. Credit: Robert Lavinsky.{{free media}}
A fine, yellow fluorite thumbnail of classicly styled, interpenetrating twins is from the Hilton Mine in Scordale. Credit: Robert Lavinsky.{{free media}}
It is a superb, orange, balanced piece with several combined octohedrons forming a 4.5 x 4.5 x 4 cm cluster on a bit of adularia matrix. Credit: Robert Lavinsky.{{free media}}
This red fluorite single crystal is from Frunthorn, Valsertal, Surselva, Graubünden, Switzerland. Credit: Rudolf Watzl.
This black fluorite crystal is from Qinglong, Guizhou Province, China. Credit: Only the Best Fossils.
This white fluorite octahedron is a natural crystal about 3.8.5 x 3.2 x 3.2 cm. Credit: Tom Arcuti.
Violet fluorite on feldspar is from Strzegom, a rare locality for fluorites. Credit: Spirifer Minerals.
The fluorite crystal is just over 1 cm and is rimmed on one side with sparkling pyrite. Credit: Robert Lavinsky.{{free media}}

In terms of atomic percent, fluorite (CaF2) is 66.7 % fluorine. It occurs on Earth usually as a hydrothermal deposit.

"Fluorite occurs in blue, purple, white, yellow, and colorless varieties. From field relationships the crystallization order was determined to have been blue and purple fluorite, which are commonly interlayered, followed by white, and finally yellow and colorless varieties."[4]

"Throughout most of the fluorite zone purple is the dominant, and commonly the only, color exhibited by fluorite, but in the central parts of the field green fluorite is quantitatively important, whereas at the edges of zone the fluorite is amber in color."[5]

Fourth down on the left is a crystal of rare black fluorite.

Halites[edit | edit source]

This is a sodium chloride crystal of the mineral halite. Credit: United States Geological Survey and the Mineral Information Institute.

Halite is probably the most common mineral containing chlorine at 50 at %. It is a cubic mineral usually found in arid locations on Earth. Occurrences have clear, white, purple, blue, yellow,green, orange, and red varieties.

Iodyrites[edit | edit source]

These are twinned iodyrite, or iodargyrite, crystals. Credit: Hudson Institute of Mineralogy.

Iodyrite (AgI) may be the most common mineral with large amounts of iodine found on Earth. It is 50 at % iodine.

On the right are twinned iodyrite, or iodargyrite, crystals are within a rock sample from Schöne Aussicht Mine, Dernbach, Neuwied, Wied Iron Spar District, Westerwald, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Tysonites[edit | edit source]

This tysonite bicrystal is from the Little Patsy pegmatite, South Platte Pegmatite District, Jefferson Co., Colorado, USA. Credit: Hudson Institute of Mineralogy.

Tysonite, or fluocerite, is a lanthanide fluoride, usually CeF
, for 75 atomic percent fluorine. It occurs in pegmatites on Earth.

Uraninites[edit | edit source]

The rarest naturally occurring element on Earth is named Astatine and it occurs in uraninite as a uranium decay product. Credit: Fred E. Davis.

All of the known isotopes of astatine are very short-lived. It occurs naturally in minerals such as uraninite as a decay product of uranium.

Hypotheses[edit | edit source]

  1. Variations in rocks from one mineral composition into another can occur with each rock type.
  2. Oxidanes that are various ices may be produced by orbital cycling.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]