Dominant group/Literature

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York road library has been closed for over 20 years and is designed in an adaptation of the Renaissance style to express the purpose for which the building will be used (first dominant form of English Renaissance was Literature). Credit: philld.

Literature is the art of written works, and is not bound to published sources (although, under circumstances unpublished sources can be exempt). The two major classification of literature are poetry and prose. Others exclude all genres such as romance, crime and mystery, science fiction, horror and fantasy.

The theory of dominant group with respect to literature falls into at least two situations: a dominant group of literature or a dominant group associated with literature.

Dominant group[edit | edit source]

Examples from primary sources are to be used to prove or disprove each hypothesis. These can be collected per subject or in general.

  • Accident hypothesis: dominant group is an accident of whatever processes are operating.
  • Artifact hypothesis: dominant group may be an artifact of human endeavor or may have preceded humanity.
  • Association hypothesis: dominant group is associated in some way with the original research.
  • Bad group hypothesis: dominant group is the group that engages in discrimination, abuse, punishment, and additional criminal activity against other groups. It often has an unfair advantage and uses it to express monopolistic practices.
  • Control group hypothesis: there is a control group that can be used to study dominant group.
  • Entity hypothesis: dominant group is an entity within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  • Evolution hypothesis: dominant group is a product of evolutionary processes, such groups are the evolutionary process, produce evolutionary processes, or are independent of evolutionary processes.
  • Identifier hypothesis: dominant group is an identifier used by primary source authors of original research to identify an observation in the process of analysis.
  • Importance hypothesis: dominant group signifies original research results that usually need to be explained by theory and interpretation of experiments.
  • Indicator hypothesis: dominant group may be an indicator of something as yet not understood by the primary author of original research.
  • Influence hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article containing original research to indicate influence or an influential phenomenon.
  • Interest hypothesis: dominant group is a theoretical entity used by scholarly authors of primary sources for phenomena of interest.
  • Metadefinition hypothesis: all uses of dominant group by all primary source authors of original research are included in the metadefinition for dominant group.
  • Null hypothesis: there is no significant or special meaning of dominant group in any sentence or figure caption in any refereed journal article.
  • Object hypothesis: dominant group is an object within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  • Obvious hypothesis: the only meaning of dominant group is the one found in Mosby's Medical Dictionary.
  • Original research hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article by the author to indicate that the article contains original research.
  • Primordial hypothesis: dominant group is a primordial concept inherent to humans such that every language or other form of communication no matter how old or whether extinct, on the verge of extinction, or not, has at least a synonym for dominant group.
  • Purpose hypothesis: dominant group is written into articles by authors for a purpose.
  • Regional hypothesis: dominant group, when it occurs, is only a manifestation of the limitations within a region. Variation of those limitations may result in the loss of a dominant group with the eventual appearance of a new one or none at all.
  • Source hypothesis: dominant group is a source within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  • Term hypothesis: dominant group is a significant term that may require a 'rigorous definition' or application and verification of an empirical definition.

Literature[edit | edit source]

This is a scan of the title page of the First Folio of William Shakespeare's plays. Credit: Ham.

Def. “[t]he body of all written works”[1] is called literature.

Writings[edit | edit source]

His bringing "writing center practice into line with the authorized knowledge about writing, and his widely followed stricture that tutors are to support the classroom teacher's position completely is clear evidence of how writing centers do not escape domination. Yet one of the benefits of being excluded from the dominant group is that in this position one has less to protect and less to lose."[2]

Comedies[edit | edit source]

Color lithograph poster is for the 1912 musical comedy farce "Don't Lie to Your Wife". Credit: Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research.

"Thus, the use of stereotypes in popular fictional forms such as situation comedies may be rather less unambiguously a reflection of dominant group views than Dyer suggests."[3]

"Mean scores for number of Smile and Laughter responses in telic and paratelic state-dominant groups throughout six successive 100 sec periods during exposure to comedy."[4]

"Yet the situation of women is more complex because of their close involvement with members of the dominant group, which has blurred the boundaries between "us" and "them.""[5]

Comparative literature[edit | edit source]

"Without doubt, multiculturalism is preferable to the monoculturalist oppression of minorities by the dominant group."[6]

Criticism[edit | edit source]

Def. “[t]he study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature”[7] is called literary criticism.

"But my point is that one constant within this struggle remains: that an oppositional culture of non-dominant groups has to define itself against the practices and ideology of the dominant group (or groups), and this inevitably has consequences for form. Indeed, only a very unsophisticated literary criticism could conceive of form and content as distinct entities."[8]

Debates[edit | edit source]

This shows the last Democratic presidential debate of 2015 held on the Saturday night before Christmas. Credit: Jim Cole / AP Photo.

Def. “a type of literary composition, taking the form of a discussion or disputation”[9] is called debate.

"On the other hand, it served to maintain the Moluccans' challenge of and resistance to the dominant group's definitions. These examples indicate that it is important to examine the actual use of the notion of 'essentialism' in argument and debate."[10]

Dramas[edit | edit source]

Colored portrait of Alma Hanlon is from the cover of Motography, March 10, 1917. Credit: Anonymous photographer.

"Through the sape, there develops what James Scott (1990), in his brilliant essay on resistance strategies in subcultures, calls "hidden transcripts"-a series of disguised messages and attitudes representing a hidden critique of the dominant group's authority."[11]

"Whatever multiplicity of expectations the public may have prior to their first experience with the drama, this system of signs tends to reduce them towards a sameness which conforms with the dominant group's notion of social and artistic "validity" as incorporated into the theater design."[12]

"On the one hand, a theatre seen as part of the unfolding social revolution involves theatre as a catalyst and a pusher in new directions which may not (in this case) represent the interests of an elite or dominant group."[13]

Eroticas[edit | edit source]

This is the cover image from the new erotica e-book by Elizabeth Black. Credit: New Dawning Bookfair.

"Here, for a fleeting moment (or occasionally even an entire evening), the existing social/sexual/economic power arrangements are challenged, where the client (who under “normal” circumstances has membership among the hegemonic, socially rewarding, dominant group of sexually conforming elites) temporarily crosses over the dichotomized chasm into the other world, and seeks temporary acceptance among those representing sexually challenging, alternative, erotic communities."[14]

Horrors[edit | edit source]

'Soho Golem' was published in The Mammoth Book of Best New Horror number 16. Credit: Unknown.

"And like non-disabled women, they have a darker side; they are evil, depraved. They function as symbolic scapegoats for the dominant group, and hence the latter may feel horror and disgust and avert their eyes-or stare."[15]

Novels[edit | edit source]

This shows the fiction book cover image for the novel THE SOWER by author Kemble Scott. Credit: Kemble Scott.

"Their experience is encoded in the dominant culture as that of exotic Other, "foreigners," as Ralph Connor revealingly titled his novel of immigration in the appropriate(d) discourse. This dominant group has framed the grounds for discussion of a "national literature.""[16]

"This point is crucial to understanding Donald's internalized racism and the novel's resistance to it: the dominant group obtains the consent of the subordinated group not by compulsion but by seduction."[17]

"There is another distinction to be made in considering the Afro-American novel. Baker speaks of experiences in which the dominant group overtly discriminates against the black society and unabashedly allows distinctions that prove its superiority."[18]

Poetrys[edit | edit source]

"Only those aspects of the minority culture that overlap the dominant culture are recognized by the dominant group."[19]

"Their attitudes toward historical fact are complicated, but not because they are a muted group within a dominant group."[20]

"It began with a rejection of the dominant group and a recognition of acceptance of blackness. In the enumeration and praising of black qualities, it reached its height in an "unfolding" common to both black American and black African poetry."[21]

Science fictions[edit | edit source]

Amazing Stores was the first science fiction magazine of the pulp fiction era. Credit: Hugo Gernsback.

"Nerds also collect objects connected with knowledge (atlases and maps; mathematical and scientific equipment such as telescopes and slide rules; etc.), and are avid science fiction fans. ... While they arguably represent a privileged and dominant group, many must reconcile this status with their experience of themselves as relatively powerless, or even subjugated, in their everyday lives."[22]

"All the participants in a dominant culture do not necessarily belong to a dominant group. ... This liquidation is the principal subject of Lovecraft's opus, as I tried to show in "Entre le Fantastique et la Science-Fiction, Lovecraft," Cahiers de l'Herne No. 12 (1969)."[23]

"When groups see themselves as opposed, competing for the same resources, subordinate groups may view the dominant group as cold, exploiting, cruel, and arrogant. ... This is the case in the example at the end of this article, where-it is argued that "Aliens" in recent science fiction films are—among other things—figures for actual historical aliens who enter US borders, legally or illegally."[24]

Hypotheses[edit | edit source]

  1. Usually literature serves the purposes of the dominant group to maintain itself as such.
  2. Occasionally literature serves the better good of us all.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. literature. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. December 14, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-18. 
  2. Marilyn M. Cooper (Spring 1994). "Really Useful Knowledge: A Cultural Studies Agenda for Writing Centers". The Writing Center Journal 14 (2): 97-111. Retrieved 2016-08-31. 
  3. Janet Woollacott (2000). Paul Marris, Sue Thornham. ed. Fictions and ideologies: The case of situation comedy, In: Media studies: a reader Second Edition. New York: New York University Press. pp. 283-296. ISBN 0-8147-5647-6. Retrieved 2012-02-10. 
  4. Sven Svebak, Michael J. Apter (September 1987). "Laughter: An empirical test of some reversal theory hypotheses". Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 28 (3): 189-98. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.1987.tb00755.x. Retrieved 2012-02-10. 
  5. Joanne R. Gilbert (1997). "Performing marginality: Comedy, identity, and cultural critique". Text and Performance Quarterly 17 (4): 317-30. doi:10.1080/10462939709366196. Retrieved 2012-02-10. 
  6. Masao Miyoshi (Autumn 2001). "Turn to the Planet: Literature, Diversity, and Totality". Comparative Literature 53 (4): 283-97. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  7. Dan Polansky (10 June 2008). literary criticism. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2012-08-27. 
  8. Maria Lauret (11 September 2002). Liberating literature. London: Routledge. pp. 256. ISBN 9781134920969. Retrieved 4 January 2019. 
  9. Primetime~enwiktionary (25 February 2006). debate. San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2012-08-27. 
  10. M Verkuyten (September 2003). "Discourses about ethnic group (de‐) essentialism: Oppressive and progressive aspects". British Journal of Social Psychology 42 (3): 371-391. doi:10.1348/014466603322438215. Retrieved 4 January 2019. 
  11. Ch. Didier Gondola (April 1999). "Dream and Drama: The Search for Elegance among Congolese Youth". African Studies Review 42 (1): 23-48. Retrieved 2012-02-09. 
  12. Michael Hays (Autumn 1977). "Theater History and Practice: An Alternative View of Drama". New German Critique (12): 85-97. Retrieved 2012-02-09. 
  13. Liz Gunner (1990). "Introduction: forms of popular culture and the struggle for Space". Journal of Southern African Studies 16 (2): 199-206. doi:10.1080/03057079008708230. Retrieved 2012-02-09. 
  14. Lisiunia A. Romanienko (2011). Romanienko, In: Body Piercing and Identity Construction: A Comparative Perspective. New York: Springer. pp. 131-9. doi:10.1057/9780230117129_8. ISBN 978-1-349-29275-2. Retrieved 2016-08-31. 
  15. Robin Tolmach Lakoff (Summer 1989). "Review: Women and disability". Feminist Studies 15 (2): 365-75. doi:10.2307/3177796. Retrieved 2015-07-27. 
  16. Barbara Godard (Spring 1990). "The Discourse of the Other: Canadian Literature and the Question of Ethnicity". The Massachusetts Review 31 (1/2): 153-84. Retrieved 2012-04-26. 
  17. David Goldstein-Shirley (Summer 2000). "'The Dragon is a Lantern': Frank Chin's Counter-Hegemonic Donald Duk". 49th Parallel, An interdisciplinary journal of North American studies (6). Retrieved 2012-04-26. 
  18. Elizabeth Nunez-Harrell (Winter 1976). "Lamming and Naipaul: Some Criteria for Evaluating the Third-World Novel". Contemporary Literature 19 (1): 26-47. Retrieved 2012-04-26. 
  19. David Ian Hanauer (September 2003). "Multicultural moments in poetry: The importance of the unique". Canadian Modern Language Review/ La Revue canadienne des langues vivantes 60 (1): 69-87. doi:10.3138/cmlr.60.1.69. Retrieved 2011-10-21. 
  20. Margaret Dickie (Autumn 1987). "The Alien in Contemporary American Women's Poetry". Contemporary Literature 28 (3): 301-16. Retrieved 2011-10-21. 
  21. Suzanne Valenti (4th Quarter 1973). "The Black Diaspora: Negritude in the Poetry of West Africans and Black Americans". Phylon 34 (4): 390-8. Retrieved 2011-10-21. 
  22. Lori Kendall (Spring 1999). ""The Nerd Within": Mass Media and the Negotiation of Identity Among Computer-Using Men". The Journal of Men's Studies 7 (3): 353-69. Retrieved 2012-02-09. 
  23. Gérard Klein, D. Suvin and Leila Lecorps (March 1977). "Discontent in American science fiction". Science Fiction Studies 4 (1): 3-13. Retrieved 2012-02-09. 
  24. Charles Ramírez Berg (1990). "Stereotyping in films in general and of the Hispanic in particular". Howard Journal of Communications 2 (3): 286-300. doi:10.1080/10646179009359721. Retrieved 2012-02-09. 

Further reading[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

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