Dominant group/Timeline and radiance

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The bronze timeline is "Fifteen meters of History" with background information board. Credit: Kjell Olauson.

While dominant group may appear in a publication within a specific subject area, it may not necessarily be the case that a change in meaning specific to that subject area has occurred.

Here, it is used for the apparent first appearance of the term dominant group singular or plural in the title or text, where some specific designation of subject area and radiance are indicated.

The appearance of dominant group is implied, variations are noted.

After about 1920, subject areas re-occurring are usually not indicated by another entry but further radiance is.

Earlier titles, subject areas, and radiances may change this timeline.

Finer specialization using the term is also included.

Dominant group[edit]

Examples from primary sources are to be used to prove or disprove each hypothesis. These can be collected per subject or in general.

  1. Accident hypothesis: dominant group is an accident of whatever processes are operating.
  2. Artifact hypothesis: dominant group may be an artifact of human endeavor or may have preceded humanity.
  3. Association hypothesis: dominant group is associated in some way with the original research.
  4. Bad group hypothesis: dominant group is the group that engages in discrimination, abuse, punishment, and additional criminal activity against other groups. It often has an unfair advantage and uses it to express monopolistic practices.
  5. Control group hypothesis: there is a control group that can be used to study dominant group.
  6. Entity hypothesis: dominant group is an entity within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  7. Evolution hypothesis: dominant group is a product of evolutionary processes, such groups are the evolutionary process, produce evolutionary processes, or are independent of evolutionary processes.
  8. Identifier hypothesis: dominant group is an identifier used by primary source authors of original research to identify an observation in the process of analysis.
  9. Importance hypothesis: dominant group signifies original research results that usually need to be explained by theory and interpretation of experiments.
  10. Indicator hypothesis: dominant group may be an indicator of something as yet not understood by the primary author of original research.
  11. Influence hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article containing original research to indicate influence or an influential phenomenon.
  12. Interest hypothesis: dominant group is a theoretical entity used by scholarly authors of primary sources for phenomena of interest.
  13. Metadefinition hypothesis: all uses of dominant group by all primary source authors of original research are included in the metadefinition for dominant group.
  14. Null hypothesis: there is no significant or special meaning of dominant group in any sentence or figure caption in any refereed journal article.
  15. Object hypothesis: dominant group is an object within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  16. Obvious hypothesis: the only meaning of dominant group is the one found in Mosby's Medical Dictionary.
  17. Original research hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article by the author to indicate that the article contains original research.
  18. Primordial hypothesis: dominant group is a primordial concept inherent to humans such that every language or other form of communication no matter how old or whether extinct, on the verge of extinction, or not, has at least a synonym for dominant group.
  19. Purpose hypothesis: dominant group is written into articles by authors for a purpose.
  20. Regional hypothesis: dominant group, when it occurs, is only a manifestation of the limitations within a region. Variation of those limitations may result in the loss of a dominant group with the eventual appearance of a new one or none at all.
  21. Source hypothesis: dominant group is a source within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  22. Term hypothesis: dominant group is a significant term that may require a 'rigorous definition' or application and verification of an empirical definition.

Timeline[edit]

Def. "a graphical representation of a chronological sequence of events (past or future)"[1] is called a timeline.

For a timeline, the evidence that demonstrates dominant group has a timeline, diversity, and radiance is the chronological presentation of occurrences, alternate meanings, relative synonyms, and changes in subject areas or specialization with time.

  • 1826 - "Groups, according to their range, may be denominated either predominant, dominant, sub-dominant, or quiescent.", "An Introduction to Entomology: or Elements of the Natural History of Insects, Volume IV"[2], Entomology.
  • 1840 - "XXII.—Monograph of the Dorylidæ, a family of the Hymenoptera Heterogyna"[3], The Annals and Magazine of Natural History Series 1, Entomology.
  • 1853-7 - "a group is ... dominant", "The Old Regime and the Revolution: Notes on the French Revolution and Napoleon"[4], Government.
  • 1859 - "dominant groups", “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection”[5], Natural Selection.
  • 1866 - "November 19, 1866"[6], Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society, Entomology.
  • 1867 - "Mimicry, and Other Protective Resemblances Among Animals (1867)"[7], Entomology.
  • 1871 - "Contributions to the theory of natural selection"[8], Entomology.
  • 1877 - "On the Classification of Butterflies, with Special Reference to the Position of the Equites or Swallow-Tails"[9], Transactions of the American Entomological Society.
  • 1880 - "Cainozoic Time [On the Insecta of the Miocene Period, and the animals and plants with which they were correlated.]"[10], in the book: The geological antiquity of insects: Twelve papers on fossil entomology, Paleoentomology.
  • 1887 - "The Significance of Certain Phases in the Genus Helminthophila"[11], Botany.
  • 1895 - "The Philosophy of Flower Seasons, and the Phaenological Relations of the Entomophilous Flora and the Anthophilous Insect Fauna"[12], Botany.
  • 1899 - "The Trend of Human Progress"[13], American Anthropologist New Series, Anthropology.
  • 1903 - "The Structure and Significance of Vestigial Wings among Insects"[14], Entomology.
  • 1907 - "Some Disputed Points in Primary Election Legislation"[15], "Proceedings of the American Political Science Association".
  • 1908 - "A Manual of North American Diptera, 3rd edition"[16], Entomology, Paleoentomology.
  • 1912 - "I.—A Note on some Fossil Plants from the Kent Coal-field"[17], Paleobotany.
- "Race Psychology: Standpoint and Questionnaire, With Particular Reference to the Immigrant and the Negro"[18], American Journal of Sociology.
  • 1914 - "Internal Relations of Terrestrial Associations"[19], Ecology.
  • 1916 - "The Logic of Religion: Concluded"[20], The American Journal of Theology.
  • 1920 - "Price Economics Versus Welfare Economics"[21].
- "The Port of Paris"[22], Geographical Review, Geography.
  • 1921 - "Croonian lecture: Release of function in the nervous system"[23], Neurology.
  • 1923 - "Art in a Democracy"[24], Art, Sociology.
- "Common Law in a Transitional Era"[25].
  • 1926 - "The chrysotoxine syrphid-flies"[26], Entomology.
  • 1928 - "Self-Respect as a Factor in Racial Advancement"[27], Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
- "Early neurology in the United States"[28], Neurology.
  • 1929 - "The phylogeny of the Leporidae, with description of a new genus"[29], Journal of Mammalogy.
  • 1930 - "A study of a test of ascendence-submission"[30], Psychology.
  • 1931 - "Two Racial Islands in Alabama"[31], American Journal of Sociology.
  • 1932 - "Personality and group factors in the making of atheists"[32], The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology.
  • 1933 - "The furless rabbit"[33], Journal of Heredity.
  • 1935 - "A critical analysis of the tactics and programs of minority groups"[34], The Journal of Negro Education.
  • 1936 - "The "Failure" of the League of Nations"[35], The American Journal of International Law.
  • 1938 - "Psychiatry and the conditioning of criminal justice"[36].
  • 1942 - "form-dominant group", "Genetic studies in abstraction"[37], Journal of Comparative Psychology.
  • 1943 - "Nativistic movements"[38], Anthropology.
  • 1944 - "Tempo and Mode in Evolution"[39].
- "Territory as a result of despotism and social organization in geese"[40], Ornithology.
  • 1946 - "Psychodynamic and electroencephalographic factors in duodenal ulcer"[41], Psychosomatic medicine.
  • 1947 - "Spanish cosecha and its congeners"[42], Language.
  • 1950 - "Persistence of individual strains of Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of man"[43], Journal of Bacteriology.
- "Some aspects of magmatic evolution"[44], Volcanology, Igneous Petrology
  • 1954 - "The influence of the Gebel Aulyia Dam on the development of Nile plankton"[45], The Journal of Animal Ecology.
  • 1958 - "On the composition of meteors"[46], Planetary Science.
- "Fault patterns in southeastern Alaska"[47], Structural Geology, Geology
  • 1959 - "Intelligibility and inter-ethnic attitudes"[48], Anthropological linguistics.
  • 1960 - "The Concept of 'Egemonia' in the Thought of Antonio Gramsci: Some Notes on Interpretation"[49], Journal of the History of Ideas.
  • 1961 - "A Group of Inscribed Egyptian Tools"[50], Archaeology.
  • 1962 - "Petrography and genesis of recent sediments in Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, Rhode Island"[51], Sedimentology.
  • 1964 - "A New Substituent Constant, π, Derived from Partition Coefficients"[52], Journal of the American Chemical Society, Chemistry
- "Al-dominant group", "Stabilities of Three-Layer Phyllosilicates Related to Their Ionic-Covalent Bonding", "Clays and clay minerals"[53], Mineralogy.
  • 1968 - "An Iron Spark Line List in the 10-18 Å Range and its Comparison with Flare Spectra"[54], Solar astronomy.
  • 1969 - "Morphology, Petrology and Provenance of Pebbles from Lower Cretaceous Conglomerates of South-eastern Alexander Island"[55], Sedimentary Petrology.
  • 1979 - "dominant Group D rocks", "Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the potassic igneous rocks from the Roccamonfina volcano, Roman comagmatic region, Italy"[56].
  • 1981 - "Defining the "Dominant Group""[57], Ethnicity.
  • 1984 - "Hot subdwarfs in detached binary systems and thick-disk cataclysmic variables from the Palomar-Green survey"[58], Stellar Astronomy.
  • 1986 - "Quaternary paleo-oceanography, pteropod preservation and stable-isotope record of the Red Sea"[59], Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.
  • 1987 - "Asymmetry of lineages and the direction of evolutionary time"[60], Paleontology.
  • 1989 - "Minerals and trace elements in total diets in the Netherlands"[61], Nutrition.
  • 1991 - "Review of the Silurian in the Brabant Massif, Belgium"[62], Historical Geology, Paleozoology.
- "Decreased superovulatory responses in heifers superovulated in the presence of a dominant follicle"[63], Agriculture.
  • 1994 - "Wavelet Spectrum Analysis and Ocean Wind Waves"[64], Geophysics.
- "dominant minority group", "Childbearing, reproductive control, aging women, and health care: The projected ethical debates"[65], Nursing, Demographics.
  • 1996 - "The functional basis of ocular dominance: functional MRI (fMRI) findings"[66], Clinical Physics.
  • 1997 - "20. Oxygen-Isotope Constraints on Serpentinization Processes in Ultramafic Rocks from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (23°N)"[67], Metamorphic Petrology.
  • 2000 - "Getting the measure of biodiversity"[68].
- "Quantum Physics: An Introduction"[69], Chemical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics.
- "Hedging pressure effects in futures markets"[70], The Journal of Finance.
  • 2005 - "Out of Tanganyika: Genesis, explosive speciation, key-innovations and phylogeography of the haplochromine cichlid fishes"[71].
  • 2007 - "Molecular phylogenetics of Caenogastropoda (Gastropoda: Mollusca)"[72].
  • 2011 - "Spin pumping by parametrically excited exchange magnons"[73], Surface Physics, Solid State Physics.
  • 2012 - "Developing India-centric B2B sales theory: an inductive approach using sales job ads"[74], Business.

Radiances[edit]

Def. "the quality or state of spreading around as if from an origin"[75] is called radiance.

Subject radiance for "dominant group"
Subject 1800-1849 1850-1899 1900-1949 1950-1999 2000-present
agriculture ---- ---- ---- 1991[63] ----
anthropology ---- 1899[13] 1943[38] 1978[76] 2011[77]
archeology ---- ---- ---- 1961[50] 2011[77]
art ---- ---- 1923[24] 1984[78] 2005[79]
astronomy ---- ---- ---- 1958[46] 2007[80]
astrophysics ---- ---- ---- 1968[54] 2006[81]
atmospheric science ---- ---- ---- 1953[82] 2000[83]
bacteriology ---- ---- ---- 1950[43] 2006[84]
biodiversity ---- ---- ---- 1994[85] 2000[68]
biology ---- ---- ---- ---- 2005[71]
botany ---- 1887[11] 1947[86] 1998[87] 2009[88]
business ---- ---- ---- 1986[89] 2012[74]
chemical physics ---- ---- 1926[90] 1987[91] 2000[69]
chemistry ---- ---- 1913[92] 1964[52] ----
clinical physics ---- ---- ---- 1996[66] ----
communication ---- ---- ---- 1986[93] 2009[94]
condensed matter physics ---- ---- ---- ---- 2000[69]
criminal justice ---- ---- 1938[36] ---- ----
demographics ---- ---- ---- 1994[65] ----
ecology ---- ---- 1914[19] 1954[45] 2004[95]
economics ---- ---- 1920[21] 1998[96] 2004[97]
education ---- ---- 1935[34] 1979[98] 2009[99]
entomology 1826[2] 1866[6] 1903[14] 1971[100] 2008[101]
environment ---- ---- ---- ---- 2008[102]
ethics ---- ---- ---- ---- 2007[103]
ethnicity ---- 1899[13] 1934[104] 1981[57] 2006[105]
evolution ---- 1859 "natural selection"[5] 1944[39] 1999[106] 2005[71]
finance ---- ---- ---- ---- 2000[70]
genetics ---- ---- 1942[37] ---- 2008[102]
geochemistry ---- ---- ---- 1979[56] 2009[107]
geography ---- ---- 1920[22] 1981[108] 2005[109]
geology ---- ---- ---- 1950[44] 2005[110]
geophysics ---- ---- 1929[111] 1994[64] 2006[112]
government ---- 1853[4] ---- ---- ----
heredity ---- ---- 1932[33] ---- ----
history ---- ---- ---- 1960[49] ----
ichthyology ---- ---- ---- 1985[113] 2009[114]
language ---- ---- 1947[42] 1999[115] 2008[116]
law ---- ---- 1923[25] 1990[117] 2005[118]
linguistics ---- ---- ---- 1959[48] 2000[119]
literature ---- ---- ---- 1987[120] 2000[121]
logic ---- ---- 1916[20] ---- ----
mammalogy ---- ---- 1929[29] 1989[122] 2003[123]
materials science ---- ---- 1941[124] 1980[125] 2006[126]
medicine ---- ---- 1946[41] ---- 2002[127]
mineralogy ---- ---- ---- 1964[53] 2004[128]
music ---- ---- ---- 1983[129] 2002[130]
mythology ---- ---- ---- 1990[131] 2008[132]
neurology ---- ---- 1921[23] 1996[66] ----
nursing ---- ---- ---- 1994[65] ----
nutrition ---- ---- ---- 1989[61] ----
ornithology ---- ---- 1944[40] ---- ----
paleobotany ---- 1880[10] 1912[17] 1983[133] 2011[134]
paleoclimatology ---- ---- ---- 1986[59] ----
paleoecology ---- ---- ---- 1986[59] ----
paleoentomology ---- 1880[10] 1908[16] ---- ----
paleontology ---- 1880[10] 1908[16] 1987[60] 2011[134]
paleooceanography ---- ---- ---- 1986[59] ----
paleozoology ---- ---- ---- 1991[62] 2011[134]
petrography ---- ---- ---- 1962[51] ----
petrology ---- ---- ---- 1950[44] ----
pharmacology ---- ---- ---- 1973[135] ----
pharmacy ---- ---- ---- 1973[135] ----
philosophy ---- ---- ---- ---- 2000[136]
phylogenetics ---- ---- ---- ---- 2005[71]
phylogeography ---- ---- ---- ---- 2007[72]
physics ---- ---- ---- 1995[137] 2011[73]
planetary science ---- ---- ---- 1958[46] 2007[138]
political science ---- ---- 1907[15] 1994[139] ----
proteomics ---- ---- ---- ---- 2010[140]
psychiatry ---- ---- 1938[36] 1984[141] 2007[103]
psychology ---- ---- 1912[18] 1998[142] 2005[143]
quantum physics ---- ---- ---- ---- 2000[69]
regions 1826[2] 1859[5] ---- 1974[144] 2001[145]
religion ---- ---- 1916[20] 1990[146] 2000[119]
sedimentology ---- ---- ---- 1962[51] ----
semantics ---- ---- ---- 1995[147] 2005[148]
sociology ---- ---- 1912[18] 1998[142] 2006[105]
solid state physics ---- ---- ---- 1980[149] 2011[73]
surface physics ---- ---- ---- ---- 2011[73]
technology ---- ---- 1943[38] 1990[150] 2000[151]
terminology ---- ---- ---- 1998[152] ----
theology ---- ---- 1916[20] 1991[153] 2003[154]
volcanology ---- ---- ---- 1950[44] 2009[107]
zoology ---- ---- ---- 1989[122] ----
---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----

Synonyms[edit]

The genera differentia for possible definitions of "dominant group" fall into the following set of orderable pairs:

Genera differentia for "dominant group"[155]
Synonym for "dominant" Category Number Category Title Synonym for "group" Category Number Catgeory Title
“superior” 36 SUPERIORITY "arrangement" 60 ARRANGEMENT
“influential” 171 INFLUENCE "class" 61 CLASSIFICATION
“musical note” 462 HARMONICS "assembly" 74 ASSEMBLAGE
“most important” 670 IMPORTANCE "size" 194 SIZE
“governing” 739 GOVERNMENT "painting", "grouping" 572 ART
"master" 747 MASTER "association", "set" 786 ASSOCIATION
----- --- ------- "sect" 1018 RELIGIONS, CULTS, SECTS

'Orderable' means that any synonym from within the first category can be ordered with any synonym from the second category to form an alternate term for "dominant group"; for example, "superior class", "influential sect", "master assembly", "most important group", and "dominant painting". "Dominant" falls into category 171. "Group" is in category 61. Further, any word which has its most or much more common usage within these categories may also form an alternate term, such as "ruling group", where "ruling" has its most common usage in category 739, or "dominant party", where "party" is in category 74. "Taxon" or "taxa" are like "species" in category 61. "Society" is in category 786 so there is a "dominant society".

Dominant classes[edit]

  • 1822 July "The prevalence of the Russian power is not the prevalence of the rude barbarians, that constitute the bulk of the nation, but of the dominant class of proprietors, which is equally civilized with the same class in any other part of Europe."[156] Bold added, Political science, Economics.

Dominant family[edit]

  • 1857 "The poet here seems to assume that the province of Connaught took its name from the race of Conn of the Hundred Battles, who were the dominant family of that province in MacCoise's time."[157] bold added, History.

Dominant party[edit]

  • 1820 April "There was a violent war party, who wished all the resources of the State to be placed at the disposal of the national government; there was a peace party, composed of members of both parties, determined to put every obstacle in the way of the administration; while the Federalists generally regarded the declaration of war as an act of tyranny, and the measures of the dominant party as an infringement of State rights."[158] Bold added, Political science.

Dominant religions[edit]

  • 1726 The phrase “die Dominanten Religionen von ganz Europa”[159] occurs.

Dominant schools[edit]

  • 1800 quotation not accessible.[160]

Dominant species[edit]

  • 1859 "[I]n any limited country, the species which is most common, that is abound most in individuals, and the species which are most widely diffused within their country (and this is a different consideration from wide range, and to a certain extent from commonness), often give rise to varieties sufficiently well-marked to have been recorded in botanical works. Hence it is the most flourishing, or as they may be called, the dominant species -- those which range widely over the world, are the most diffused in their own country, and are the most numerous in individuals, -- which oftenest produce well-marked varieties, or, as I consider them, incipient species."[5]

Master classes[edit]

  • 1811 February "As they advanced in the knowledge of the dictionary, and in reading, they were promoted to the second company, and afterward to the first of the master's class.[161] Bold added, History.

Most important interests[edit]

  • 1780 "Even the actual promoters of the most important interests of mankind have seldom anticipated, in idea, the progressive consequences of their own plans."[162]

Superior classes[edit]

  • 1807 quotation is inaccessible.[163]

The dominants[edit]

  • 1757 “so sind solche entweder tonische Noten, Dominanten, oder Unterdominanren, und die Dominanten können simple oder tonische Dominanten seyn.”[164]

Upper department[edit]

  • 1780 "For the impression of the commercial arts is often conspicuous in the upper departments of life, before it reaches those of inferior condition; but the circle gradually widens."[162]

Hypotheses[edit]

  1. In Latin dominant group is dominans group, not classicus. When a dominant group exists for all humans, it is called gods, not dominant group.
  2. Gods that kill humans and thereby appear to rule them through killing are sometimes represented by human priests that convince others that they speak for the gods. The gods are not the dominant group of humans, but the priests are.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. "timeline". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 16, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 William Kirby, William Spence (1826). An Introduction to Entomology: or Elements of the Natural History of Insects, Volume IV. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, Paternoster Row. pp. 474–492. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  3. W.E. Shuckard (1840). "XXII.—Monograph of the Dorylidæ, a family of the Hymenoptera Heterogyna". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History Series 1 5 (30): 188-201. doi:10.1080/00222934009496804. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00222934009496804. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Alexis de Tocqueville (September 2001). Francois Furet and Francoise Melonio, ed. The Old Regime and the Revolution: Notes on the French Revolution and Napoleon, prepared between 1853 and 1857. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 257. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Charles Robert Darwin (1859). On the origin of the species by means of natural selection: or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray. p. 516.
  6. 6.0 6.1 John Lubbock (November 1866). "November 19, 1866". Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society 15 (7): xxxiv–xli. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1967.tb01460.x. 
  7. Alfred Russel Wallace (2010). Mimicry, and Other Protective Resemblances Among Animals (1867), In: ‘’Alfred Russel Wallace Classic Writings. Paper 8.
  8. Alfred Russel Wallace (1871). Contributions to the theory of natural selection. London: MacMillan and Co. p. 386.
  9. Samuel Hubbard Scudder (June 1877). "On the Classification of Butterflies, with Special Reference to the Position of the Equites or Swallow-Tails". Transactions of the American Entomological Society 6: 69-80. doi:http://www.jstor.org/stable/25076319. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Herbert Goss (1880). Herbert Goss, ed. Cainozoic Time [On the Insecta of the Miocene Period, and the animals and plants with which they were correlated.], In: The geological antiquity of insects: Twelve papers on fossil entomology. London: John Van Voorst. pp. 40–46. Retrieved 2011-07-31.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Spencer Trotter (October 1887). "The Significance of Certain Phases in the Genus Helminthophila". The Auk 4 (4): 307-10. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4067192. Retrieved 2011-09-20. 
  12. Charles Robertson (February 1895). "The Philosophy of Flower Seasons, and the Phaenological Relations of the Entomophilous Flora and the Anthophilous Insect Fauna". The American Naturalist 29 (338): 97-117. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2452534?&Search=yes&searchText=%22dominant+group%22&list=hide&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoAdvancedSearch%3Fq0%3D%2522dominant%2Bgroup%2522%26f0%3Dall%26c1%3DAND%26q1%3D%26f1%3Dall%26wc%3Don%26Search%3DSearch%26sd%3D1890%26ed%3D1900%26la%3D%26jo%3D&prevSearch=&item=2&ttl=3&returnArticleService=showFullText. Retrieved 2011-09-20. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 W J McGee (July 1899). "The Trend of Human Progress". American Anthropologist New Series 1 (3): 401-47. http://www.jstor.org/stable/658811?&Search=yes&searchText=%22dominant+group%22&list=hide&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoAdvancedSearch%3Fq0%3D%2522dominant%2Bgroup%2522%26f0%3Dall%26c1%3DAND%26q1%3D%26f1%3Dall%26wc%3Don%26Search%3DSearch%26sd%3D1890%26ed%3D1900%26la%3D%26jo%3D&prevSearch=&item=3&ttl=3&returnArticleService=showFullText. Retrieved 2011-09-20. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Charkes T. Brues (March 1903). "The Structure and Significance of Vestigial Wings among Insects". Biological Bulletin 4 (4): 179-90. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1535790. Retrieved 2011-07-31. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Charles Edward Merriam (Fourth Annual Meeting 1907). "Some Disputed Points in Primary Election Legislation". Proceedings of the American Political Science Association 4: 179-88. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3038465. Retrieved 2011-07-31. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Samuel W. Williston (August 1908). A Manual of North American Diptera, 3rd edition. New Haven, Connecticut: James T. Hathaway. pp. 405. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 E. A. Newell Arber (1912). "I.—A Note on some Fossil Plants from the Kent Coal-field". Geological Magazine (Decade V) 9: 97-9. doi:10.1017/S0016756800113937. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=5069788. Retrieved 2011-07-26. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 W. I. Thomas (May 1912). "Race Psychology: Standpoint and Questionnaire, With Particular Reference to the Immigrant and the Negro". American Journal of Sociology 17 (6): 725-75. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2763030?&Search=yes&searchText=sociology&searchText=majority&searchText=%22dominant+group%22&list=hide&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3D%2522dominant%2Bgroup%2522%2Bmajority%2Bsociology%26gw%3Djtx%26prq%3D%2522dominant%2Bgroup%2522%2Bmajority%2Bpsychology%26Search%3DSearch%26hp%3D25%26so%3Dold%26wc%3Don&prevSearch=&item=1&ttl=2238&returnArticleService=showFullText. Retrieved 2011-09-28. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 Arthur G. Vestal (July 1914). "Internal Relations of Terrestrial Associations". The American Naturalist 48 (571): 413-45. http://www.jstor.org/pss/2455985. Retrieved 2011-07-26. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Arthur Clinton Watson (April 1916). "The Logic of Religion: Concluded". The American Journal of Theology 20 (2): 244-65. http://www.jstor.org/pss/3155464. Retrieved 2011-07-26. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 Frank A. Fetter (September 1920). "Price Economics Versus Welfare Economics". The American Economic Review 10 (3): 467-87. http://www.jstor.org/pss/1809045. Retrieved 2011-07-26. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Albert Demangeon (November 1920). "The Port of Paris". Geographical Review 10 (5): 277-96. http://www.jstor.org/pss/207789. Retrieved 2011-07-26. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 Henry Head (June 1921). "Croonian lecture: Release of function in the nervous system". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character 92 (645): 184-209. http://www.jstor.org/pss/81050. Retrieved 2011-07-26. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 Edward G. Cox (April 1923). "Art in a Democracy". The Sewanee Review 31 (2): 187-97. http://www.jstor.org/pss/27533645. Retrieved 2011-07-26. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 E. F. Albertsworth (1923). "Common Law in a Transitional Era". American Bar Association Journal 9: 515. http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/abaj9&div=162&id=&page=. Retrieved 2011-09-25. 
  26. Shannon, Raymond C. (1926). "The chrysotoxine syrphid-flies". Proceedings of the United States National Museum 69 (2637): 1-20. http://si-pddr.si.edu/dspace/handle/10088/15648. Retrieved 2011-07-26. 
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Further reading[edit]

  • Anthony Grafton and Daniel Rosenberg (2010). Cartographies of Time: A History of the Timeline. Princeton Architectural Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-1568987637.

External links[edit]