# Dominant group/Regions

The Tarantula Nebula is the dominant feature in our satellite galaxy the Large Magellanic Cloud. It is one of the largest known star formation regions anywhere.

"Region is most commonly found as a term used in terrestrial and astrophysics sciences also an area, notably among the different sub-disciplines of geography, studied by regional geographers. Regions consist of subregions that contain clusters of like areas that are distinctive by their uniformity of description based on a range of statistical data, for example demographic, and locales. In astrophysics some regions have science-specific terms such as galactic clusters."[1]

"In Geography, regions can be broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of Humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic regions and subregions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, and sometimes transitory boundaries, except in human geography where jurisdiction areas such as national borders are clearly defined in law."[1]

"Apart from the globalcontinental regions, there are also hydrospheric and atmospheric regions that cover the oceans, and discrete climates above the land and water masses of the planet. The land and water global regions are divided into subregions geographically bounded by large geological features that influence large-scale ecologies, such as plains and steppes, forested massifs, deserts, or mountainous regions. Subregions describe the areas within regions that are easily distinguished in both the geological and ecological observable features."[1]

"A region has its own nature that could not be moved. The first nature is its natural environment (landform, climate, etc.). The second nature is its physical elements complex that were built by people in the past. The third nature is its socio-cultural context that could not be replaced by new immigrants."[1]

## Regions

“The dominant species of the larger dominant groups tend to leave many modified descendants, and thus new sub-groups and groups are formed.”[2]

"We have seen that it is the common, the widely-diffused, and the widely-ranged species, belonging to the larger genera, which vary most; and these will tend to transmit to their modified offspring that superiority which now makes them dominant in their own countries."[2]

Darwin's use of the term "dominant groups" in reference to "their own countries"[2] suggests that "dominant group" is a term in the science of regions.

"The term Muslim world is sometimes used to refer to the region of the world where Islam is dominant."[1] The term "dominant religion" is a relative synonym for "dominant group".

The question becomes, "Which came first the "dominant group" or the region?"

"Groups, according to their range, may be denominated either predominant, dominant, sub-dominant, or quiescent."[3]

As has been demonstrated in small group studies, each use of "dominant group" is accompanied in context by the region of this group. The limits which separate the group from the population, or those that determine the region or country within which the dominant group is possible may be correlated with the criteria of dominance. Changing the limits which define the region should change the dominant group or eliminate dominant groups except as an artifact of examination.

A group that wishes to become or remain as a dominant group may change the limits of a region so as to create or maintain itself as dominant. Naturally occurring apparent dominant groups may be only an artifact of the choice of regions.

Def. "[a]ny considerable and connected part of a space or surface; specifically, a tract of land or sea of considerable but indefinite extent; a country; a district; in a broad sense, a place without special reference to location or extent but viewed as an entity for geographical, social or cultural reasons"[4] is called a region.

Def. "a subset of ${\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{n}}$ that is open (in the standard Euclidean topology), connected and non-empty"[5] is called a region, or region of ${\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{n}}$, where ${\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{n}}$ is the n-dimensional real number system.

Theorem any connected, non-empty topology that maps to, or can be mapped to, a subset of ${\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{n}}$ is also a region, or region of ${\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{n}}$.

If the theorem is true, or at least sufficient portions of it are, then any field (not just a mathematical field) may have a region within it. Further, such a region may have a dominant group.

## Language contacts

"This pattern is repeated in many places throughout the world. The Irish have mostly shifted from Irish Gaelic to English, most Australian Aboriginals have shifted to English, all ethnic Ainus in Japan have shifted from Ainu to Japanese, most Livonians in Latvia have shifted from the Uralic language of their ethnic heritage to the Indo-European language Latvian, most Suba speakers in Kenya have shifted to Luo (the language of the numerically dominant group in their region), and so forth. Other language contacts are more stable, with both (or all) languages being maintained, at least over the short run."[6]

## Afghanistan

"The dominant group in Afghanistan’s poly-ethnic system is the Pashtu speaking, which constitute up to 40% of the country’s total population (Liberman, 1980)."[7]

"Its traditional practice of Afghanistan that 'Almost always, men of the dominant group will take wives from the lesser, and almost never will a man from the lesser group marry a woman from the dominant' (Dupree, 1980: 187)."[7]

## Kenya

"The federal structure, by emphasizing the autonomy and powers of the regions, further reinforced ethnic identification and antagonism as the dominant group in each used its political strength (and any means available) to eliminate rival parties and thus to make its control absolute."[8]

## North Atlantic Ocean

"The numbers of samples for regions a, b, c, d, e, and f are 21, 8, 6, 40, 105, and 96, respectively. Panels e′ and f′ show the average numbers of nifH copies liter−1 from panels e and f without the dominant group A and filamentous phylotypes, respectively."[9]

## Turkey

"This study presents the pollen analyses of 13 floral honeys from the some regions of Turkey. The pollen analyses revealed 1 unifloral honey and 12 multifloral honeys. Pollen have been identified pertaining to 86 taxa, 74 of which were at genus level and 12 were at species level. The dominant group of pollen grains consisted of: Hedera helix, Gossypium, Trifolium, Sophora, Rhododendron, Castanea sativa, Peganum harmala and Helianthus."[10] "The amount of pollen ranging: between 1 % and 5 % was considered as the rare group, between 6 % and 20 % was considered as the minor group, between 21 % and 50 % was considered as the secondary group and pollen exceeding 50 % was called the dominant group."[10]

## United Kingdom

"This research was supported by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. ... If a dominant group existed, therefore, the nationals were the natural members of that group. ... A market is a geographic region, time period pair."[11]

## United States of America

"Since Protestants were initially the dominant group in all regions, regional differences might be expected to be smaller among Catholics."[12]

## Zaire

"The diachronic changes of two gorilla groups in the Kahuzi region are studied. ... The dominant group, ie, the group led by a more dominant male, has priority of ranging among neighboring groups."[13]

## Stars

"The darkest regions in the images are about 10% in brightness of the unspotted photosphere, that corresponds to ΔTeff ≈ 1200 K. In comparison to Hatzes' (1995) results for the close season (July 1994) the position and structure of the dominant group is very similar, but there is some difference in the near-equatorial spot."[14]

## Hypotheses

1. Dominant group or any early synonym may be unique to the northern hemisphere or cultures that also overlap the Earth's equator into the northern hemisphere.
• Accident hypothesis: dominant group is an accident of whatever processes are operating.
• Artifact hypothesis: dominant group may be an artifact of human endeavor or may have preceded humanity.
• Association hypothesis: dominant group is associated in some way with the original research.
• Bad group hypothesis: dominant group is the group that engages in discrimination, abuse, punishment, and additional criminal activity against other groups. It often has an unfair advantage and uses it to express monopolistic practices.
• Control group hypothesis: there is a control group that can be used to study dominant group.
• Entity hypothesis: dominant group is an entity within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
• Evolution hypothesis: dominant group is a product of evolutionary processes, such groups are the evolutionary process, produce evolutionary processes, or are independent of evolutionary processes.
• Identifier hypothesis: dominant group is an identifier used by primary source authors of original research to identify an observation in the process of analysis.
• Importance hypothesis: dominant group signifies original research results that usually need to be explained by theory and interpretation of experiments.
• Indicator hypothesis: dominant group may be an indicator of something as yet not understood by the primary author of original research.
• Influence hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article containing original research to indicate influence or an influential phenomenon.
• Interest hypothesis: dominant group is a theoretical entity used by scholarly authors of primary sources for phenomena of interest.
• Metadefinition hypothesis: all uses of dominant group by all primary source authors of original research are included in the metadefinition for dominant group.
• Null hypothesis: there is no significant or special meaning of dominant group in any sentence or figure caption in any refereed journal article.
• Object hypothesis: dominant group is an object within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
• Obvious hypothesis: the only meaning of dominant group is the one found in Mosby's Medical Dictionary.
• Original research hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article by the author to indicate that the article contains original research.
• Primordial hypothesis: dominant group is a primordial concept inherent to humans such that every language or other form of communication no matter how old or whether extinct, on the verge of extinction, or not, has at least a synonym for dominant group.
• Purpose hypothesis: dominant group is written into articles by authors for a purpose.
• Regional hypothesis: dominant group, when it occurs, is only a manifestation of the limitations within a region. Variation of those limitations may result in the loss of a dominant group with the eventual appearance of a new one or none at all.
• Source hypothesis: dominant group is a source within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
• Term hypothesis: dominant group is a significant term that may require a 'rigorous definition' or application and verification of an empirical definition.

## References

1. "Region, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. December 2, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-28.
2. Charles Robert Darwin (1859). On the origin of the species by means of natural selection: or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray. pp. 516.
3. William Kirby, William Spence (1826). An Introduction to Entomology: or Elements of the Natural History of Insects, Volume IV. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, Paternoster Row. pp. 474-492. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
4. "region, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 20, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
5. "Region (mathematical analysis), In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. April 5, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
6. Sarah G. Thomason (2001). Langauge contact. Ann Harbor, Michigan: University of Michigan. Retrieved 2012-04-30.
7. Jamil Ahmad, Anwar Alam (2012). "Ethnicity and Culture-Baseline Information on Aynak Coppermine Area of District Mohammad Agha, Logar Province, Afghanistan". PUTAJ Humanities and Social Sciences 19: 16. Retrieved 2012-12-29.
8. Richard D. Wolff & Richard V. Pierard (1974). "The Economics of Colonialism: Britain and Kenya, 1870–1930". History: Reviews of New Books 2 (7): 172-3. doi:10.1080/03612759.1974.9946375. Retrieved 2012-04-30.
9. Rebecca J. Langlois, Diana Hümmer and Julie LaRoche (March 2008). "Abundances and Distributions of the Dominant nifH Phylotypes in the Northern Atlantic Ocean". Applied and Environmental 74 (6): 1922-31. doi:10.1128/​AEM.01720-07. Retrieved 2012-04-30.
10. Zafer Kaya, Riza Binzet and Nermin Orcan (2005). "Pollen analyses of honeys from some regions in Turkey". Apiacta 40: 10-15. Retrieved 2012-04-30.
11. Margaret E. Slade (March 2004). "Market power and joint dominance in UK brewing". The Journal of Industrial Economics 52 (1): 133-63. doi:10.1111/j.0022-1821.2004.00219.x. Retrieved 2012-12-28.
12. David L. Weakliem, Robert Biggert (March 1999). "Region and Political Opinion in the Contemporary United States". Social Forces 77 (3): 863-86. doi:10.1093/sf/77.3.863. Retrieved 2012-04-30.
13. Juichi Yamagiwa (April 1983). "Diachronic changes in two eastern lowland gorilla groups (Gorilla gorilla graueri) in the Mt. Kahuzi region, Zaire". Primates 24 (2): 174-83. Retrieved 2012-12-28.
14. S. Berdyugina, I. Ilyin, and I. Tuominen (1998). R. A. Donahue and J. A. Bookbinder. ed. II Peg: New Surface Images for 1992-1996, In: Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun. Astronomical Society of the Pacific. pp. 1952-8. ISBN 1-886733-74-0. Retrieved 2012-05-01.