Music is an art form, whose medium is sound and silence and depends on cultural context to be recognized as music. The common elements of music are pitch (which includes melody and harmony), rhythm (which is associated with concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). (Music on Wikipedia)
Theory and composition
The goal of the 'Theory and composition' department is to equip the student with the tools and skills necessary to compose, arrange and analyze music. At the completion of this course of study, students will possess the skills and knowledge of western theory, creative writing, arranging, as well as having a portfolio of original works.
Ear training is learning/training your ears to recognize what you hear and put it down onto paper. These are basic learning guides, exercises and projects to help you understand in a meaningful way the flurry of sound in music.
Wikibooks - Music
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A scale is a predetermined series of tones that define a musical context. A scale is defined as being major or minor according to whether the scale contains a major or a minor third, respectively. (If it contains both, as in the octatonic scale, it is considered to be neither major nor minor.) This holds true even if the scale in question is not "the" major or minor scale per se.
The most important kind of scale we are concerned with is the diatonic scale; that is, any scale containing the interval sequence W-W-H-W-W-W-H (where "W" represents a whole step and "H" is a half step). Note that any other cyclic permutation of this interval sequence is also considered a manifestation of the diatonic scale! What follows is a discussion of the different scales -- that is, of the various permutations of this interval sequence -- with some supplementary remarks on usage.