History

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French painter and art theorist, Charles Lebrun is the dominant artist of Louis XIV's reign. Credit: Gdr.

History starts with events, particularly in human affairs.

These events are in the past.

As these events are no longer here in the present, they cannot be studied directly.

Sometimes there is a whole series of events connected with someone or something.

A continuous, typically chronological, record of important or public events or of a particular trend or institution is studied as a history of these events.

Radiation[edit]

Main sources: Radiation/Organisms and Organisms
Trematolobelia macrostachys occurs on Mount Ka'ala, O'ahu. Credit: Karl Magnacca.

"An evolutionary radiation is an increase in taxonomic diversity or morphological disparity, due to adaptive change or the opening of ecospace.[1] Radiations may affect one clade or many, and be rapid or gradual; where they are rapid, and driven by a single lineage's adaptation to their environment, they are termed adaptive radiations.[2]"[3]

"Perhaps the most familiar example of an evolutionary radiation is that of [Eutheria] placental mammals immediately after the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous, about 65 million years ago. At that time, the placental mammals were mostly small, insect-eating animals similar in size and shape to modern shrews. By the Eocene (58–37 million years ago), they had evolved into such diverse forms as bats, whales, and horses.[4]"[3]

"The Hawaiian lobelioids are a group of flowering plants in the [Campanula] bellflower family, Campanulaceae, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. This is the largest plant radiation in the Hawaiian Islands, and indeed the largest on any island archipelago, with over 125 species."[5]

Humanities[edit]

Contents

Main source: Humanities

History as creative writing[edit]

A compilation of historical writings that created social transformation.

Theoretical history[edit]

Def. a "period of time that has already happened, in contrast to the present and the future"[6] is called a past.

Def.

  1. an "occurrence; something that happens",[7]
  2. a "point in spacetime having three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate",[7]
  3. a "possible action that the user can perform that is monitored by an application or the operating system",[7] or
  4. a "set of some of the possible outcomes; a subset of the sample space"[7]

is called an event.

Def.

  1. the "aggregate of past events",[8]
  2. the "branch of knowledge that studies the past; the assessment of notable events",[8]
  3. a "set of events involving an entity",[8]
  4. a "record or narrative description of past events",[8]
  5. the "list of past and continuing medical conditions of an individual or family",[8]
  6. a "record of previous user events, especially of visited web pages in a browser",[8] or
  7. something "that no longer exists or is no longer relevant"[8]

is called history.

Entities[edit]

Main sources: Geopolitics/Entities and Entities

"History and experience act as a filter that can distort as much as elucidate. It is largely forgotten now, overlooked in the one-line description of Tony Blair and George W Bush as the men who lied about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, but there was a wider context to their conviction."[9] Bold added.

Recent[edit]

Main sources: History/Recent and Recent history

The recent history period dates from around 1,000 b2k to present.

"While the human groups are many and diverse, they are conveniently combined in two categories: first, the natural or consanguineal or kinship group in which the unit is the ethnos; and second, the artificial or essentially social group in which the unit is the demos. The ethnos, or ethnic group, is the homologue of the varietal or specific group of animals; it is the dominant group in lower savagery, but its influence on human life wanes upward, to practically disappear in enlightenment except as retained in the structure of the family. The demos is the product of intelligence applied to the regulation of human affairs; it has no true homologue among animals; its importance waxes as that of the ethnos wanes from savagery through barbarism and civilization and thence into enlightenment."[10]

"Few concepts are as emotionally charged as that of race. The word conjures up a mixture of associations—culture, ethnicity, genetics, subjugation, exclusion and persecution. But is the tragic history of efforts to define groups of people by race really a matter of the misuse of science, the abuse of a valid biological concept?"[11]

Little Ice Age[edit]

Changes in the 14C record, which are primarily (but not exclusively) caused by changes in solar activity, are graphed over time. Credit: Leland McInnes.

The Little Ice Age (LIA) appears to have lasted from about 1218 (782 b2k) to about 1878 (122 b2k).

Medieval Warm Period[edit]

Northern hemisphere temperature reconstructions are for the past 2,000 years. Credit: Global Warming Art.

The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) dates from around 1150 to 750 b2k.

Classical history[edit]

The classical history period dates from around 2,000 to 1,000 b2k.

Early history[edit]

Main sources: History/Early and Early history

The early history period dates from around 3,000 to 2,000 b2k.

Iron Age[edit]

Main sources: History/Iron Age and Iron Age

The iron age history period began between 3,200 and 2,100 b2k.

Subatlantic period[edit]

The "calibration of radiocarbon dates at approximately 2500-2450 BP [2500-2450 b2k] is problematic due to a "plateau" (known as the "Hallstatt-plateau") in the calibration curve [...] A decrease in solar activity caused an increase in production of 14C, and thus a sharp rise in Δ 14C, beginning at approximately 850 cal (calendar years) BC [...] Between approximately 760 and 420 cal BC (corresponding to 2500-2425 BP [2500-2425 b2k]), the concentration of 14C returned to "normal" values."[12]

Subboreal period[edit]

The "period around 850-760 BC [2850-2760 b2k], characterised by a decrease in solar activity and a sharp increase of Δ 14C [...] the local vegetation succession, in relation to the changes in atmospheric radiocarbon content, shows additional evidence for solar forcing of climate change at the Subboreal - Subatlantic transition."[12]

Bronze Age[edit]

Main sources: History/Bronze Age and Bronze Age

The bronze age history period began between 5,300 and 2,600 b2k.

Ancient history[edit]

The ancient history period dates from around 8,000 to 3,000 b2k.

Atlantic period[edit]

The "Atlantic period [is] 4.6–6 ka [4,600-6,000 b2k]."[13]

Boreal transition[edit]

Copper Age[edit]

Main sources: History/Copper Age and Copper Age

The copper age history period began from 6990 b2k.

Ancient history[edit]

The ancient history period dates from around 8,000 to 3,000 b2k.

The "Scandinavian one 2000 years earlier [8,000 b2k]."[14]

Prehistory[edit]

Main sources: History/Prehistory and Prehistory

The prehistory period dates from around 7 x 106 b2k to about 7,000 b2k.

Pre-Boreal transition[edit]

The last glaciation appears to have a gradual decline ending about 12,000 b2k. This may have been the end of the Pre-Boreal transition.

"About 9000 years ago the temperature in Greenland culminated at 4°C warmer than today. Since then it has become slowly cooler with only one dramatic change of climate. This happened 8250 years ago [...]. In an otherwise warm period the temperature fell 7°C within a decade, and it took 300 years to re-establish the warm climate. This event has also been demonstrated in European wooden ring series and in European bogs."[14]

"The last remains of the American ice sheet disappeared about 6000 years ago [6,000 b2k], the Scandinavian one 2000 years earlier [8,000 b2k]."[14]

Younger Dryas[edit]

The "Alleröd/Younger Dryas transition [occurred] some 11,000 years ago [11,000 b2k]."[15]

Holocene[edit]

Main sources: History/Holocene and Holocene

The Holocene starts at ~11,700 b2k and extends to the present.

Allerød Oscillation[edit]

The "Allerød Chronozone, 11,800 to 11,000 years ago".[15]

Neolithic[edit]

Main sources: History/Neolithic and Neolithic

The base of the Neolithic is approximated to 12,200 b2k.

Mesolithic[edit]

The mesolithic period dates from around 13,000 to 8,500 b2k.

Paleolithic[edit]

The paleolithic period dates from around 2.6 x 106 b2k to the end of the Pleistocene around 12,000 b2k.

Older Dryas[edit]

Comparison of the GRIP ice core with cores from the Cariaco Basin shows the Older Dryas. Credit: Konrad A Hughes, Jonathan T. Overpeck, Larry C. Peterson & Susan Trumbore.

"Older Dryas [...] events [occurred about 13,400 b2k]".[16]

Bølling Oscillation[edit]

The "intra-Bølling cold period [IBCP is a century-scale cold event and the] Bølling warming [occurs] at 14600 cal [calendar years, ~ b2k] BP (12700 14C BP)".[17]

Oldest Dryas[edit]

"During the Late Weichselian glacial maximum (20-15 ka BP) the overriding of ice streams eventually lead to strong glaciotectonic displacement of Late Pleistocene and pre-Quaternary deposits and to deposition of till."[18]

The "minimum point of GIS-2b (Greenland Stadial sub-event b) [is] identified by Bjork et al. 1998 [at] 17.687 ka BP".[19]

Meiendorf Interstadial[edit]

Jylland stade[edit]

"After c. 22 ka BP [which is] during the Jylland stade (Houmark-Nielsen 1989)".[18]

GIS 2[edit]

The weak interstadial corresponding to GIS 2 occurred about 23.2 kyr B.P.[20]

"GIS 2 (start) 21.556 [to] GIS 2 (end) 21.407 ka BP".[19]

Heinrich Event 2 (H2) extends "22-25.62 ka BP".[19]

Stadial[edit]

"Stadial Duration 3.781 ka".[19]

GIS 3[edit]

The stronger GIS 3 interstadial occurred about 27.6 kyr B.P.[20]

Heinrich Event 3 (H3) "occurs at 26.74 ka BP, coincident with the start of the transition into GIS 4."[19]

"GIS 3 (start) 25.571 [to] GIS 3 (end) 25.337 ka BP".[19]

Stadial[edit]

"Stadial duration 0.768 ka".[19]

Møn interstadial[edit]

The Møn interstadial corresponds to GIS 4.[20]

"GIS 4 (start) 26.627 [to] GIS 4 (end) 26.339 ka BP".[19]

Klintholm advance[edit]

This advance occurred after the Møn and ended with GIS 6.[20]

"Stadial duration 2.899 ka".[19]

GIS 5[edit]

GIS 5 interstadial occurred during the Klintholm advance about 33.5 kyr B.P.[20]

"GIS 5 (start) 30.013 [to] GIS 5 (end) 29.526 ka BP".[19]

Stadial[edit]

Stadial duration 0.836 ka""[19]

Ålesund Interstadial[edit]

The Ålesund interstadial began with GIS 6 and ended after GIS 8.[20]

"GIS 6 (start) 31.218 [to] GIS 6 (end) 30.849 ka BP".[19]

Stadial[edit]

"Stadial duration 0.932 ka".[19]

GIS 7 interstadial[edit]

"GIS 7 (start) 32.896 [to] GIS 7 (end) 32.15 ka BP".[19]

Stadial[edit]

"Stadial duration 0.642 ka".[19]

Huneborg interstadial[edit]

The Huneborg interstadial is a Greenland interstadial dating 36.5-38.5 kyr B.P. GIS 8.[20]

The Denekamp interstadial corresponds to the Huneborg interstadial.

"GIS 8 (start) 35.716 [to] GIS 8 (end) 33.977 ka BP".[19]

Heinrich Event 4 "33-39.93 ka BP".[19]

Hengelo interstadial[edit]

The Hengelo interstadial [is] > 35 ka BP".[18]

The "Hengelo Interstadial [is] (38–36 ka ago)."[21]

"GIS 9 (end) 37.461 ka BP".[19]

Hasselo stadial[edit]

The "Hasselo stadial [is] at approximately 40-38,500 14C years B.P. (Van Huissteden, 1990)."[22]

The "Hasselo Stadial [is a glacial advance] (44–39 ka ago)".[21]

Moershoofd interstadial[edit]

These three maps show a succession of artefacts in western and southern Europe. Credit: Catherine Brahic.

The Moershoofd interstadial has a 14C date of 44-46 kyr B.P. and corresponds to GIS 12 at 45-47 kyr B.P.[20]

Another likely stadial[edit]

Glinde interstadial[edit]

The Glinde interstadial has a 14C date of 48-50 kyr B.P. and corresponds to GIS ?13/14 with a GIS age of 49-54.5 kyr B.P.[20]

Ebersdorf Stadial[edit]

"Genetics suggests Neanderthal numbers dropped sharply around 50,000 years ago. This coincides with a sudden cold snap, hinting climate struck the first blow."[23]

This corresponds to the Skjonghelleren Glaciation of Scandinavia where ice crosses the North Sea between 50-40 ka BP.

Oerel interstadial[edit]

The Oerel interstadial has a 14C date of 53-58 kyr B.P. and corresponds to GIS 15/16 with a GIS age of 56-59 kyr B.P.[20]

Karmøy stadial[edit]

The Karmøy stadial begins in the high mountains of Norway about 60 kyr B.P. and expands to the outer coast by 58 kyr B.P.[20]

The Schalkholz Stadial in North Germany is equivalent.

Odderade interstadial[edit]

The Odderade interstadial has a 14C date of 61-72 kyr B.P. and corresponds to GIS 21.[20]

Rederstall Stadial[edit]

Cenozoic[edit]

Main sources: History/Cenozoic and Cenozoic

The Cretaceous/Cenozoic boundary occurs at 65.0 ± 0.1 Ma (million years ago).[24]

Brørup interstadial[edit]

The "Brørup interstade [is about] 100 ka BP".[18] It corresponds to GIS 23/24.[20]

Eemian interglacial[edit]

The "controversially split Eemian period, the predecessor of our own warm period about 125,000 years ago."[14]

"The Eem interglaciation […] lasted from 131 to 117 kyr B.P."[14]

Aftonian[edit]

"Clay deposition in the Piauí River floodplain around 436 ± 51.5 ka occurred during a warmer period of the Aftonian interglaciation, corresponding to isotope stage 12 (Ericson and Wollin, 1968)."[25]

Calabrian[edit]

"The [Calabrian] GSSP occurs at the base of the marine claystone conformably overlying sapropelic bed ‘e’ within Segment B in the Vrica section. This lithological level represents the primary marker for the recognition of the boundary, and is assigned an astronomical age of 1.80 Ma on the basis of sapropel calibration."[26]

Gelasian[edit]

"The base of the Quaternary System [shown in the image on the right] is defined by the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Gelasian Stage at Monte San Nicola in Sicily, Italy, currently dated at 2.58 Ma."[27]

Paleolithic history[edit]

The paleolithic period dates from around 2.6 x 106 b2k to the end of the Pleistocene around 12,000 b2k.

Pleistocene[edit]

The Pleistocene dates from 2.588 x 106 to 11,700 b2k.

Quaternary[edit]

Main sources: History/Quaternary and Quaternary
Calculated Greenland temperatures are through the last 20,000 years. Credit: Willi Dansgaard.

The "whole change elapsed just opposite the course of events that characterized the great glacial oscillations with sudden warming followed by slow cooling. Therefore, the two phenomena hardly have the same cause."[14]

Tertiary[edit]

Main sources: History/Tertiary and Tertiary

The Tertiary Period extends from 65.5 ± 0.3 to 2.588 x 106 b2k.

Pliocene[edit]

Main sources: History/Pliocene and Pliocene

The Pliocene ranges from 5.332 x 106 to 2.588 x 106 b2k.

Piacenzian[edit]

Main sources: History/Piacenzian and Piacenzian

"The base of the beige marl bed of the small-scale carbonate cycle 77 (sensu Hilgen, 1991b) is the approved base of the Piacenzian Stage (that is the Lower Pliocene-Middle Pliocene boundary). It corresponds to precessional excursion 347 as numbered from the present with an astrochronological age estimate of 3.600 Ma (Lourens et al., 1996a)."[28]

Zanclean[edit]

Main sources: History/Zanclean and Zanclean

"The boundary-stratotype of the stage is located in the Eraclea Minoa section on the southern coast of Sicily (Italy), at the base of the Trubi Formation. The age of the Zanclean and Pliocene GSSP at the base of the stage is 5.33 Ma in the orbitally calibrated time scale, and lies within the lowermost reversed episode of the Gilbert Chron (C3n.4r), below the Thvera normal subchron."[29]

Miocene[edit]

Main sources: History/Miocene and Miocene

The Miocene dates from 23.03 x 106 to 5.332 x 106 b2k.

Neogene[edit]

Main sources: History/Neogene and Neogene

The Neogene dates from 23.03 x 106 to 2.58 x 106 b2k.

Holarctic-Antarctic Ice Age[edit]

"This late Cenozoic ice age began at least 30 million years ago in Antarctica; it expanded to Arctic regions of southern Alaska, Greenland, Iceland, and Svalbard between 10 and 3 million years ago. Glaciers and ice sheets in these areas have been relatively stable, more-or-less permanent features during the past few million years."[30]

Oligocene[edit]

Main sources: History/Oligocene and Oligocene

The Oligocene dates from 33.9 ± 0.1 x 106 to 23.03 x 106 b2k.

Eocene[edit]

Main sources: History/Eocene and Eocene

The Eocene dates from 55.8 ± 0.2 x 106 to 33.9 ± 0.1 x 106 b2k.

Paleocene[edit]

Main sources: History/Paleocene and Paleocene

The Paleocene dates from 65.5 ± 0.3 x 106 to 55.8 ± 0.2 x 106 b2k.

Paleogene[edit]

Main sources: History/Paleogene and Paleogene

The Paleogene Period extends from 65.5 ± 0.3 to 23.03 ± 0.05 x 106 b2k.

Mesozoic[edit]

Main sources: History/Mesozoic and Mesozoic

The Permian/Triassic boundary occurs at 248.2 ± 4.8 Ma (million years ago).[24]

Cretaceous[edit]

Main sources: History/Cretaceous and Cretaceous

"The Cretaceous period is the third and final period in the Mesozoic Era. It began 145.5 million years ago after the Jurassic Period and ended 65.5 million years ago, before the Paleogene Period of the Cenozoic Era."[31]

Jurassic[edit]

Main sources: History/Jurassic and Jurassic

The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary occurs at 144.2 ± 2.6 Ma (million years ago).[24]

The Triassic/Jurassic boundary occurs at 205.7 ± 4.0 Ma (million years ago).[24]

Triassic[edit]

Main sources: History/Triassic and Triassic

The Triassic/Jurassic boundary occurs at 205.7 ± 4.0 Ma (million years ago).[24]

The Permian/Triassic boundary occurs at 248.2 ± 4.8 Ma (million years ago).[24]

Paleozoic[edit]

Main sources: History/Paleozoic and Paleozoic

The Paleozoic era spanned 542.0 ± 1.0 to 251.0 ± 0.7 Mb2k.

Permian[edit]

Main sources: History/Permian and Permian

The Permian lasted from 299.0 ± 0.8 to 251.0 ± 0.4 Mb2k.

The Permian/Triassic boundary occurs at 248.2 ± 4.8 Ma (million years ago).[24]

Carboniferous[edit]

The Carboniferous began 359.2 ± 2.5 Mb2k and ended 299.0 ± 0.8 Mb2k.

Pennsylvanian[edit]

The Pennsylvanian lasted from 318.1 ± 1.3 to 299.0 ± 0.8 Mb2k.

Mississippian[edit]

The Mississippian lasted from 359.2 ± 2.5 to 318.1 ± 1.3 Mb2k.

Karoo Ice Age[edit]

Main sources: History/Karoo and Karoo Ice Age

The "Karoo [occurred] between 360 and 260 Ma [but] did not achieve a global extent."[32]

Devonian[edit]

Main sources: History/Devonian and Devonian

The Devonian spanned 416.0 ± 2.8 to 359.2 ± 2.5 Mb2k.

Silurian[edit]

Main sources: History/Silurian and Silurian

The Silurian spanned 443.7 ± 1.5 to 416.0 ± 2.8 Mb2k.

Andean-Saharan ice age[edit]

The "Andean-Saharan [occurred] between 450 and 420 Ma […] did not achieve a global extent."[32]

Ordovician[edit]

Main sources: History/Ordovician and Ordovician

The Ordovician lasted from 488.3 ± 1.7 to 443.7 ± 1.5 Mb2k.

Cambrian[edit]

Main sources: History/Cambrian and Cambrian

The Cambrian lasted from 542.0 ± 1.0 to 488.3 ± 1.7 Mb2k.

Phanerozoic[edit]

The Phanerozoic eon includes the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. It lasted from 542.0 ± 1.0 Mb2k to the present

Precambrian[edit]

Def.

  1. "the time and geology dated before the Phanerozoic"[33] or
  2. the "eon (or supereon) and rock formations dated before 541.0±1.0 million years ago, coinciding with the first appearance of the fossils of hard-shelled animals"[33]

is called the precambrian.

Cryogenian ice age[edit]

The Cryogenian Ice Age, or the Stuartian-Varangian Ice Age, a "Late Proterozoic ice age was apparently the greatest of all. Glacial strata are known from all modern continents (except Antarctica) with an overall time range of about 950 to 600 million years old.

Neoproterozoic[edit]

Def. "a geologic era within the Proterozoic eon; comprises the Tonian, Cryogenian and Ediacaran periods from about 1000 to 544 million years ago, when algae and sponges flourished"[34] is called the Neoproterozoic.

Mesoproterozoic[edit]

Def. "a geologic era within the Proterozoic eon; comprises the Calymmian, Ectasian and Stennian periods from about 1600 to 900 million years ago, when the Rodinia supercontinent was formed"[35] is called the Mesoproterozoic.

Paleoproterozoic[edit]

Def. the "era from 2,500 Ma to 1,600 Ma, marked by a dramatic increase in atmospheric oxygen"[36] is called the Paleoproterozoic.

Huronian ice age[edit]

The Huronian Ice Age is known "mainly from Canada and the United States in North America, where dated rocks range from 2500 to 2100 million years old."[30]

Makganyene glaciation[edit]

The "Makganyene glaciation begins some time after 2.32 Ga and ends at 2.22 Ga, the three Huronian glaciations predate the Makganyene snowball."[37]

Proterozoic[edit]

Def. the "eon from 2,500 Ma to 541.0±1.0 Ma, the beginning of the Phanerozoic, marked by the build up of oxygen in the atmosphere and the emergence of primitive multicellular life"[38] is called the Proterozoic.

Azoic[edit]

Main sources: History/Azoic and Azoic

Def.

  1. destitute "of any vestige of organic life, or at least of animal life",[39]
  2. anterior "to the existence of animal life",[39] or
  3. formed "when there was no animal life on the globe"[39]

Hypozoic[edit]

Main sources: History/Hypozoic and Hypozoic

Def. "older than the lowest rocks which contain organic remains"[40] is called the hypozoic.

Neoarchean[edit]

Main sources: History/Neoarchean and Neoarchean

Def.

  1. "a geologic era within the Archaean eon from about 2800 to 2500 million years ago"[41] or
  2. the "era from 2,800 Ma to 2,500 Ma"[41]

is called the Neoarchean.

Pongola glaciation[edit]

The Pongola glaciation is dated "at 2.9 Ga".[37]

Mesoarchean[edit]

Def.

  1. "a geologic era within the Archaean eon from about 3200 to 2800 million years ago; stromatolites have existed from this time"[42] or
  2. the "era from 3,200 Ma to 2,800 Ma"[42]

is called the Mesoarchean.

Paleoarchean[edit]

Def.

  1. "a geologic era within the Archaean eon from about 3600 to 3200 million years ago; the first aerobic bacteria appeared at this time"[43] or
  2. the "era from 3,600 Ma to 3,200 Ma"[43]

is called the paleoarchean.

Archean[edit]

Main sources: History/Archean and Archean

Archaean is an alternate spelling of Archean.

Def.

  1. "the geologic eon from about 3,800 to 2,500 million years ago; comprises the Eoarchean, Paleoarchean, Mesoarchean and Neoarchean eras; marked by an atmosphere with little oxygen, the formation of the first continents and oceans and the emergence of simple life"[44] or
  2. the "eon from 2,500 Ma to 4,000 Ma"[44]

is called the Archaean, or Archean.

Eoarchean[edit]

Main sources: History/Eoarchean and Eoarchean

Def.

  1. "a geologic era within the Archaean eon from about 4600 to 3600 million years ago; the first single-celled life began at this time"[45] or
  2. the "era from 4,000 Ma to 3,600 Ma"[45]

is called the Eoarchean.

Hadean[edit]

Main sources: History/Hadean and Hadean

Def.

  1. "the geologic eon from about 4,600 to 3,800 million years ago; marked by the formation of the solar system, a stable Earth-Moon orbit and the first rocks"[46] or
  2. the "eon before 4,000 Ma"[46]

is called the Hadean.

Geography[edit]

Main sources: Locations/Geography and Geography

"With some of it on the south and more of it on the north of the great main thoroughfare that connects Aldgate and the East India Docks, St. Bede's at this period of its history was perhaps the poorest and most miserable parish in the East End of London."[47]

"US history is replete with examples of the confounding of dominant group and national interests."[48]

"Throughout U. S. history, dominant groups have attempted to impose a set of values and norms on subordinate groups."[49]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Wesley-Hunt, G. D. (2005). "The morphological diversification of carnivores in North America". Paleobiology 31: 35–32. doi:10.1666/0094-8373(2005)031<0035:TMDOCI>2.0.CO;2. 
  2. Schluter, D. (2000). The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation. Oxford University Press. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Evolutionary radiation, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. February 27, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  4. This topic is covered in a very accessible manner in Chapter 11 Richard Fortey (1997). Life: An Unauthorised Biography. 
  5. "Hawaiian lobelioids, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. March 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  6. "past, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 22. 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "event, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 18, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 "history, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 11, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
  9. Peter Beaumont (September 6, 2013). "Lessons of past cast shadows over Syria". The Guardian Weekly 189 (13): 18. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/31/syria-suez-casts-long-shadow. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
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