Dominant group/Accident laboratory

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A laboratory is a specialized activity, a construct, you create where you as a student, teacher, or researcher can have hands-on, or as close to hands-on as possible, experience actively analyzing an entity, source, or object of interest. Usually, there's more to do than just analyzing. The construct is often a room, building or institution equipped for scientific research, experimentation as well as analysis.

Def. an "unexpected event with negative consequences occurring without the intention of the one suffering the consequences"[1] or "a collision or similar unintended event that causes damage or death"[1] is called an accident.

Dominant sizes[edit]

Graph of incremental total volume (%) vs grain diameter (mm) is from the laser particle size analysis on a log linear scale. Credit: Karen Mair, Ian Main, and Stephen Elphick.

"The Grunehogna Craton (GC, East Antarctica) is interpreted as part of the Archaean Kaapvaal Craton of southern Africa prior to Gondwana breakup. The basement of the GC is exposed only within a small area comprising the dominantly leucocratic Annandagstoppane (ADT) S-type granite."[2]

"The granite is relatively fine grained (1–2 mm dominant grain size) and isotropic without any signs of ductile or brittle deformation."[2]

"The dominant group of zircons with a crystallization age of 3067 ± 8 Ma is interpreted to define the crystallization age of the ADT granite."[2]

"[T]onalite–trondjemite–granodiorite (TTG) [is] in the source region of the zircon-producing magmas."[2]

"The dominant group of TTG gneisses in the [Swaziland Block] SB, however, formed from plutons intruded into the Barberton greenstone belt (BGB) between ∼3·46 and 3·43 Ga (Poujol et al., 2003)."[2]

In the above primary source, "dominant grain size" is used only once and dominant group is used twice by the authors. Additional uses of "dominant": dominant granite-twice, "most dominant component"-once, and "dominant mechanisms"-once.

"Group" is used fifty-two times: eight for stratigraphic units (eg. Ritscherflya Supergroup) and after the above the remaining refer to various age groups of zircons, the focus of the original research.

Below is an effort to evaluate each dominant group hypothesis for the above dominant group uses.

To test the hypothesis, assume that "dominant grain size" is an observation by the author, regarding the most frequent or largest average grain size, and it is an accident of the authors or the observations.

The synonym uses of dominant group, three out of seven uses of "dominant" suggest its not an accidental use by the authors but a word choice preference.

The natural processes could still be accidental.

Although grain size distributions sometimes approximate a bimodal or multimodal distribution, as in the figure on the right from another author, usually there is one significant peak in the frequency distribution, as suggested in the unprocessed distribution. But this is usually not the largest grain size. Dominance then is most likely related by the above author to the peak frequency of occurrence. The process that made a particular grain size the most frequent may be random (an accident) or a product of the grain production process (not an accident even though it may be best approximated by a random distribution). In the above primary source, the process is most likely magma cooling and grain crystallization from the melt following a fairly complex phase diagram.

For the second set of authors, "Mean grain size, however, reached a steady value irrespective of axial strain. This implies that a limited amount of strain is accommodated on each strand with further strain requiring new strands to form."[3]

"Graph of incremental total volume (%) vs grain diameter (mm) [on the right] is from the laser particle size analysis on a log linear scale. The plot compares the grain-size distributions of gouge strands sampled from tests carried out at increasing amounts of axial strain (4.2, 6.5 and 11.2%). The grain-size distribution for undeformed Locharbriggs sandstone is plotted for comparison. The three gouge samples have very similar characteristic curves which exhibit both the same peak value, indicating significant grain-size reduction with respect to the undeformed sample, and a similar range of grain sizes."[3]

The figure on the right clearly shows that the changes in the grain size distribution were caused by the axial strain, not an accident. The authors of the second primary source did not use the term dominant group.

Superiority[edit]

"There is no evidence that the superiority of any existing dominant group is based on any thing but an accident, and any attempt to maintain that dominance by reason, is merely the rationalization of a "myth.""[4]

Def.

  1. "[a]n unexpected event with negative consequences occurring without the intention of the one suffering the consequences"
  2. "[a]ny chance event"
  3. "[a]n unintended event such as a collision that causes damage or death"
  4. "[a] property attached to a word [or term], but not essential to it, as gender, number, case"
  5. "[a]n irregular surface feature with no apparent cause"
  6. "casus; such unforeseen, extraordinary, extraneous interference as is out of the range of ordinary calculation"
  7. "[a]n unplanned event that results in injury (including death) or occupational illness to person(s) and/or damage to property, exclusive of injury and/or damage caused by action of an enemy or hostile force"[5] is called an accident.

"Instead of a competitive situation, these societies disclose a monopolistic control of the principal resources by the dominant group, and, as in the case of the United States, it is this group that allocates positions in the society as a whole."[6]

"In all these societies, historical accident (conquest, colonization, forced or free migration) made for important and commonly recognized differences in anthropological culture."[6]

Designs[edit]

Any dominant group may be only an accident, or a deliberate outcome of human design.

Essentialism[edit]

Def. "[t]he view that objects have properties that are essential to them"[7] is called essentialism.

With the beginnings of biological taxonomy in the late 17th century, Western biological thinking was influenced by essentialism, the belief that every species has essential characteristics that are unalterable, a concept from medieval Aristotelian metaphysics that fit well with natural theology.

Essentialism is the view that, for any specific kind of entity, there is a set of characteristics or properties all of which any entity of that kind must possess. All things can therefore be precisely defined or described. In this view, it follows that terms or words should have a single definition and meaning.[8]

The essential properties of a tiger are those without which it is no longer a tiger. Other properties, such as stripes or number of legs, are considered inessential or 'accidental'.[9]

"Biologist Ernst Mayr epitomizes the effect of such an essentialist character of Platonic forms in biology: "Flesh-and-blood rabbits may vary, but their variations are always to be seen as flawed deviation from the ideal essence of rabbit". For Mayr, the healthful antithesis of essentialism in biology is "population thinking".[10]

Recent work by historians of systematics: Mary P. Winsor, Ron Amundson and Staffan Müller-Wille argue that the usual suspects (such as Linnaeus and the Ideal Morphologists) were very far from being essentialists, and it appears that the so-called "essentialism story" (or "myth") in biology is a result of conflating the views expressed by philosophers from Aristotle onwards through to John Stuart Mill and William Whewell in the immediately pre-Darwinian period, using biological examples, with the use of terms in biology like species.[11][12][13]

"An essentialist view of a given species is committed to there being some property which all and only the members of that species possess."[14] "The essentialist requires that a species be defined in terms of the characteristics of the organisms which belong to it."[14] "Diversity [may] be accounted for as the joint product of natural regularities and interfering forces."[14]

Higher type has been associated with the Natural State Model of essentialism.[14]

"Some dominant group members could invoke essentialism as a legitimizing ideology to justify existing power relations, but dominant group members with egalitarian worldviews might invoke essentialism to resist dominant ideologies."[15]

"[E]ssentialism is the psychological lynchpin that anchors one's personal and social identity (Mahalingam & Rodriguez, 2006), and enables us to construct theories of social groups that often legitimize the dominant group's privileged status and (sometimes physical) control over the nondominant group; internalizing such essentialist beliefs may also improve the psychological well-being of the dominant group members in this system."[16]

"Thus the cultural fundamentalism of the British or French right-wing in its talk about immigrants is clearly a dangerous sort of essentialism, partly because it is being wielded by a dominant group which has some power to impose its views on others."[17]

Music analysis[edit]

“The new 'key' would then dissolve into an augmented sixth leading to the introductory V of the dominant group.”[18]

"Music theorists perpetuate this understanding by juxtaposing description and analysis: Music theory pedagogue Michael Rogers writes that “the goal of description…is to collect information,” whereas “analysis seeks to answer ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions” (2004:74-75). Rogers sees description as a necessary, but separate prerequisite to analysis. As he sees it, it is only once we begin to analyze, to move beyond mere description, that we show our intellectual, stylistic, and political selves."[19]

"Heteroglossia is not often recognized by speakers. This, Bakhtin suggests, is no accident: Given that dominant groups often seek to impose a particular notion of reality on others, their rule is threatened by the existence of multiple worldviews. Thus by highlighting one linguistic genre as primary dominant groups elevate a single worldview—one that likely reinforces their position of power."[19]

Sprites[edit]

This is the first color image of a sprite. Credit: Eastview.

"The phenomenon, now known as a sprite, was first accidently documented on ground based videotape recordings on the night of July 6, 1989. Video observations from the space shuttle acquired from 1989 through 1991 provided 17 additional examples to confirm the existence of the sprites phenomenon."[20]

"Throughout the historical scientific literature, there are sprinklings of eyewitness accounts of unusual "lightning" observed in the clear air above nighttime thunderstorms. The descriptions use phases such as "continuous darts of light... ascended to a considerable altitude, resembling rockets more than lightning." (MacKenzie and Toynbee, 1886), "a luminous trail shot up to 15 degrees or so, about as fast as, or faster than, a rocket" (Everett, 1903), "a long weak streamer of a reddish hue" (Malan, 1937), "flames appearing to rise from the top of the cloud" (Ashmore, 1950), or "the discharge assumed a shape similar to roots of a tree in an inverted position" (Wood, 1951). Partly because these eyewitness reports of unusual "lightning" appearing above thunderstorms were never captured on film, the lightning science community generally ignored them. The lack of an established vocabulary and the existence of several distinctive phenomena contributed to the variation in the verbal descriptions."[20]

"[Boccippio et al., 1994] has shown that these bright discharges are associated with large amplitude return strokes bringing positive charge downward. In fact, a positive return stroke accompanied the only MLE sprite recorded within range of a ground based lightning detection network. The videos showed that additional discharges continued in the clouds after a sprite for a total mean time of a second, which can be interpreted as evidence for a continuing current. All together, this was strong evidence that the sprite above the thunderstorm was caused, directly or indirectly, by an energetic lightning discharge."[20]

The "range to the sprites was well over 1000 kilometers [...] The width of the sprites varied considerably from very thin or even several thin filaments to broad columns some kilometers across, while the bright "head" (when visible) had dimensions on the order of kilometers."[20]

"The optical and RF measurements collected during the 1994 field campaign rapidly uncovered the basic properties of sprites (Lyons, 1994; Lyons and Williams, 1994; Lyons et al., 1994; Sentman et al., 1994; Sentman et al., 1995; Wescott et al., 1994; Lyons et al., 1995a,b). Other workers (e.g., Boccippio, 1994) established the causal association of sprites with positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges."[20]

Sprites "are typically associated with low flash rate cells [...] The shuttle videos established that lightning directly or indirectly causes sprites."[20]

The first "color image of a sprite [...] was obtained during a 1994 NASA/University of Alaska aircraft campaign to study sprites. The event was captured using an intensified color TV camera. The red color was subsequently determined to be from nitrogen fluorescent emissions excited by a lightning stroke in the underlying thunderstorm."[21]

Wikiversity[edit]

Template:JPN, resource creation 49 is a template Template:JPN to insert the country name Japan in tables and templates. It was accidently moved to JSport/Volleyball/PN. It is no longer needed as it is replaced by resource 72.

Meteorites[edit]

This photograph shows the Leonids as many begin contacting the Earth's atmosphere. Credit: NASA.

Meteors may occur in showers, which arise when the Earth passes through a trail of debris left by a comet, or as "random" or "sporadic" meteors, not associated with a specific single cause. A number of specific meteors have been observed, largely by members of the public and largely by accident, but with enough detail that orbits of the meteoroids producing the meteors have been calculated. All of the orbits passed through the asteroid belt.[22]

Cored bombs are bombs that have rinds of lava enclosing a core of previously consolidated lava. The core consists of accessory fragments of an earlier eruption, accidental fragments of country rock or, in rare cases, bits of lava formed earlier during the same eruption.

Cars[edit]

This road accident in Russia between a car and an excavator is linked pragmatically with the dump truck. Credit: Dennis Jarvis.
The JSPC From-A Racing R91CK during an exhibition at the 2006 Goodwood Festival of Speed. Credit: Oli R.

"In chapter two McRuer describes the case of Sharon Kowalski. After a car accident she was denied to go home since her spouse, Karen Thompson, was not seen as her first (and natural) choice of guardian."[23]

"For the 1991 season, Nissan upgraded their cars into the R91CPs, while some older cars were sold off to privateers. Nova Engineering upgraded their R90C to R91CK specification utilizing the Yatabe (Japan Automobile Research Institute—JARI) wind tunnel, while Team Le Mans bought an R90CP and modified it into their own R91VP. Keeping the same driver line-up as the previous season, the factory Nissan team proved the pace of the new R91CP by winning the opening round at Fuji, while the Nova Engineering entry took second, and Team Le Mans fourth. The second race at Fuji saw Nissan's main rival, Toyota, debut their new 91C-V, yet it would not be capable of fighting the R91CPs. Nissan took the top two positions with their factory cars, a lap ahead of the new 91C-V."[24]

"By the third race at Fuji however, Toyota was able to improve their new car and take their first overall victory of the season, leaving Nissan to settle for second place, ten seconds behind, while the second team car was taken out in an accident. The 1000 km Suzuka saw further problems for the team as the Nova Engineering entry actually took second place ahead of the factory entry in third, several laps behind. A similar event occurred at the next round, with Nova Engineering ahead of Nissan, yet all cars managed to finish on the same lap as the winning Toyota."[24]

"Nissan managed to overcome Toyota at the 1000 km Fuji, winning by a minute even though the other three Nissans in the field were unable to finish. However, newcomer Jaguar would manage to take victory at the final race of the year, leaving Toyota in second and Nissans in third and fourth, several laps behind the dominant Group C car. Even with its troubles, Nissan was able to overcome Toyota in the points championship, winning by three points. Kazuyoshi Hoshino and Toshio Suzuki won the drivers championship by a mere two points over Toyota's leading pair."[24]

Dominant groups[edit]

"It's no accident that the original Passion Story involved the introduction of a New Covenant into the local culture."[25]

Chemistry[edit]

Nuclear chemistry is the subfield of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes and nuclear properties. It is the chemistry of radioactive elements such as the actinides, radium and radon together with the chemistry associated with equipment (such as nuclear reactors) which are designed to perform nuclear processes. This includes the corrosion of surfaces and the behavior under conditions of both normal and abnormal operation (such as during an accident). An important area is the behavior of objects and materials after being placed into a nuclear waste storage or disposal site.

Miskeying[edit]

"Actually, Draicone, I was completely unaware of having made that edit until I noticed this here. I'm suspecting that it was an iPhone accident."[26]

Social exclusions[edit]

Certain language and the meaning attached to language can cause universalizing discourses that are influenced by the Western world, which is what Sewpaul (2006) describes as the "potential to dilute or even annihilate local cultures and traditions and to deny context specific realities" (p. 421). What Sewpaul (2006) is implying is that the effect of dominant global discourses can cause individual and cultural displacement, as well as an experience of "de-localization", as individual notions of security and safety are jeopardized (p. 422). Insecurity and fear of an unknown future and instability can result in displacement, exclusion, and forced cultural assimilation into the dominant group. For many, it further pushes them to the margins of society or enlists new members to the outskirts because of global-capitalism and dominant discourses.[27]

Welfare states and social policies can also exclude individuals from basic necessities and support programs. Welfare payments were proposed to assist individuals in accessing a small amount of material wealth (Young, 2000). Young (2000) further discusses how "the provision of the welfare itself produces new injustice by depriving those dependent on it of rights and freedoms that others have…marginalization is unjust because it blocks the opportunity to exercise capacities in socially defined and recognized way" (p. 41). There is the notion that by providing a minimal amount of welfare support, an individual will be free from marginalization. In fact, welfare support programs further lead to injustices by restricting certain behaviour, as well the individual is mandated to other agencies. The individual is forced into a new system of rules while facing social stigma and stereotypes from the dominant group in society, further marginalizing and excluding individuals (Young, 2000). Thus, social policy and welfare provisions reflect the dominant notions in society by constructing and reinforcing categories of people and their needs. It ignores the unique-subjective human essence, further continuing the cycle of dominance.[28]

An example of individual marginalization is the exclusion of individuals with disabilities from the labor force. Grandz discusses an employer's viewpoint about hiring individuals living with disabilities as jeopardizing productivity, increasing the rate of absenteeism, and creating more accidents in the workplace.[29] Cantor also discusses employer concern about the excessively high cost of accommodating people with disabilities.[29] The marginalization of individuals with disabilities is prevalent today, despite the legislation intended to prevent it in most western countries, and the academic achievements, skills and training of many disabled people.[29]

Paleontology[edit]

The image shows the preparation of the fossilized bones of Europasaurus holgeri. Credit: Nils Knötschke.
This figure shows the genus extinction intensity, i.e. the fraction of genera that are present in each interval of time but do not exist in the following interval (graph not meant to include recent epoch of Holocene extinction event). Credit: Smith609.{{free media}}

Paleontology is one of the historical sciences, along with archaeology, geology, cosmology, philology and history itself.[30] This means that it aims to describe phenomena of the past and reconstruct their causes.[31] Hence it has three main elements: description of the phenomena; developing a general theory about the causes of various types of change; and applying those theories to specific facts.[30]

When trying to explain past phenomena, paleontologists and other historical scientists often construct a set of hypotheses about the causes and then look for a smoking gun, a piece of evidence that indicates that one hypothesis is a better explanation than others. Sometimes the smoking gun is discovered by a fortunate accident during other research. For example, the discovery by Luis Walter Alvarez and Walter Alvarez of an iridium-rich layer at the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary made asteroid impact and volcanism the most favored explanations for the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.[31]

The other main type of science is experimental science, which is often said to work by conducting experiments to disprove hypotheses about the workings and causes of natural phenomena – note that this approach cannot confirm a hypothesis is correct, since some later experiment may disprove it. However, when confronted with totally unexpected phenomena, such as the first evidence for invisible Draft:radiation, experimental scientists often use the same approach as historical scientists: construct a set of hypotheses about the causes and then look for a "smoking gun".[31]

Life on earth has suffered occasional mass extinctions at least since 542 Ma. Although they are disasters at the time, mass extinctions have sometimes accelerated the evolution of life on earth. When dominance of particular ecological niches passes from one group of organisms to another, it is rarely because the new dominant group is "superior" to the old and usually because an extinction event eliminates the old dominant group and makes way for the new one.[32][33]

Maronites[edit]

Maronites were persecuted during the Byzantine empire, followed by the Arab invasion of the Middle East (Mount Lebanon) and finally by the Ottoman Empire. The Great Famine of Mount Lebanon, which occurred between 1915 and 1918, was caused by the Ottoman policy of acquiring all food products produced in the region for the Ottoman army and administration, and the barring of any produce from being sent to the Maronite Christian population of Mount Lebanon, effectively condemning them to starvation.[34] It was suggested at the time that the starvation of the Maronites was a deliberately orchestrated Ottoman policy aimed at destroying the Maronites, in keeping with the treatment of Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks.[35] The death toll among Maronite Christians, mainly due to starvation and disease is estimated to have been 200,000.[36]

Maronite Christians felt a sense of alienation and exclusion as a result of Pan-Arabism in Lebanon.[37][38] Part of its historic suffering is the Damour massacre by the PLO. Until recently, the Maronites in Cyprus battled to preserve their ancestral language.[39]

The Maronite monks maintain that Lebanon is synonymous with Maronite history and ethos; that its Maronitism antedates the Arab conquest of Lebanon and that Arabism is only a historical accident.[40] The Maronites also felt mass persecution under the Ottoman Turks, who massacred and mistreated Maronites for their faith, disallowing them from owning horses and forcing them to wear only black clothing. The Turkish Ottoman Empire slew upwards of 300,000 Maronites, forced the remaining populations into the mountains (which spawned Mount Lebanon) and let another 100,000 die of starvation while stranded with no means of self-sufficiency. The Lebanese Druze also persecuted the Maronites, and massacred in excess of 50,000 of them in the mid-1800s. However, agreements have been held with the druze. Moreover, the Maronites later emerged as the most dominant group in Lebanon a status they held until the sectarian conflict that resulted in the Lebanese Civil War.

Hypotheses[edit]

  1. There is at least one unexpected event.
  2. There is at least one negative consequence occurring.
  3. Without the intention of the one suffering the consequences.
  4. There is at least one process operating.
  5. Dominant group is an accident of whatever processes are operating.

References[edit]

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  21. Eastview (10 March 2009). File:BigRed-Sprite.jpg. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  22. Diagram 2: the orbit of the Peekskill meteorite along with the orbits derived for several other meteorite falls. Uregina.ca. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
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  36. Harris 2012, p.174
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  40. The Maronites in History – Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2010-10-14.

External links[edit]