Dominant group/Broader impacts

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This is an image of a Nuristani girl in a Kabul orphanage. Credit: Barbara Millucci.

What are the broader impacts of the proposed activity regarding dominant group?

The broader impacts are "concerned with issues of education, infrastructure, diversity, and societal benefit."[1] This along with intellectual merit “are criteria for scientists to be judged by scientists.”[1]

"Among the major recommendations of the [National Academy of Public Administration] NAPA panel is that ‘there is a need to improve the conceptual clarity of the objectives of the new criteria as well as the language used in stating them ... This is true of the language of Criterion 2 [broader impacts], in particular’"[1]

"[I]t may ... be simply that ... different scientific communities (i.e. disciplines) interpret Criterion 2, differently. ... Some disciplines, for example, may see themselves as purely scientific and, therefore, necessarily unconcerned with the broader impacts of their research."[1]

"While it may not be possible to predict specific potential applications for one's research, one should be able to discuss the value or applicability of the line of inquiry or research area."[1]

Universals[edit]

The evidence needed demonstrates the concept dominant group, specifically research or original research, focused on it, has broader merits.

Advancing discovery and training[edit]

“How well does the activity advance discovery and understanding while promoting teaching, training, and learning?”[2]

Ideally, at least one advanced graduate student should be provided full support for several years to work on the project completing a doctoral dissertation using project data.[3] Involve undergraduates and volunteers in field effort and subsequent analyses.[3]

Exploring modern languages, languages on the verge of extinction, and extinct languages for terms that are either relative or exact synonyms (translations) for dominant group advances discovery of meaning and terminology.

For example: "In January 2008, a coalition of over 40 civil society groups endorsed a statement of principles[4] calling for precautionary action related to nanotechnology."[5] "The group has urged action based on eight principles. They are 1) A Precautionary Foundation 2) Mandatory Nano-specific Regulations 3) Health and Safety of the Public and Workers 4) Environmental Protection 5) Transparency 6) Public Participation 7) Inclusion of Broader Impacts and 8) Manufacturer Liability."[5]

"Nanomedicines are just beginning to enter drug regulatory processes, but within a few decades could comprise a dominant group within the class of innovative pharmaceuticals, the current thinking of government safety and cost-effectiveness regulators appearing to be that these products give rise to few if any nano-specific issues.[6]"[5] Bold added.

"Ethnocide is when a dominant political group attempts to purposely put an end to a people’s traditional way of life. Linguicide (linguistic genocide) is when such a dominant group tries to extinguish the language of a minority group, say by punishing anyone caught speaking it."[7] Exploring the meaning and use of dominant group in such context increases understanding of the forces at work characterized by the terms inclusion.

Here's an example of how searching and using the power of the internet can bring about remarkable discoveries.

In an article that appeared in the American Scientist (May-June 2012) issue entitled "Herschel and the Puzzle of Infra-red", "Jack White mentions that it is not known who coined the term "infrared.""[8] "A Google Books search for "infra-red" finds two articles published in April 1874, both of which use the term in the context of Edmond Bacquerel's treatise on light."[8] There is an 1867 work using the French infra-rouge and one in English near the same time using "infra-red", "having translated it from the French."[8]

The author responds that "ultra red" and "infra-red" appear in a paper from 1873, researched in 1960 "in the dark ages before the Internet. Rosenberg's find is a reminder of the Internet's amazing, growing power to search original works in different languages."[9]

Underrepresented group participation[edit]

“How well does the proposed activity broaden the participation of underrepresented groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, disability, geographic, etc.)?”[2]

The proposed activity is ongoing at Wikiversity.

"Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation project devoted to learning resources, learning projects, and research for use in all levels, types, and styles of education from pre-school to university, including professional training and informal learning. We invite teachers, students, and researchers to join us in creating open educational resources and collaborative learning communities. To learn more about Wikiversity, try a guided tour or start editing now."[10]

Infrastructure enhancement[edit]

“To what extent will it enhance the infrastructure for research and education, such as facilities, instrumentation, networks, and partnerships?”[2]

Information may be made available in various venues:

  1. databases or contributions to other databases of all institutions, agencies, and individuals who manage similar databases,
  2. contributions to ongoing network analyses, and
  3. information sharing and access.[3]

Wikiversity is the premier online research and education database, facility, network and partnership of the WMF. That the proposed activity is ongoing at Wikiversity makes the information generated available through access and sharing.

"Just as an FYI, Wikiversity has been placed among the 'top picks' for this Google+ education list. It has been shared over 2000 times since its original posting."Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; invalid names, e.g. too many

The proposed activity would partner NSF with Wikiversity to enhance the infrastructure for research and education, including where possible, facilities, instrumentation, and networks within Wikiversity and between Wikiversity and NSF.

Broad dissemination[edit]

“Will the results be disseminated broadly to enhance scientific and technological understanding?”[2]

Have the project produce scientific publications such as

  1. a doctoral dissertation,
  2. an article in a regional journal,
  3. another article in a national or international journal, and
  4. possibly an article in a magazine widely used in university classes and read by general audiences internationally.[3]

Disseminate results to the professional community through presentations at

  1. national scientific association meetings,
  2. local avocational groups, and
  3. government and cultural resource meetings.[3]

Present the results to the general public through various outlets such as websites and local community lectures.[3]

An additional application for funding may be made to the NSF program for Sharing Science with Public audiences.[3]

Dominant group is an ongoing original research project that is being open-sourced here at Wikiversity both as a learning resource and to yield the broadest possible dissemination.

Benefits to society[edit]

“What may be the benefits of the proposed activity to society?"[2]

The research effort should be designed

  1. to benefit multiple audiences,
  2. have a substantial educational impact,
  3. reach out to local communities, where appropriate, and
  4. include a significant collaboration with these same communities.[3]

"Dominant group(s)", designated vaguely by the term, and the associated ideologies of exclusion, serve as apparent focused power structures that increase existing disparities in wealth and status, while marginalizing or disenfranchising "Others".[3]

This proposed activity explores the two-word term "dominant group" to increase awareness of what dominant groups are linguistically as well as socially and scientifically. As the original research effort is ongoing at Wikiversity it benefits all audiences that explore learning through Wikiversity. A successful collaboration between NSF and Wikiversity helps to disseminate the societal benefits of NSF to any local community where some access to the internet and computer terminals in various forms exists such as at pre-schools, elementary and secondary schools, high schools and universities.

Dominant group is a two-word term that occurs at least once in some 270 English Wikipedia entries. These usages may be original research, plagiarism, copyright violations, properly cited uses, or simply mistakes in usage by editors and contributors. Or, dominant group because of its long history may have become a commonly used two-word term that crosses the barrier between common language words that are in a dictionary and the vocabulary of specialists, scholars, and experts. On the general web as sampled by Google, dominant group yields about 513,000 results. Many of these relate right back to the ongoing research at Wikiversity or to the earlier dominant group entries on Wikipedia that were deleted as being original research.

As a potential indicator of copyright violation, dominant group may serve to help improve major web-based resources such as Wikipedia. On Wikipedia dominant group occurs in some 270 entries and as a split term such as dominant ethnic group in some 15,700 entries. Overall the English Wikipedia contains some 5,074,967 entries.

The term "dominant group" occurs in all major fields of active discovery. Examples of the use of the term and discussion about and the implications of a dominant group are presented in various lectures and articles here at Wikiversity:

  1. Anthropology
  2. Archaeology
  3. Astronomy
  4. Astrophysics
  5. Attribution and copyright
  6. Cameroon
  7. Control group
  8. Feinburg, Walter (1998) Common schools uncummon identities. national unity and cultural difference.
  9. Economics
  10. Geology
  11. Gift economy
  12. Lamarckism
  13. Literature
  14. Materials science
  15. Metagenomes
  16. Metadefinition
  17. Motivation and emotion/Book/Toxic workplace
  18. NAU-POS254-Radical challenges to Enlightenment Ideologies
  19. Original research inquiry
  20. Planetary science
  21. Pragmatics
  22. Proof of concept
  23. Radiation astronomy
  24. Radiation chemistry
  25. Radiation entities
  26. Radiative dynamo
  27. Reading log McRuer, Tatum, Hjörne & Säljö
  28. Reflections on Tatum
  29. Regional astronomy
  30. Rigorous definition
  31. Semantics
  32. Semiotics
  33. Terminology
  34. Theoretical astronomy
  35. Theoretical radiation astronomy
  36. Transcription start site
  37. Visual astronomy
  38. X-ray astronomy

Articles or presentations of the research outside Wikiversity will be prepared openly here at Wikiversity as a teaching and training resource. Publication of such resources in open-access journals or scientific society journals benefits multiple audiences.

Before the benefits of the term and its relative synonyms is assessed, there is a need for some form of control group to serve as comparison. It should be noted that the two-word scientific term control group is a relative synonym of dominant group.

Hypotheses[edit]

  1. Dominant group has a broader impact due to its use in every major field.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 J. Britt Holbrook (November 2005). "Assessing the science-society relation: The case of the US National Science Foundation’s second merit review criterion". Technology in Society 27 (4): 437-51. http://www.csid.unt.edu/files/Holbrook_AssessingScienceSociety.pdf. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 NSF (August 17, 2011). "Chapter III - NSF Proposal Processing and Review". Arlington, Virginia, USA: The National Science Foundation. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 William Doelle (August 2011). Proposal Submitted to NSF Archaeology Program by: Center for Desert Archaeology. archaeologysouthwest.org. http://www.archaeologysouthwest.org/pdf/research_priority_supporting_edge_of_salado_cover.pdf. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  4. Principles for the Oversight of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials. International Center for Technology Assessment. 2008. http://www.icta.org/global/actions.cfm?page=15&type=366&topic=8. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Regulation of nanotechnology". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 9, 2010. Retrieved 2012-08-27.
  6. Vines T and Faunce TA Assessing the safety and cost-effectiveness of early nanodrugs Journal of Law and Medicine 2007; 16: 822-845
  7. Thomas N. Headland (2003). Thirty Endangered Languages in the Philippines, In: Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session (PDF). 47. Toledo-Cebu: Philippine Tourism. p. 12. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Gary Rosenberg (September-October 2012). "Infrared Dating, In: Letters to the Editor". American Scientist 100 (5): 355. http://online.qmags.com/AMS17717438?sessionID=46B02956BEE440ED324FF282F&cid=1902739&eid=17438#pg5&mode2. Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  9. Jack White (September-October 2012). "Mr. White responds, In: Letters to the Editor". American Scientist 100 (5): 355. http://online.qmags.com/AMS17717438?sessionID=46B02956BEE440ED324FF282F&cid=1902739&eid=17438#pg5&mode2. Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  10. "Wikiversity:Main Page, In: Wikiversity". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. April 28, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-22.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

{{Anthropology resources}}{{Radiation astronomy resources}}{{Chemistry resources}}

{{Economics resources}}{{Gene project}}{{Geology resources}}{{History of science resources}}{{Humanities resources}}{{Linguistics resources}}{{Reasoning resources}}{{Semantics resources}}{{Terminology resources}}{{Universal translator}}