History starts with events, particularly in human affairs.
These events are in the past.
As these events are no longer here in the present, they cannot be studied directly.
Sometimes there is a whole series of events connected with someone or something.
A continuous, typically chronological, record of important or public events or of a particular trend or institution is studied as a history of these events.
"An evolutionary radiation is an increase in taxonomic diversity or morphological disparity, due to adaptive change or the opening of ecospace. Radiations may affect one clade or many, and be rapid or gradual; where they are rapid, and driven by a single lineage's adaptation to their environment, they are termed adaptive radiations."
"Perhaps the most familiar example of an evolutionary radiation is that of [Eutheria] placental mammals immediately after the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous, about 65 million years ago. At that time, the placental mammals were mostly small, insect-eating animals similar in size and shape to modern shrews. By the Eocene (58–37 million years ago), they had evolved into such diverse forms as bats, whales, and horses."
"The Hawaiian lobelioids are a group of flowering plants in the [Campanula] bellflower family, Campanulaceae, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. This is the largest plant radiation in the Hawaiian Islands, and indeed the largest on any island archipelago, with over 125 species."
A compilation of historical writings that created social transformation.
Def. a "period of time that has already happened, in contrast to the present and the future" is called a past.
- an "occurrence; something that happens",
- a "point in spacetime having three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate",
- a "possible action that the user can perform that is monitored by an application or the operating system", or
- a "set of some of the possible outcomes; a subset of the sample space"
is called an event.
- the "aggregate of past events",
- the "branch of knowledge that studies the past; the assessment of notable events",
- a "set of events involving an entity",
- a "record or narrative description of past events",
- the "list of past and continuing medical conditions of an individual or family",
- a "record of previous user events, especially of visited web pages in a browser", or
- something "that no longer exists or is no longer relevant"
is called history.
"History and experience act as a filter that can distort as much as elucidate. It is largely forgotten now, overlooked in the one-line description of Tony Blair and George W Bush as the men who lied about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, but there was a wider context to their conviction." Bold added.
The recent history period dates from around 1,000 b2k to present.
"While the human groups are many and diverse, they are conveniently combined in two categories: first, the natural or consanguineal or kinship group in which the unit is the ethnos; and second, the artificial or essentially social group in which the unit is the demos. The ethnos, or ethnic group, is the homologue of the varietal or specific group of animals; it is the dominant group in lower savagery, but its influence on human life wanes upward, to practically disappear in enlightenment except as retained in the structure of the family. The demos is the product of intelligence applied to the regulation of human affairs; it has no true homologue among animals; its importance waxes as that of the ethnos wanes from savagery through barbarism and civilization and thence into enlightenment."
"Few concepts are as emotionally charged as that of race. The word conjures up a mixture of associations—culture, ethnicity, genetics, subjugation, exclusion and persecution. But is the tragic history of efforts to define groups of people by race really a matter of the misuse of science, the abuse of a valid biological concept?"
Little Ice Age
The Little Ice Age (LIA) appears to have lasted from about 1218 (782 b2k) to about 1878 (122 b2k).
The classical history period dates from around 2,000 to 1,000 b2k.
The early history period dates from around 3,000 to 2,000 b2k.
The "calibration of radiocarbon dates at approximately 2500-2450 BP [2500-2450 b2k] is problematic due to a "plateau" (known as the "Hallstatt-plateau") in the calibration curve [...] A decrease in solar activity caused an increase in production of 14C, and thus a sharp rise in Δ 14C, beginning at approximately 850 cal (calendar years) BC [...] Between approximately 760 and 420 cal BC (corresponding to 2500-2425 BP [2500-2425 b2k]), the concentration of 14C returned to "normal" values."
The "period around 850-760 BC [2850-2760 b2k], characterised by a decrease in solar activity and a sharp increase of Δ 14C [...] the local vegetation succession, in relation to the changes in atmospheric radiocarbon content, shows additional evidence for solar forcing of climate change at the Subboreal - Subatlantic transition."
The ancient history period dates from around 8,000 to 3,000 b2k.
The "Atlantic period [is] 4.6–6 ka [4,600-6,000 b2k]."
The last glaciation appears to have a gradual decline ending about 12,000 b2k. This may have been the end of the Pre-Boreal transition.
"About 9000 years ago the temperature in Greenland culminated at 4°C warmer than today. Since then it has become slowly cooler with only one dramatic change of climate. This happened 8250 years ago [...]. In an otherwise warm period the temperature fell 7°C within a decade, and it took 300 years to re-establish the warm climate. This event has also been demonstrated in European wooden ring series and in European bogs."
"The last remains of the American ice sheet disappeared about 6000 years ago [6,000 b2k], the Scandinavian one 2000 years earlier [8,000 b2k]."
The "Alleröd/Younger Dryas transition [occurred] some 11,000 years ago [11,000 b2k]."
The Holocene starts at ~11,700 b2k and extends to the present.
The "Allerød Chronozone, 11,800 to 11,000 years ago".
The base of the Neolithic is approximated to 12,200 b2k.
The mesolithic period dates from around 13,000 to 8,500 b2k.
The paleolithic period dates from around 2.6 x 106 b2k to the end of the Pleistocene around 12,000 b2k.
"Older Dryas [...] events [occurred about 13,400 b2k]".
The "intra-Bølling cold period [IBCP is a century-scale cold event and the] Bølling warming [occurs] at 14600 cal [calendar years, ~ b2k] BP (12700 14C BP)".
"During the Late Weichselian glacial maximum (20-15 ka BP) the overriding of ice streams eventually lead to strong glaciotectonic displacement of Late Pleistocene and pre-Quaternary deposits and to deposition of till."
The prehistory period dates from around 7 x 106 b2k to about 7,000 b2k.
"With some of it on the south and more of it on the north of the great main thoroughfare that connects Aldgate and the East India Docks, St. Bede's at this period of its history was perhaps the poorest and most miserable parish in the East End of London."
"US history is replete with examples of the confounding of dominant group and national interests."
"Throughout U. S. history, dominant groups have attempted to impose a set of values and norms on subordinate groups."
- Wesley-Hunt, G. D. (2005). "The morphological diversification of carnivores in North America". Paleobiology 31: 35–32. doi:10.1666/0094-8373(2005)031<0035:TMDOCI>2.0.CO;2.
- Schluter, D. (2000). The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation. Oxford University Press.
- "Evolutionary radiation, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. February 27, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
- This topic is covered in a very accessible manner in Chapter 11 Richard Fortey (1997). Life: An Unauthorised Biography.
- "Hawaiian lobelioids, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. March 6, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- "past, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 22. 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- "event, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 18, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- "history, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 11, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- Peter Beaumont (September 6, 2013). "Lessons of past cast shadows over Syria". The Guardian Weekly 189 (13): 18. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/31/syria-suez-casts-long-shadow. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- W J McGee (July 1899). "The Trend of Human Progress". American Anthropologist New Series 1 (3): 401-47. http://www.jstor.org/stable/658811?&Search=yes&searchText=%22dominant+group%22&list=hide&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicResults%3Fla%3D%26wc%3Don%26acc%3Doff%26gw%3Djtx%26Query%3D%2522dominant%2Bgroup%2522%26sbq%3D%2522dominant%2Bgroup%2522%26si%3D1%26jtxsi%3D1%26jcpsi%3D1%26artsi%3D1%26so%3Dold%26hp%3D100%26Go.x%3D27%26Go.y%3D14%26Go%3DGo&prevSearch=&item=8&ttl=10177&returnArticleService=showFullText. Retrieved 2011-09-20.
- Jan Sapp (March-April 2012). "Race Finished". American Scientist 100 (2): 164. http://www.americanscientist.org/bookshelf/pub/race-finished. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- A. Speranza, J. van der Plicht, and B. van Geel (November 2000). "Improving the time control of the Subboreal/Subatlantic transition in a Czech peat sequence by 14C wiggle-matching". Quaternary Science Reviews 19 (16): 1589-1604. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(99)00108-0. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/30494985_Improving_the_time_control_of_the_SubborealSubatlantic_transition_in_a_Czech_peat_sequence_by_14C_wiggle-matching/file/60b7d51c350cf2efa0.pdf. Retrieved 2014-11-04.
- E.B. Karabanov, A.A. Prokopenko, D.F. Williams, and G.K. Khursevich (March 2000). "A new record of Holocene climate change from the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 156 (3-4): 211–24. doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(99)00141-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031018299001418. Retrieved 2014-11-04.
- Willi Dansgaard (2005). The Department of Geophysics of The Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics at The University of Copenhagen, Denmark. ed. Frozen Annals Greenland Ice Cap Research. Copenhagen, Denmark: Niels Bohr Institute. pp. 123. ISBN 87-990078-0-0. http://www.iceandclimate.nbi.ku.dk/publications/FrozenAnnals.pdf/. Retrieved 2014-10-05.
- Jan Mangerud (1987). W. H. Berger and L. D. Labeyrie. ed. The Alleröd/Younger Dryas Boundary, In: Abrupt Climatic Change. D. Reidel Publishing Company. pp. 163-71. http://folk.uib.no/ngljm/PDF_files/Mangerud%201987,YD%20boundary.PDF. Retrieved 2014-11-03.
- Konrad A. Hughes, Jonathan T. Overpeck, Larry C. Peterson & Susan Trumbore (7 March 1996). Rapid climate changes in the tropical Atlantic region during the last deglaciation. 380. pp. 51-4. http://www.diagonalarida.cl/SemV/Hughen_etal_1996_tropicalAtlantic.pdf. Retrieved 2014-11-05.
- Zicheng Yu and Ulrich Eicher (2001). "Three Amphi-Atlantic Century-Scale Cold Events during the Bølling-Allerød Warm Period". Géographie physique et Quaternaire 55 (2): 171-9. doi:10.7202/008301ar. http://www.lehigh.edu/~ziy2/pubs/YuGpQPreprint.pdf. Retrieved 2014-11-04.
- Michael Houmark-Nielsen, (30 November 1994). "Late Pleistocene stratigraphy, glaciation chronology and Middle Weichselian environmental history from Klintholm, Møn, Denmark". Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 41 (2): 181-202. http://2dgf.dk/xpdf/bull41-02-181-202.pdf. Retrieved 2014-11-03.
- W. B. Maxwell (1918). "7". The Mirror and the Lamp. http://openlibrary.org/works/OL1097634W. Retrieved 2013-11-22.
- Ashley W. Doane Jr. (June 1997). "Dominant Group Ethnic Identity in the United States: The Role of “Hidden’ Ethnicity in Intergroup Relations". The Sociological Quarterly 38 (3): 375-97. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1997.tb00483.x. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1997.tb00483.x/abstract. Retrieved 2012-04-03.
- Martin Carnoy (1989). Henry A. Giroux, Peter McLaren. ed. Education, State, and Culture in American Society, In: Critical pedagogy, the state, and cultural struggle. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 3-23. ISBN 0791400360. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=x6G8AglUSWQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&ots=DYdAm8JSdy&sig=VAtJXc8TB47eQH2EelPhZaefajA. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
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