Dominant group/Language

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The Wikipedia dominant language by country is indicated by different colors. Credit: Leonst & Sehrg.

Both language and linguistics can be subject to a dominant group. But, is dominant group as a two-word term a subject of language or linguistics? Most two-word terms like "net income" are usually quite limited in fields of application.

Dominant group[edit | edit source]

Examples from primary sources are to be used to prove or disprove each hypothesis. These can be collected per subject or in general.

  1. Accident hypothesis: dominant group is an accident of whatever processes are operating.
  2. Artifact hypothesis: dominant group may be an artifact of human endeavor or may have preceded humanity.
  3. Association hypothesis: dominant group is associated in some way with the original research.
  4. Bad group hypothesis: dominant group is the group that engages in discrimination, abuse, punishment, and additional criminal activity against other groups. It often has an unfair advantage and uses it to express monopolistic practices.
  5. Control group hypothesis: there is a control group that can be used to study dominant group.
  6. Entity hypothesis: dominant group is an entity within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  7. Evolution hypothesis: dominant group is a product of evolutionary processes, such groups are the evolutionary process, produce evolutionary processes, or are independent of evolutionary processes.
  8. Identifier hypothesis: dominant group is an identifier used by primary source authors of original research to identify an observation in the process of analysis.
  9. Importance hypothesis: dominant group signifies original research results that usually need to be explained by theory and interpretation of experiments.
  10. Indicator hypothesis: dominant group may be an indicator of something as yet not understood by the primary author of original research.
  11. Influence hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article containing original research to indicate influence or an influential phenomenon.
  12. Interest hypothesis: dominant group is a theoretical entity used by scholarly authors of primary sources for phenomena of interest.
  13. Metadefinition hypothesis: all uses of dominant group by all primary source authors of original research are included in the metadefinition for dominant group.
  14. Null hypothesis: there is no significant or special meaning of dominant group in any sentence or figure caption in any refereed journal article.
  15. Object hypothesis: dominant group is an object within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  16. Obvious hypothesis: the only meaning of dominant group is the one found in Mosby's Medical Dictionary.
  17. Original research hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article by the author to indicate that the article contains original research.
  18. Primordial hypothesis: dominant group is a primordial concept inherent to humans such that every language or other form of communication no matter how old or whether extinct, on the verge of extinction, or not, has at least a synonym for dominant group.
  19. Purpose hypothesis: dominant group is written into articles by authors for a purpose.
  20. Regional hypothesis: dominant group, when it occurs, is only a manifestation of the limitations within a region. Variation of those limitations may result in the loss of a dominant group with the eventual appearance of a new one or none at all.
  21. Source hypothesis: dominant group is a source within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  22. Term hypothesis: dominant group is a significant term that may require a 'rigorous definition' or application and verification of an empirical definition.

Languages[edit | edit source]

Def. "[a] form of communication using words either spoken or gestured with the hands and structured with grammar, often with a writing system"[1] is called a language.

Applied linguistics[edit | edit source]

Def. "[t]he scientific study of language"[2] is called linguistics.

"I first argue that the cultural dichotomy promoted in the applied linguistics literature is constructed by discourse that reflects and creates particular power relations in which the dominant group defines the subordinate group as the exotic Other."[3]

Ethnolinguistics[edit | edit source]

Def. the "field of linguistic anthropology which studies the language of a specific ethnic group"[4] is called ethnolinguistics.

"But surely we can remark that in spite of dominant group control and manipulations, subordinate group members do make themselves aware of powerful moments in their own history."[5]

Relative synonyms[edit | edit source]

The term dominant group appears to be used to identify entities of importance. The relative synonyms of dominant group fall into the following set of orderable pairs:

Genera differentia for "dominant group"[6]
Synonym for "dominant" Category Number Category Title Synonym for "group" Category Number Catgeory Title
“superior” 36 SUPERIORITY "arrangement" 60 ARRANGEMENT
“influential” 171 INFLUENCE "class" 61 CLASSIFICATION
“musical note” 462 HARMONICS "assembly" 74 ASSEMBLAGE
“most important” 670 IMPORTANCE "size" 194 SIZE
“governing” 739 GOVERNMENT "painting", "grouping" 572 ART
"master" 747 MASTER "association", "set" 786 ASSOCIATION
----- --- ------- "sect" 1018 RELIGIONS, CULTS, SECTS

'Orderable' means that any synonym from within the first category can be ordered with any synonym from the second category to form an alternate term for "dominant group"; for example, "superior class", "influential sect", "master assembly", "most important group", and "dominant painting". "Dominant" falls into category 171. "Group" is in category 61. Further, any word which has its most or much more common usage within these categories may also form an alternate term, such as "ruling group", where "ruling" has its most common usage in category 739, or "dominant party", where "party" is in category 74.

Interlingual communication[edit | edit source]

“When intelligibility is non-reciprocal, the language or dialect spoken by the culturally dominant group, or the language or dialect with the greater functional value, seems to be the preferred medium for interlingual communication.”[7]

Language dominance[edit | edit source]

“In addition, most inhabitants are Afrikaans-speaking (70%), with the so-called coloureds (almost 52%) as the dominant group.”[8]

Def. a "[l]anguage spoken by the dominant social group, or language that is seen as the main language of a country"[9] is called a dominant language.

Def. the "[m]ost powerful social group of the country due to population (numerical majority), economics (wealth) and/or politics (power)"[9] is called the dominant group.

Def. the "[l]anguage and culture of the dominant group"[9] is called the mainstream.

The mainstream "[o]ften refers to schools designed for members of the dominant group that do not meet the needs of linguistic minorities"[9].

"Textbooks and lessons focus on the language and culture of the dominant group."[9]

"Teachers who come from the dominant language society may consider the learners “slow”."[9]

A search of the UNESCO website produces 126 documents containing at least one use of dominant group each, including the glossary definition above.

Linguistic assimilation[edit | edit source]

"They also do it by forcibly moving children from one group (indigenous or minority) to another group (the dominant group) through linguistic and cultural forced assimilation in schools."[10] "Through glorification, the non-material resources of the dominant groups, including the dominant languages and cultures, and maybe specifically English, are presented as better adapted to meet the needs of 'modern', technologically developed, democratic post-industrial information-driven societies - and this is what a substantial part of ESL (English as a Second Language) ideology is about."[10]

Linguistic conflict[edit | edit source]

"A reliability test with another study (Jakobsen 1996a, 1996b) produced correlations from 0.78 (the size of the linguistic dominant group) to 0.95 (the size of the religious dominant group)."[11]

Linguistic imperialism[edit | edit source]

"Early in Linguistic Imperialism Phillipson makes the distinction between core English-speaking countries, in which the dominant group consists of distinction native speakers of English. e.g.. Britain and the USA (Kachru’s ‘inner’ circle) and periphery-English countries."[12]

Linguistic prehistory[edit | edit source]

"Such a relationship may just as well result in the adoption of the dominant group's language as a lingua franca without significant pidginisation."[13]

Multi-word verbs[edit | edit source]

"Monosyllabic or disyllabic verbs with the accent on the first syllable are the dominant group, and those are usually Germanic (Anglo-Saxon or Norse) elements (Bolinger 1971:175; Fraser 1976:13f: Live 1965:430)."[14]

Relative synonyms in various languages[edit | edit source]

Translations of "dominant group" and relative synonyms
Relative synonym in English Basque Czech German Finnish French Greek Hungarian Latin Norwegian Swahili Turkish
dominant group dominante talde dominantní skupina dominante Gruppe hallitseva ryhmä groupe dominant κυρίαρχη ομάδα (curiarchi omada) domináns csoport dominans group dominerende gruppe kundi kubwa baskın grubu
dominant grouping dominante taldekatze dominantní skupiny dominante Gruppierung hallitseva ryhmittymä regroupant dominante κυρίαρχη ομάδα domináns csoport dominans faucibus dominerende gruppering kundi kubwa baskın gruplama
dominant painting dominante pintura dominantní obraz dominant Malerei määräävässä maalaus peinture à dominante κυρίαρχη ζωγραφική domináns festészeti pictura dominatur dominerende maleri kubwa uchoraji baskın boyama
dominant party party menderatzailea dominantní strana dominante Partei hallitseva osapuoli parti dominant κυρίαρχο κόμμα domináns fél pars dominans dominerende partiet chama kubwa egemen parti
dominant religion menderatzailearen erlijio dominantní náboženství dominierende Religion hallitseva uskonto religion dominante κυρίαρχη θρησκεία domináns vallás dominans religio dominerende religion kubwa dini egemen din
dominant sect sekta menderatzailea dominantní sekta dominierende Sekte määräävän lahko secte dominante κυρίαρχο αίρεση domináns szekta dominant sect dominerende sekt dhehebu kubwa baskın mezhep
dominant species dominante espezie dominantním druhem dominanten Arten valtalajina espèce dominante κυρίαρχο είδος domináns fajok species dominante dominerende arter kubwa aina baskın türler
influential group eragin-talde vlivná skupina einflussreiche Gruppe vaikutusvaltainen ryhmä groupe influent επιρροή ομάδα befolyásos csoportja potentissimorum coetus innflytelsesrik gruppe kundi mashuhuri etkili grup
influential grouping
influential painting
influential party
influential religion
influential sect
influential species
master assembly
most important group
ruling group
superior arrangement
superior assembly
superior association
superior class
superior group
superior painting
superior set
superior size

مهيمن مجموعة[edit | edit source]


  1. "اللغة التايلندية هي اللغة الوطنة والرسمية لتايلند، واللغة الأم للشعب التايلندي، المجموعة العرقية المهيمنة في تايلند."[15]
  2. .البرماويون هي المجموعة العرقية المهيمنة في بورما ، تشكل حوالي 68 ٪ (30000000) من السكان."[16]
  3. "بحلول القرن الثامن، أصبحت السلاف المجموعة العرقية المهيمنة على سهول أوروبا الشرقية ."[17]

dominante Gruppe[edit | edit source]


  1. "Der Standpunkt einer untergeordneten Gruppe ist vollständiger, weil diese mehr Grund hat, eine dominante Gruppe zu verstehen, und weil sie weniger Interesse hat, den Status quo aufrechtzuerhalten."[18]
  2. "Ursprünglich gab es nur die Wa-sha-she, die in der Mythologie und der Stammesgeschichte der Osage stets eine dominante Gruppe bildeten."[19]
  3. "Allerdings ist auch hier wieder, wie in den Internatsgeschichten, die Anpassung an die dominante Gruppe (die bürgerliche Gesellschaft) der einzige Weg zur Integration."[20]

Grupo dominante[edit | edit source]


  1. "En las ciencias sociales se describe como autoodio, identificación con el grupo dominante, etc., el sentimiento de rechazo que siente el individuo, perteneciente a un grupo social de bajo estatus, ante características propias consideradas inferiores a las de los grupos dominantes."[21] "El punto culminante de un proceso de autoodio sería la completa asimilación del individuo al grupo dominante."[21]
  2. "Los Tai son cualquier miembro del grupo dominante del Sureste Asiático."[22]
  3. "La población de la región en aquel entonces estaba compuesta por etnias bálticas, eslavas, finesas; entre estos el grupo dominante eran los de la Rus."[23]

Groupe dominant[edit | edit source]


  1. "Les querelles linguistiques ou atteintes aux langues peuvent être des tentatives de sujétion de l'homme en imposant des paradigmes, comme dans le cas de la langue ou des expressions d'un groupe dominant."[24]
  2. "Dans cette situation, la soumission d'un groupe est justifiée par le groupe dominant par la soi-disant incapacité du groupe dominé à s'autogérer. Des caractéristiques négatives du groupe dominé comme une faible intelligence, la paresse, la pauvreté, et des qualités intrinsèques du groupe dominant comme la bienveillance sont soulignées afin de participer à ce mythe de légitimation."[25]
  3. "Ces régimes présentent la caractéristique commune d’afficher une idéologie officielle explicitement raciste et d’avoir institutionnalisé dans la loi une hiérarchie présentée comme naturelle et indépassable entre le groupe dominant et le groupe dominé."[26]

Gruppo dominante[edit | edit source]


  1. "L'impero è inoltre in genere caratterizzato da una ideologia imperiale, cioè dell'ideologia fondante dell'architettura del sistema imperiale, spesso connotata di caratteri di egemonismo ed universalità, sulla base della quale si modellano i meccanismi di controllo politico, sociale, religioso ed economico del gruppo dominante sui gruppi dominati."[27]
  2. "Di solito le persecuzioni sono rivolte a comprimere un movimento politico o religioso o a eliminare un gruppo etnico o sociale, economicamente, politicamente o tecnologicamente inferiore a un gruppo dominante che si ritiene superiore culturalmente."[28]
  3. "Per questo motivo la cooptazione si ritrova spesso in regimi aristocratici od oligarchici, dove rappresenta uno strumento di perpetuazione del ristretto gruppo dominante."[29]

支配集団[edit | edit source]


  1. "そしてまずイデオロギーの概念をユートピアの概念と一般的に区別して、前者を社会における支配集団の現状維持を認める虚偽意識、後者を被支配集団の現状超越的な虚偽意識であると考える。"[30]
  2. "宇文泰は武川鎮出身の者たちを集めて軍団を作り、西魏の支配集団を武川鎮出身の者で固めた。"[31]
  3. "支配集団ないし指導者と指導者に奉仕する政党は、イデオロギーと同一化し、これを政策の基盤として利用したり、操作したりして政策を正当化する。"[32]

Dominerende gruppe[edit | edit source]

(Norwegian, bokmål)

  1. "Men med opptil 400000 individer per m² jordoverflate er de en dominerende gruppe leddyr i terrestriske økosystemer, i noen tilfeller overgår de selv middene i antall."[33] In English this is close to, "But with up to 400,000 individuals per square meter land surface are the dominant group of arthropods in terrestrial ecosystems, in some cases exceeds the number of mites in itself."
  2. "Styret ble stadig mer opptatt av Fagopposisjonens virksomhet og 2/2 1913 var ungsosialistene med på å danne Kristiania fagoppositionsgruppe, som representerte en ren syndikalistisk linje. Her ble de en dominerende gruppe. På Fagopposisjonens stiftelsesmøte stilte de med flere typisk syndikalistiske forslag."[34] This is close to "The Board became increasingly concerned Trade Union Opposition business and 2/2 1913 ungsosialistene helped to create the Kristiania fagoppositionsgruppe, representing a pure syndicalist line. Here they were a dominant group. The Trade Union Opposition inaugural meeting they asked several typical syndicalist ideas."
  3. "Den nåværende utbredelsen er bare en liten rest fra tidligere tidsperioder, da Haglidae var en dominerende gruppe."[35] "The current distribution is only a remnant from earlier eras, when Haglidae was a dominant group."
  4. "Gress spredte seg til disse områdene og ble en dominerende gruppe."[36] "Grass spread to these areas and was a dominant group."
  5. "I mange avleiringer fra Tertiær-perioden er medlemmene i denne familien de vanligste av alle insekter, men det er uklart om dette skyldes at de var en dominerende gruppe i denne perioden eller bare at de hadde masseforekomster (som er ganske vanlige hos nålevende arter) på steder der sjansen var stor for at de skulle bli bevart som fossiler."[37] This translates close to "In many deposits from the Tertiary period, the members of this family, the most common of all insects, but it is unclear whether this is because they were a dominant group in this period or just that they had lots of instances (which are quite common in living species) on places where the chances were high that they should be preserved as fossils."

доминирующей группы[edit | edit source]


  1. "Новая эпоха в хип-хопе характеризуется также тем, что в хип-хоп мэйнстриме нет доминирующей группы артистов, как в начале 90-х, когда наибольшую популярность имели рэперы Калифорнии.[38]"[39]
  2. "В христианских и исламских странах, лицам не доминирующей религии зачастую предписывалось носить значки, шапки, колокольчики и другие предметы одежды, которые отличали бы их от членов доминирующей религиозной группы[40]."[41]
  3. "Некоторые конфликты с другими нигерийскими национальностей привело к тому что игбо стало доминирующей этнической группой в Восточной Нигерии вышедщей из Нигерии для создания независимого государства Биафра, что привело к Гражданской войне в Нигерии (6 июля 1967 — 15 января 1970)."[42]

Thống lĩnh nhóm[edit | edit source]

(Tiếng Việt)

  1. "Retsudō thống lĩnh nhóm mật thám gọi là "Kusa" rải rác khắp toàn quốc nhằm quan sát mọi động tĩnh của các Daimyō."[43]
  2. "Với một tay còn lại, Quân trở về quê thống lĩnh nhóm thanh niên khoảng 10 đối tượng, có độ tuổi từ 16 đến 23, suốt ngày lang thang trộm cắp."[44]

Baskın grubu[edit | edit source]


  1. "Diyatomların diğer fitoplankton türlerine göre baskın grubu oluşturdukları gözlenmiştir."[45]
  2. "Paleozoiğin bir diğer baskın grubu da dallı bacaklılardı."[46]

主要群体[edit | edit source]


  1. "这三个主要群体,但其中的细节还不太清楚。"[47]
  2. "打口主要群体是青少年,他们已经成人,社会负担和年岁的增长使他们大多冷落了曾让自己迷恋的打口。"[48]
  3. "“咖啡店闲谈”是指退休的年长者或在咖啡店的工作人士聚集在咖啡店里闲话家常,谈论内容多半关于時事新闻、国家政治和办公室政治,或者是各种生活相关的景象,如电视剧和饮食等,当中以年长男性为主要群体。[49]"[50]

Public language[edit | edit source]

"In some cases, only the language of the dominant group may be found on outside public signs, whereas the weaker language may coexist with the dominant language on signs inside state and private buildings."[51]

"Given that it is the dominant language group that can most effectively control the state apparatus regulating the language of public signs, one can consider the relative position of competing languages in the linguistic landscape as a measure of how the dominant group treats the linguistic minorities inhabiting the given territory"[51].

Wikibooks examples[edit | edit source]

"Most of the vocabulary of Hawaiian Pidgin is derived from English, the language of the dominant group."[52]

Wikipedia examples[edit | edit source]

"Most often, the vocabulary comes from the dominant group and the grammar from the subordinate group, where such stratification exists."[53]

"The schwa vowel /ə/ does not alternate but may trigger harmony as if it belonged to the dominant group."[54]

Later writers followed Speke in arguing that they had originally migrated as pastoralists and had established themselves as the dominant group, having lost their language as they assimilated to Bantu culture.[55]

"Each group must learn to speak the language of the dominant group yet may also derive social benefits from retaining the original dialect when interacting with fellow group members."[56]

"Two dominant groups spoke the PEA-A R-Dialect, i.e., the Munsee-dominant Wappinger (or Wampano), and the Quinnipiac-dominant Quiripi (sometimes spelled Quiripey)."[57]

"The reasons for this pattern of L1 attrition probably lie in a situation where the persecuted minority had the same L1 as the dominant majority, and the L1 thus became associated with elements of identity of that dominant group."[58]

Wikiversity examples[edit | edit source]

In Cameroon,

  1. "Categorized by 3 dominant groups; indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%.[8]", and
  2. ""Customary law is based upon the traditions of the ethnic group predominant in the region and is adjudicated by traditional authorities of that group. Accordingly, particular points of customary law differ depending upon the region and the ethnic group where a case is being tried. In some areas, traditional courts reportedly have tried persons accused of some offenses, such as practicing witchcraft, by subjecting them to an ordeal, such as drinking poison. Customary courts may exercise jurisdiction only with the consent of both parties to a case; either party has the right to have any case heard by a national rather than a customary court, and customary law is supposed to be valid only when it is not "repugnant to natural justice, equity, and good conscience." However, many citizens in rural areas remain unaware of their rights under civil law and have been taught since birth that customary laws form the rules by which they must abide. Consequently, traditional courts remain important in rural areas and serve as an alternative for settling disputes. Their authority varies by region and ethnic group, but they often are the arbiters of property and domestic disputes and may serve a probate function as well. Most traditional courts permit appeal of their decisions to traditional authorities of higher rank".[24]"

In Feinburg, Walter (1998) Common schools uncummon identities. national unity and cultural difference.,

  1. "A second question is concerned with whether memories, interpretations and norms advanced through a common national identity can reflect the experiences of different groups rather than the dominant economic, racial, gender and social class groups.",
  2. "The multiculturalists disagree with the separation between cultural and public spheres and argues that the school culture tends to reflect that of the dominant group, while other cultures are marginalized into the private sphere – that, if the assymetry of power between different cultures are not taken into account and dealt with in school (21). ", and
  3. "This view is partly grounded on the belief that the nation-state, as the foundation of public education, is arbitrary and mainly a tool for dominant groups to remain in power (33)."

Per Reading log McRuer, Tatum, Hjörne & Säljö,

  1. "Tatum claims that when the areas where a person is member of the dominant and/or advantaged group the categories is usually not mentioned or highlighted.", and
  2. "Connected with the dominant groups is the conception of power: "For example, Blacks have historically been characterized as less intelligent than Whites, and women have been viewed as less emotionally stable than men. The dominating group assign roles to the subordinates that reflect the latter’s devalued status, reserving the most highly valued roles int the society for themselves. Subordinates are usually said to be innately incapable of being able to perform the preferred roles. To the extent that the targeted group internalizes the images that the dominant group reflects back to them they may found it difficult to believe in their own ability."(p. 23)".

From NAU-POS254-Radical challenges to Enlightenment Ideologies,

  1. "A second feature is that the group believes they are being mistreated or oppressed by a more dominant group."

In Motivation and emotion/Book/Toxic workplace,

  1. "‘Symbolic violence’, first termed by French sociologist Pierre Bordieu, (cited in Clegg 1989) developed the context of psycho-social workplace behaviour whereby dominant groups legitimised their domination."

Hypotheses[edit | edit source]

  1. There is at least one older or extinct language that has no word(s) for a dominant group.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "language". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. June 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
  2. "linguistics". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. April 27, 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
  3. Ryuko Kubota (Spring 1999). "Japanese culture constructed by discourses: Implications for applied linguistics research and ELT". Tesol Quarterly 33 (1): 9-35. Retrieved 2011-10-15. 
  4. "ethnolinguistics". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 8, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
  5. Pat Johnson, Howard Giles & Richard Y. Bourhis (1983). "The viability of ethnolinguistic vitality: A reply". Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 4 (4): 255-69. doi:10.1080/01434632.1983.9994115. Retrieved 2011-10-01. 
  6. Peter Mark Roget (1969). Lester V. Berrey and Gorton Carruth. ed. Roget's International Thesaurus, third edition. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. pp. 1258. 
  7. Hans Wolff (March 1959). "Intelligibility and inter-ethnic attitudes". Anthropological linguistics 1 (3): 34-41. Retrieved 2011-07-26. 
  8. Pieter Coetzer; Leo Barnard (2008). "The struggle for democracy in the Northern Cape during the eighties". Journal for Contemporary History 33 (1): 17-32. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Sheldon Shaeffer (2007). "Advocacy Kit for Promoting Multilingual Education: Including the Excluded" (PDF). Prakanong, Bangkok, Thailand: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. ISBN 92-9223-110-3. Retrieved 2012-08-29.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Tove Skutnabb-Kangas (January 2000). Linguistic genocide in education, or worldwide diversity and human rights?. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 818. ISBN 0-8058-3467-2. 
  11. Tanja Ellingsen (April 2000). "Colorful Community or Ethnic Witches' Brew? Multiethnicity and Domestic Conflict during and after the Cold War". Journal of Conflict Resolution 44 (2): 228-49. doi:10.1177/0022002700044002004. Retrieved 2011-10-15. 
  12. Joseph Bisong (April 1995). "Language choice and cultural imperialism: a Nigerian perspective". ELT Journal 49 (2): 122-32. 
  13. Patrick McConvell (1990). "The linguistic prehistory of Australia: Opportunity for dialogue with archaeology". Australian Archaeology (31): 3-27. Retrieved 2011-08-27. 
  14. Claudia Claridge (2000). Multi-word Verbs in Early Modern English: A Corpus-based Study. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Rodopi B. V.. pp. 317. ISBN 90-420-0459-2. Retrieved 2012-01-06. 
  15. "لغة_تايلندية , In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  16. "برماويون". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 26 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  17. "سلاف شرقيون". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  18. "Standpunkt-Theorie". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. April 21, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  19. "Osage". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. July 12, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  20. "Enid Blyton". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. August 11, 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
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Further reading[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

{{Dominant group}}{{Linguistics resources}}{{Semantics resources}}{{Terminology resources}}