Geography is "the science dealing with the areal differentiation of the earth's surface, as shown in the character, arrangement, and interrelations over the world of such elements as climate, elevation, soil, vegetation, population, land use, industries, or states, and of the unit areas formed by the complex of these individual elements."
(adapted from William Bunge's Theoretical Geography) Geography involves the study, understanding and interpretation of the portion of the universe available to humans, especially the Earth’s multi-layered environment – lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere and stratosphere - and its spatial relationship through dynamic interaction with humanity. It is, therefore, the unique science of space and place with mapping as its strategy and the identification of spatial laws and traits as its aims and objectives. (Bunge: Theoretical Geography: Lund Studies in Geography: 2nd edition, 1966.)
Dominant group may be a theoretical entity used by some primary source authors to indicate phenomena of importance.
In theory, "dominant group" in geography may have at least four meanings: (1) a dominant group of geography-based entities, (2) geography-based sources, (3) geography-based objects, or (4) a dominant group in some way associated with geography.
Dominant group[edit | edit source]
- Accident hypothesis: dominant group is an accident of whatever processes are operating.
- Artifact hypothesis: dominant group may be an artifact of human endeavor or may have preceded humanity.
- Association hypothesis: dominant group is associated in some way with the original research.
- Bad group hypothesis: dominant group is the group that engages in discrimination, abuse, punishment, and additional criminal activity against other groups. It often has an unfair advantage and uses it to express monopolistic practices.
- Control group hypothesis: there is a control group that can be used to study dominant group.
- Entity hypothesis: dominant group is an entity within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
- Evolution hypothesis: dominant group is a product of evolutionary processes, such groups are the evolutionary process, produce evolutionary processes, or are independent of evolutionary processes.
- Identifier hypothesis: dominant group is an identifier used by primary source authors of original research to identify an observation in the process of analysis.
- Importance hypothesis: dominant group signifies original research results that usually need to be explained by theory and interpretation of experiments.
- Indicator hypothesis: dominant group may be an indicator of something as yet not understood by the primary author of original research.
- Influence hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article containing original research to indicate influence or an influential phenomenon.
- Interest hypothesis: dominant group is a theoretical entity used by scholarly authors of primary sources for phenomena of interest.
- Metadefinition hypothesis: all uses of dominant group by all primary source authors of original research are included in the metadefinition for dominant group.
- Null hypothesis: there is no significant or special meaning of dominant group in any sentence or figure caption in any refereed journal article.
- Object hypothesis: dominant group is an object within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
- Obvious hypothesis: the only meaning of dominant group is the one found in Mosby's Medical Dictionary.
- Original research hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article by the author to indicate that the article contains original research.
- Primordial hypothesis: dominant group is a primordial concept inherent to humans such that every language or other form of communication no matter how old or whether extinct, on the verge of extinction, or not, has at least a synonym for dominant group.
- Purpose hypothesis: dominant group is written into articles by authors for a purpose.
- Regional hypothesis: dominant group, when it occurs, is only a manifestation of the limitations within a region. Variation of those limitations may result in the loss of a dominant group with the eventual appearance of a new one or none at all.
- Source hypothesis: dominant group is a source within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
- Term hypothesis: dominant group is a significant term that may require a 'rigorous definition' or application and verification of an empirical definition.
Examples from primary sources are to be used to prove or disprove each hypothesis. These can be collected per subject or in general.
Geography[edit | edit source]
Def. "areal differentiation The varied nature of the earth's surface, as shown by the character, pattern and interrelationship of relief, climate, soil, vegetation, population, political units, etc., thus producing a mosaic of unique and dissimilar units. This is one definition of geography, partic. as propounded by R. Hartshorne." is called geography.
Def. "the arrangement of things on the surface of the earth" is called geography, after A. Hettner.
Def. "the study of the earth's surface in its areal differentiation as the home of Man" is called geography.
Entities[edit | edit source]
"Whites remain dominant in the senior positions with 80% of professors, 90% of associate professors and 76% of the senior lecturers being white."
"[W]hile elites and minorities in Canada are clearly defined, the category of "dominant group" has unclear limits and varies from one geographical region to another."
Sources[edit | edit source]
A geographical source is a source which contributes to or creates, or appears to contribute to or create, areal differentiation.
When a geographical source is found to appear to contribute to or create areal differentiation, it is an apparent geographical source.
Objects[edit | edit source]
"It is therefore statistically probable that for every new species that arises an old one becomes extinct, and that for every dominant group of animals that spreads an old one disappears or is reduced to a few relicts."
"The results show unequivocally that in all four countries examined, assimilators are the dominant group."
Biogeography[edit | edit source]
Def. "[t]he study of the geographical distribution of living things" is called biogeography.
"Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time."
"Despite differences between coastal and pelagic waters, and the differences both in the isolation techniques used and in the scale, the same major phylogenetic groups have been identified as being dominant in both these environments; however, in the larger scale study, a total of 16 major taxa were detected and in the open ocean Cyanobacteria were a dominant group."
"The Chironomidae were the dominant group numerically."
"Taxonomically, the studies covered a broad range of organisms, but vertebrates were the dominant group."
Climatology[edit | edit source]
"From the outset WG1, chaired by Sir John Houghton of the UK Meteorological Office, was the dominant group."
"A dominant group size of at least 50% might be a useful criterion since a size smaller than 50% would mean that the other two groups combined would outnumber the dominant group. Ten of the 20 circulation types shown in Fig. 3 pass this test."
"Relevant amongst our findings is that sinuous tracks are the minority group from May to August, but then become the dominant group from September through to December, suggesting a major shift in the degree of synoptic control on typhoon movement between the first and second half of the typhoon season"
"The results of the factor analysis show that the rainfall characteristics (amount, intensity, duration) are the dominant group of factors, representing the highest weight for explaining the amount of throughfall, with high positive correlations (r = 0.99; r = 0.90 yr = 0.83, respectively)."
Coastal geography[edit | edit source]
"For practical applications, such as in engineering design, the mean dominant group wave height would he more pertinent than the significant wave height, since the more realistic group structure of the waves has basically prevailed over the hypothetical stationary structure of the waves."
"In most estuaries overall pressure was generated by a dominant group of pressure components, with several systems being afflicted by similar problematic sources."
"Each factor is described according to the dominant group of variables."
Cultural geography[edit | edit source]
“In class societies, where surplus production is appropriated by the dominant group, symbolic production is likewise seized as hegemonic class culture to be imposed across all classes.”
"Control is frequently aided by systematically fostering ideologies that promote the interests of a dominant group, often by legitimizing the status quo ."
"Thus Dennis Cosgrove, one of the dominant British members of this landscape school, argued that 'in class societies, where surplus production is appropriated by the dominant group, symbolic production is likewise seized as hegemonic class culture to be imposed on all classes' (Cosgrove, 1983, p. 5)"
Demographics[edit | edit source]
In the field of demographics within geography, any demographic may be used that varies geographically. Examples are sex, race, age, nation of origin, eye color, species, height, ethnicity, or weight.
Demography[edit | edit source]
In demography, the only demographic used is human population. For any human population that varies by region or area, the demographics are area (region) and human population. The variable "time" is not a demographic, but "age" is. The study of the change with time of the human population of Afghanistan is within the field of demography, specifically the demography of Afghanistan.
Development geography[edit | edit source]
"Johnston (1995, p. 194) argues that, without a right that protects against "the group-destructive practice of alienating native land" by the dominant group, indigenous identity will be threatened."
"Are there subnational groups which have competing security outlooks which are at odds with the state or dominant group?"
"As the views, interests and preferences of the dominant group go, so go the form and content of education that are put in place."
Economic geography[edit | edit source]
"In order to assimilate into the privileged group, individuals must acquire the “proper” cultural capital and internalize the dominant group's habitus."
"Unfortunately, his failure to provide more than a static and ahistorical description of residential and workplace segregation of arbitrarily defined social groups amounts to an abstraction and a distortion of the lived geographies of people who are often (but not always) subjected to oppression by a dominant group."
"Landscapes of the 'other' are then constructed by the dominant group as disruptive of the 'normal' order, to be eradicated, or at least contained and managed."
"By various subtle means, the dominant group tends to make entry into such business lines difficult for intending traders from outside their own geographical area."
Environmental management[edit | edit source]
In the image on the right, note the clouds of sulfuric acid coming from the vertical column stacks (the emissions from the cooling towers are just water vapor).
Geodesy[edit | edit source]
Def. "the geological science of the shape and size of the earth" is called geodesy.
"The oldest and north at varying angles, so that the oldest sediments most dominant group (RG-1) contains faults that strike within the grabens have the steepest northward dip, with 75–110° and is the group that includes most of the faults progressively lower dips in younger sediments."
"Consequently, the resulting age is an average on all sources, which is often close to the dominant group, when one age population is volumetrically dominant."
"This is expected since they are successive harmonics of the M2 dominant group."
Geomorphology[edit | edit source]
"It was the dominant group on sediment-covered reefs below 75 m depth."
"Because they are isolated from influxes originating from overland transport of nutrients and sediments, they have little opportunity to influence the quality of ground water and surface water; hence, their interactions with the atmosphere through acid deposition and carbon dioxide exchanges become a dominant group of functions as described above."
"A tributary classification was defined by dominant group membership (including first and second order streams Milksick Branch, Auger Fork, Frozen Creek and Cobb Creek; Table 1)."
Geopolitics[edit | edit source]
Def. any "study of the effects of geography (especially economic geography) on international politics" is called geopolitics.
"Geopolitics, from Greek Γη (earth) and Πολιτική (politics), refers broadly to the relationship between politics and territory whether on local or international scale. It comprises the practice of analysing, proscribing, forecasting, and the using of political power over a given territory. Specifically, it is a method of foreign policy analysis, which seeks to understand, explain and predict international political behaviour primarily in terms of geographical variables."
"The concept of geopolitics initially gained attention through the work of Sir Halford Mackinder in England and his formulation of the Heartland Theory which was set out in his article entitled "The Geographical Pivot of History" in 1904. Mackinder's doctrine of geopolitics involved concepts diametrically opposed to the notion of Alfred Thayer Mahan about the significance of navies (he coined the term sea power) in world conflict. He saw navy as a basis of Colombian era empire (roughly 1492–19th century) and expected 20th century to be [the] domain of land power. The Heartland theory hypothesized the possibility for a huge empire being brought into existence in the Heartland, which wouldn't need to use coastal or transoceanic transport to remain coherent."
"Those actions of the media that serve to delegitimize and marginalize protest groups are not the result of any kind of direct collusion or conspiracy between media and elite groups — although at times the slavishness with which the press mirrors dominant group concerns can be remarkable (see, for example, Cresswell, 1996)."
Glaciology[edit | edit source]
"The algae was the dominant group, and all obtained sequences belonged to Chlamydomonadales."
"The dominant group of large waves (upper centre) are called internal waves."
"The DP2 porphyritic dominant group corresponds to a very typical alumino-cafemic association (Fig. 3) of light-coloured subalkaline (ie monzonitic) nature (Fig. 4)."
Health geography[edit | edit source]
The Star of Life medical symbol, shown on the right, is used on some ambulances.
Historical geography[edit | edit source]
As an example of Historical geography is the map on the right showing British possessions as of 1897.
Human geography[edit | edit source]
"Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society. It encompasses the human, political, cultural, social, and economic aspects."
Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as:
Hydrography[edit | edit source]
Def. the "scientific measurement and description of the physical features and conditions of navigable waters and the shoreline" is called hydrography.
Hydrology[edit | edit source]
"This spectacular “blue marble” image is the most detailed true-color image of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet."
"Much of the information contained in this image came from a single remote-sensing device-NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. Flying over 700 km above the Earth onboard the Terra satellite, MODIS provides an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of these images are based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the sensor’s view of the surface on any single day. Two different types of ocean data were used in these images: shallow water true color data, and global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data. Topographic shading is based on the GTOPO 30 elevation dataset compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey’s EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s AVHRR sensor—the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles."
"Waters of “local” rainfall and imported, “Colorado” River aqueduct origins are easily distinguished from dominant, “native” Santa Ana river compositions by use of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis."
"The Santa Ana river isotopic signature will also be shown to be nearly identical to that observed for the dominant group of Orange County groundwater wells sampled in this study".
"Phenols form a dominant group of compounds deposited at the site but their abundance in the groundwater is reduced by an order of magnitude within 50 m of the lagoon."
Landscape ecology[edit | edit source]
In the image on the right, the landscape ecology of the grounds around Varaha and Lakshmi temples is showcased.
Meteorology[edit | edit source]
Def. "the study of the atmosphere and its phenomena, especially with weather and weather forecasting" is called meteorology.
"At midnight, LPG taxis became the dominant vehicles on the road (over 50%). In contrast, on weekends, gasoline vehicles were the dominant group, except at midnight."
"The results of the factor analysis show that the rainfall characteristics (amount, intensity, duration) are the dominant group of factors, representing the highest weight for explaining the amount of throughfall, with high positive correlations (r = 0.99; r = 0.90 yr = 0.83, respectively)."
Oceanography[edit | edit source]
"Oceanography..., also called oceanology or marine science, ... studies the ocean. It covers a wide range of topics, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries."
Paleogeography[edit | edit source]
Def. any "geography of the world in the geologic past" is called a paleogeography, or a palaeogeography.
Pedology[edit | edit source]
Def. a "sub-discipline of soil science that: studies soils as a component of natural systems or deals with soil genesis and soil classification or studies the soil profile or solum in its natural setting" is called pedology.
"The second and dominant group is yellow reddish granite soil which is coarse and highly dispersible."
"The sediments were dominantly consisted of silt and clay of percentage over 95%, and that the <30 μm particle group was the “dominant group”."
"Hydrophobic acids, which constitute the dominant group of dissolved organic compounds in the humic layer, are effectively retained as water percolates through E and B horizons of podzol profiles (East- house et al., 1992)."
Physical geography[edit | edit source]
Def. the "subfield of geography that studies physical patterns and processes of the Earth" is called physical geography.
"Physical geography (or physiography) focuses on geography as an Earth sciences. It aims to understand the physical problems and issues of : lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, pedosphere, and global flora and fauna patterns (biosphere)."
Physical geography can be divided into many broad categories, including:
Phylogeography[edit | edit source]
Def. the "study of the processes controlling the geographic distributions of lineages by constructing the genealogies of populations and genes" is called phylogeography.
"[M]odern haplochromines gave rise to several major adaptive radiations; the most prominent ones are those of [Lake Malawi] LM and [Lake Victoria] LV." The radiation of the Tropheini from Lake Tanganyika (LT) "must now be considered as an additional radiation of the modern haplochromines, corroborating the much older perception that LT accommodates several independent species flocks". "This implies that the ancestor of the Tropheini successfully re-entered the lake habitat and evolved into the presently dominant group in the rocky littoral zone of LT."
Planetary geography[edit | edit source]
Political geography[edit | edit source]
"The language of the dominant group, English, has a much greater power of assimilation [in] Canadian cities with a French majority, English retention (n= 20) Canadian cities with an English majority, French retention (n =40)"
"The Ibo and Yoruba particularly have feared political domination by the northerners. Superimposed upon these national rivalries are the fears and suspicions of many minorities towards the dominant group within each region."
Population geography[edit | edit source]
Quaternary science[edit | edit source]
"Our data strengthen this hypothesis and show unequivocally that haplogroup C, an endemic and dominant group of North American mammoths, was basal to all remaining Asian mammoth populations (including that on Wrangel Island)."
"Where multiple grain single aliquot OSL measurements provide a range of dose values, the dating specialist may choose to accept a dominant group of aliquots and reject outliers."
"Arvicolids became the dominant group of mammalian faunas in Quaternary, after they replaced the previously very abundant cricetids and murids."
Religion geography[edit | edit source]
Social geography[edit | edit source]
Time geography[edit | edit source]
Tourism geography[edit | edit source]
Transportation geography[edit | edit source]
“The river traffic is not concentrated; there is no one dominant group of docks, wharves, warehouses, etc.; on the contrary the traffic is widely dispersed along the shores.”
"In our survey work in the inner city suburb of Lenton in Nottingham, we detected a dominant group that fell in to this category."
Urban geography[edit | edit source]
Hypotheses[edit | edit source]
- The geographic location of geologic phenomena may be just as important as the geologic phenomena are themselves.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
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