What is history?
History starts with events, particularly in human affairs.
These events are in the past.
As these events are no longer here in the present, they cannot be studied directly.
Sometimes there is a whole series of events connected with someone or something.
A continuous, typically chronological, record of important or public events or of a particular trend or institution is studied as a history of these events.
History can be as long as a few seconds ago to hundreds of years ago.
"An evolutionary radiation is an increase in taxonomic diversity or morphological disparity, due to adaptive change or the opening of ecospace. Radiations may affect one clade or many, and be rapid or gradual; where they are rapid, and driven by a single lineage's adaptation to their environment, they are termed adaptive radiations."
"Perhaps the most familiar example of an evolutionary radiation is that of [Eutheria] placental mammals immediately after the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous, about 65 million years ago. At that time, the placental mammals were mostly small, insect-eating animals similar in size and shape to modern shrews. By the Eocene (58–37 million years ago), they had evolved into such diverse forms as bats, whales, and horses."
"The Hawaiian lobelioids [in the image on the left] are a group of flowering plants in the [Campanula] bellflower family, Campanulaceae, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. This is the largest plant radiation in the Hawaiian Islands, and indeed the largest on any island archipelago, with over 125 species."
A compilation of historical writings that created social transformation.
Def. a "period of time that has already happened, in contrast to the present and the future" is called a past.
- an "occurrence; something that happens",
- a "point in spacetime having three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate",
- a "possible action that the user can perform that is monitored by an application or the operating system", or
- a "set of some of the possible outcomes; a subset of the sample space"
is called an event.
- the "aggregate of past events",
- the "branch of knowledge that studies the past; the assessment of notable events",
- a "set of events involving an entity",
- a "record or narrative description of past events",
- the "list of past and continuing medical conditions of an individual or family",
- a "record of previous user events, especially of visited web pages in a browser", or
- something "that no longer exists or is no longer relevant"
is called history.
At left is an attempt to correlate the change in 14C with time before 1950. The different data sets are shown with different colored third order polynomial fits to each data set.
"The Δ14C values in a chronology can clearly be used to identify catastrophic gaps and catastrophic rises in carbon-14."
The first four gaps have a jump up in 14C with a fairly quick return to the calibration curve shown in the figure on the second left. However, from about 2000 b2k there is a steady rise in the Δ14C values.
"A proof-of-concept self-calibrating chronology [based upon the Irish Oak chronology] clearly demonstrates that third order polynomials provide a series of statistical calibration curves that highlight lacunae in the samples."
As indicated in the figures, the data used in the plots comes from radiocarbon dating of Irish Oaks.
Gaps occur near the 1070s and 1470s b2k during the rising Δ14C values.
"The number of suitable samples of wood, which connect Antiquity and the Middle Ages is very small [shown in the third figure on the left]. But only a great number of samples would give certainty against error. For the period about 380 AD we have only 3, for the period about 720 AD only 4 suitable samples of wood (Hollstein 1980,11); usually 50 samples serve for dating."
"The center of the graph [in the fourth image on the left] shows the time axis of conventionally dated historical events. Upper and lower coordinates show reconstructed time tables. The black triangles mark the phantom years."
"In Frankfurt am Main archaeological excavations did not find any layer for the period between 650 and 910 AD."
"History and experience act as a filter that can distort as much as elucidate. It is largely forgotten now, overlooked in the one-line description of Tony Blair and George W Bush as the men who lied about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, but there was a wider context to their conviction." Bold added.
Types of history
History is broken up into many different categories that define what time period and event that it was.
Terms such as Era, Eon, Age and so on, are used to describe and classify what the time period is or what the period had to offer.
The recent history period dates from around 1,000 b2k to present.
"While the human groups are many and diverse, they are conveniently combined in two categories: first, the natural or consanguineal or kinship group in which the unit is the ethnos; and second, the artificial or essentially social group in which the unit is the demos. The ethnos, or ethnic group, is the homologue of the varietal or specific group of animals; it is the dominant group in lower savagery, but its influence on human life wanes upward, to practically disappear in enlightenment except as retained in the structure of the family. The demos is the product of intelligence applied to the regulation of human affairs; it has no true homologue among animals; its importance waxes as that of the ethnos wanes from savagery through barbarism and civilization and thence into enlightenment."
"Few concepts are as emotionally charged as that of race. The word conjures up a mixture of associations—culture, ethnicity, genetics, subjugation, exclusion and persecution. But is the tragic history of efforts to define groups of people by race really a matter of the misuse of science, the abuse of a valid biological concept?"
Little Ice Age
The Little Ice Age (LIA) appears to have lasted from about 1218 (782 b2k) to about 1878 (122 b2k).
Medieval Warm Period
The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) dates from around 1150 to 750 b2k.
High Middle Ages
The High Middle Ages date from around 1,000 b2k to 700 b2k.
The classical history period dates from around 2,000 to 1,000 b2k.
Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages date from around 1,700 to 1,000 b2k.
There "appears to be evidence for a major outbreak of [Yersinia pestis]-plague peaking at the end of the “733–960 AD”4 time span."
"At Birka, [near Stockholm, Sweden] “a sea level drop estimated up to 5 m has separated the lake from the nearby Baltic Sea of which it was once an inlet, and resulted in the harbour structures being located considerably inland as compared to their original situation”7" From coin finds, Birka was abandoned around 960.
"Truso [around Hansdorf near Elbing, situated on Lake Drużno near the Baltic Sea just east of the Vistula River] had undergone “isostatic adjustments (vertical crustal movements) [and] eustatic movements (fluctuations in the sea level due to climatic changes). / [The] in-fill consisted of a layer of black/brown sand with a high content of charcoal and ash”8."
"In [Great Moravia] some 30 major fortresses, at least nine of them with stone churches, are utterly devastated: "The most recent burnt horizons give evidence for a gigantic annihilation that is roughly datable to the time of 900 CE“11. More recently, the demise of the Great Moravia Empire is dated into the early part of the 10th century"12."
"Salzburg, [Austria]’s most important Early Medieval center, becomes “multiple times smaller”13 after a devastation in the 10th century when it resorts to primitive wooden houses for the few survivors.14"
"“There was a rapid, sometimes catastrophic, collapse of many of the pre-existing tribal centers. These events were accompanied by the permanent or temporary depopulation of former areas of settlement. Within a short time new centers representative of the Piast state arose on new sites, thus beginning [in 966] the thousand-year history of the Polish nation and state.”15 In the future Piast realm “the local traditional territorial structure was undergoing deep and dramatic changes. Actions which resulted in the abandonment of some of the old strongholds and the building in their place of new ones were associated irrevocably with mass population movement, […] the emergence of new forms and zones of settlement“16. Previously unsettled areas “became densely settled and strongholds appeared; in the second quarter of the tenth century, these were built on a unified model in Bnin, Giecz, Gniezno, Grzybowo, Ostrów Lednicki, Poznan and Smarzewo“17."
Archaeology "confirms that [Southern Baltic Ports] mysteriously “undergo discontinuity”18 in the 10th c. CE. The indigenous names for some of the deserted ports are not known to this very day."
"In [Hungary], the Early Medieval town of Mosaburg with its strikingly Roman style stone Basilica of Zalavár-Récéskút (9th/10th c.) “had become ruinous by the Arpadian age. / Dateable finds from the multilayer cemetery could all be dated to the years from the second third or middle of the 9th century to the early 10th century, namely to its first few decades. / / Not just Mosaburg/Zalavár became depopulated, but also its surrounding area“19."
Bulgaria "had the most splendid 9th/10th c. Slavic cities that – to the excavators‘ surprise – had been built in the 700 year earlier style of Rome’s 2nd/3rd c. CE period. Notwithstanding all their stone and brick massiveness, its metropolis, Pliska, comes to a terrible end: “A dark grey (most probably erosion) layer“20 (Henning 2007, 219; bold GH) had strangled that urban jewel for good [...] “Between the 11th and 15th c. CE, [Bulgaria’s; GH] Pliska basin was turned into a desert landscape“22."
The Classic Maya "culture of the [Yucatan] collapsed around the same time25 (or [Tiwanaku/Bolivia] dated to ca. 1000 CE26)"
“In Baghdad, the first half of the tenth century had a greater frequency of significant climate events and more intense cold than today, and probably also than the ninth century and the second half of the tenth century”27.
"The eleventh century marked another turning-point in Rome's urban history. Excavations have revealed that this period [of the beginning of the High Middle Ages; GH] is characterized, in all strata, by a significant rise in paving levels, and the consequent obliteration of many structures and ancient ruins."28
"The destruction of [Constantinople] must have taken place in the early 10th century when the Port of Theodosius was covered by mud."
"After Octavian/Augustus (31 BCE – 14 CE) had, in 30 BCE, turned Egypt into an imperial province of the Roman Empire, Memphis continued to thrive. Suetonius (69-122) writes about the city in his Life of Titus (part XI of The Twelve Caesars)."
"Egypt’s most famous export item, writing material made of sheets of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus or Nile grass) ceased to be cultivated around the 10th c. CE43: “All in all, we can say that after the 11th century no writing materials were produced from the papyrus plant"44. The plant had been virtually wiped out".
"The collapse of the [Balhae Empire was established under the name Jin] (Chinese: Bohei), stretching from [North Korea via China to Manchuria], is conventionally dated to 926 CE. It should have been noticed in Japan. Yet, a chronicle from a Japanese temple that reports "white ash falling like snow" is currently dated to 946. A recent survey tries to tie the explosion of Changbaishan volcano (also called Mount Paektu) –– located in Southern China close to North Korea, i.e., within the borders of the Balhae Empire –– to the chronicle’s observation:"
“The Millennium eruption has fascinated scientists and historians for decades because of its size, potential worldwide impacts. […] Its eruption in 946 was one of the most violent of the last two thousand years and is thought to have discharged around 100 cubic kilometers of ash and pumice into the atmosphere –– enough to bury the entire UK knee deep”46
"Eldgjá, has created the largest volcanic canyon in the world. It is some 40 km long, 270 m deep and 600 m wide. The eruption (dated to 934 or 939 CE) resulted in the most massive formation of flood basalt in historical time. 219 million tons of sulfur dioxide were blown into the atmosphere where they reacted with water and oxygen and became 450 million tons of sulfuric acid. These corrosive aerosols must have covered a large part of the Northern Hemisphere47."
“Throughout the Mediterranean Basin, the Levant, Iran, and southeast Arabia, many valleys display two alluvial fills of which the older dates from about 30,000-10,000 yr BP and the younger from about A.D. 400-1850. […] The younger fill is well sorted and stratified and, as in Mexico, displays silt-clay depletion as well as iron loss when compared with the older fill deposits from which it is often derived. […]. The younger fill is seen in many widely separated areas to cover structures of Roman age as the period of deposition extended into Byzantine and even medieval times. […] The sections in W. Libya are typical in showing the younger fill deposits in channels eroded into the earlier fill. In most areas, the surface of the older fill was the usable land in Roman times. Greek, Roman, Byzantine, and medieval sherds are found in the younger fill, which also covers entire cities, notably, Olympia in Greece.49”.
"Felix Romuliana is regarded as an ideal embodiment of a purely Late Antique (4th-6th c.) city in the Roman province of Moesia (today's Gamzigrad in Serbia), because in the earlier Imperial Antiquity of the 1st to early 3rd centuries there appears to be simply nothing at all in that splendid urban space erected around 305 CE for Emperor Galerius (293-311 CE)."
"Felix Romuliana [was] erected around 305 CE for Emperor Galerius (293-311 CE)."
"Felix Romuliana can boast a rich urban history up to the end of the 1st c. BCE"
It "has “a long settlement continuity from the Neolithic period over the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, the Late Antiquity into the Middle Ages”2 (DAIST 2013, see already Petkovic 2011a, 40)."
Between "1 and 1,000 CE there are only some 300 years with building strata in Felix Romuliana."
"Just between the 1st and 3rd c. CE the city’s evolution is totally and mysteriously stalled."
"Only during the Late Antique period (3rd to 6th c.), which appears to emerge out of thin air, does evolution pick up again with “different construction and expansion phases”3 (DAIST 2013). Since the German-Serbian excavations (2004 to 2012), one even knows “the localization of a necropolis belonging to the palace and its succession of settlements [up to the 6th c.], whose evidently dense occupation indicates a large population”4 (DAIST 2013)."
"For the more than 400 years between the late 6th and early 11th centuries, there was, however, no building evolution in the emergency accommodations. There are no archeological remains for some 400 years of use. There is substantial evidence for only a few decades, or even less. Those 400 years were written into the excavation report to meet a textbook chronology that is not understood but deeply venerated."
"Imperial Antiquity [apparently] did not leave any buildings [in Felix Romuliana] between Augustus (31 BCE - 14 CE) and Severus Alexander (222-235 CE)."
"Since Marcus Licinius Crassus (consul in 30 BCE) had already conquered Moesia in 29 BCE, it remains an enigma why suddenly the fertile area of Felix Romuliana, which had been in full use since the Neolithic period, was suddenly abandoned."
"Galerius’s Late Antique palace complex in Felix Romuliana was built by Legio V Macedonica (the bull and eagle were its symbol), a Roman legion that had been set up in 43 BCE by Octavian and Consul Gaius Vibius Panza Caetronianus (who fell in 43 BCE against Mark Antony)."
"It is indisputable that in 6 CE the legion was in the province of Moesia, with sufficient time to build something. It is also known that right there, in 33/34 CE (now under Emperor Tiberius), the legion did road-construction along the Danube (Clauss EDCS, 1649)."
"The Legio V Macedonica also participates in the construction of the gigantic Danube Bridge (1135 m; 103-105 CE) under Emperor Trajan (98-117). All this happens in close vicinity of Felix Romuliana, where the legion supposedly did not work before the 3rd/4th c. CE."
"Also, for around a quarter of a millennium (1st-3rd c. CE), there are no Aeolian layers in Felix Romuliana with vegetation or small animal remains, etc., which are to be expected if a city lies fallow for such a long time."
In Felix Romuliana, "the construction [...] is [...] Imperial Antique (1st-3rd c.), and sometimes even late Hellenistic, [in] appearance."
"Felix Romuliana still amazes [...] by its absence of Christian traces, despite its cultural proximity to the Greek part of the empire where Christianity had been in full development since the 1st c. CE. During the governorship (111-113 CE) of Pliny the Younger (61/61-113 CE) in Pontus-Bithynia, Christianity was, e.g., no longer stoppable. It had “spread not only to the cities but also to the villages and farms” of Asia Minor (Pliny: Letters 10:96)."
The early history period dates from around 3,000 to 2,000 b2k.
The iron age history period began between 3,200 and 2,100 b2k.
The "calibration of radiocarbon dates at approximately 2500-2450 BP [2500-2450 b2k] is problematic due to a "plateau" (known as the "Hallstatt-plateau") in the calibration curve [...] A decrease in solar activity caused an increase in production of 14C, and thus a sharp rise in Δ 14C, beginning at approximately 850 cal (calendar years) BC [...] Between approximately 760 and 420 cal BC (corresponding to 2500-2425 BP [2500-2425 b2k]), the concentration of 14C returned to "normal" values."
The "period around 850-760 BC [2850-2760 b2k], characterised by a decrease in solar activity and a sharp increase of Δ 14C [...] the local vegetation succession, in relation to the changes in atmospheric radiocarbon content, shows additional evidence for solar forcing of climate change at the Subboreal - Subatlantic transition."
The bronze age history period began between 5,300 and 2,600 b2k.
The ancient history period dates from around 8,000 to 3,000 b2k.
The "Atlantic period [is] 4.6–6 ka [4,600-6,000 b2k]."
The copper age history period began from 6990 b2k.
The ancient history period dates from around 8,000 to 3,000 b2k.
The "Scandinavian one 2000 years earlier [8,000 b2k]."
The prehistory period dates from around 7 x 106 b2k to about 7,000 b2k.
The last glaciation appears to have a gradual decline ending about 12,000 b2k. This may have been the end of the Pre-Boreal transition.
"About 9000 years ago the temperature in Greenland culminated at 4°C warmer than today. Since then it has become slowly cooler with only one dramatic change of climate. This happened 8250 years ago [...]. In an otherwise warm period the temperature fell 7°C within a decade, and it took 300 years to re-establish the warm climate. This event has also been demonstrated in European wooden ring series and in European bogs."
"The last remains of the American ice sheet disappeared about 6000 years ago [6,000 b2k], the Scandinavian one 2000 years earlier [8,000 b2k]."
The "Alleröd/Younger Dryas transition [occurred] some 11,000 years ago [11,000 b2k]."
The Holocene starts at ~11,700 b2k and extends to the present.
The "Allerød Chronozone, 11,800 to 11,000 years ago".
The base of the Neolithic is approximated to 12,200 b2k.
The mesolithic period dates from around 13,000 to 8,500 b2k.
The paleolithic period dates from around 2.6 x 106 b2k to the end of the Pleistocene around 12,000 b2k.
"Older Dryas [...] events [occurred about 13,400 b2k]".
The "intra-Bølling cold period [IBCP is a century-scale cold event and the] Bølling warming [occurs] at 14600 cal [calendar years, ~ b2k] BP (12700 14C BP)".
"During the Late Weichselian glacial maximum (20-15 ka BP) the overriding of ice streams eventually lead to strong glaciotectonic displacement of Late Pleistocene and pre-Quaternary deposits and to deposition of till."
The "minimum point of GIS-2b (Greenland Stadial sub-event b) [is] identified by Bjork et al. 1998 [at] 17.687 ka BP".
"After c. 22 ka BP [which is] during the Jylland stade (Houmark-Nielsen 1989)".
The weak interstadial corresponding to GIS 2 occurred about 23.2 kyr B.P.
"GIS 2 (start) 21.556 [to] GIS 2 (end) 21.407 ka BP".
Heinrich Event 2 (H2) extends "22-25.62 ka BP".
"Stadial Duration 3.781 ka".
The stronger GIS 3 interstadial occurred about 27.6 kyr B.P.
Heinrich Event 3 (H3) "occurs at 26.74 ka BP, coincident with the start of the transition into GIS 4."
"GIS 3 (start) 25.571 [to] GIS 3 (end) 25.337 ka BP".
"Stadial duration 0.768 ka".
The Møn interstadial corresponds to GIS 4.
"GIS 4 (start) 26.627 [to] GIS 4 (end) 26.339 ka BP".
This advance occurred after the Møn and ended with GIS 6.
"Stadial duration 2.899 ka".
GIS 5 interstadial occurred during the Klintholm advance about 33.5 kyr B.P.
"GIS 5 (start) 30.013 [to] GIS 5 (end) 29.526 ka BP".
Stadial duration 0.836 ka""
The Ålesund interstadial began with GIS 6 and ended after GIS 8.
"GIS 6 (start) 31.218 [to] GIS 6 (end) 30.849 ka BP".
"Stadial duration 0.932 ka".
GIS 7 interstadial
"GIS 7 (start) 32.896 [to] GIS 7 (end) 32.15 ka BP".
"Stadial duration 0.642 ka".
The Huneborg interstadial is a Greenland interstadial dating 36.5-38.5 kyr B.P. GIS 8.
The Denekamp interstadial corresponds to the Huneborg interstadial.
"GIS 8 (start) 35.716 [to] GIS 8 (end) 33.977 ka BP".
Heinrich Event 4 "33-39.93 ka BP".
The Hengelo interstadial [is] > 35 ka BP".
The "Hengelo Interstadial [is] (38–36 ka ago)."
"GIS 9 (end) 37.461 ka BP".
The "Hasselo stadial [is] at approximately 40-38,500 14C years B.P. (Van Huissteden, 1990)."
The "Hasselo Stadial [is a glacial advance] (44–39 ka ago)".
The Moershoofd interstadial has a 14C date of 44-46 kyr B.P. and corresponds to GIS 12 at 45-47 kyr B.P.
Another likely stadial
The Glinde interstadial has a 14C date of 48-50 kyr B.P. and corresponds to GIS ?13/14 with a GIS age of 49-54.5 kyr B.P.
"Genetics suggests Neanderthal numbers dropped sharply around 50,000 years ago. This coincides with a sudden cold snap, hinting climate struck the first blow."
This corresponds to the Skjonghelleren Glaciation of Scandinavia where ice crosses the North Sea between 50-40 ka BP.
The Oerel interstadial has a 14C date of 53-58 kyr B.P. and corresponds to GIS 15/16 with a GIS age of 56-59 kyr B.P.
The Karmøy stadial begins in the high mountains of Norway about 60 kyr B.P. and expands to the outer coast by 58 kyr B.P.
The Schalkholz Stadial in North Germany is equivalent.
The Odderade interstadial has a 14C date of 61-72 kyr B.P. and corresponds to GIS 21.
The Cretaceous/Cenozoic boundary occurs at 65.0 ± 0.1 Ma (million years ago).
The "controversially split Eemian period, the predecessor of our own warm period about 125,000 years ago."
"The Eem interglaciation […] lasted from 131 to 117 kyr B.P."
"Clay deposition in the Piauí River floodplain around 436 ± 51.5 ka occurred during a warmer period of the Aftonian interglaciation, corresponding to isotope stage 12 (Ericson and Wollin, 1968)."
"The [Calabrian] GSSP occurs at the base of the marine claystone conformably overlying sapropelic bed ‘e’ within Segment B in the Vrica section. This lithological level represents the primary marker for the recognition of the boundary, and is assigned an astronomical age of 1.80 Ma on the basis of sapropel calibration."
"The base of the Quaternary System [shown in the image on the right] is defined by the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Gelasian Stage at Monte San Nicola in Sicily, Italy, currently dated at 2.58 Ma."
The paleolithic period dates from around 2.6 x 106 b2k to the end of the Pleistocene around 12,000 b2k.
The Pleistocene dates from 2.588 x 106 to 11,700 b2k.
The "whole change elapsed just opposite the course of events that characterized the great glacial oscillations with sudden warming followed by slow cooling. Therefore, the two phenomena hardly have the same cause."
The Tertiary Period extends from 65.5 ± 0.3 to 2.588 x 106 b2k.
The Pliocene ranges from 5.332 x 106 to 2.588 x 106 b2k.
"The base of the beige marl bed of the small-scale carbonate cycle 77 (sensu Hilgen, 1991b) is the approved base of the Piacenzian Stage (that is the Lower Pliocene-Middle Pliocene boundary). It corresponds to precessional excursion 347 as numbered from the present with an astrochronological age estimate of 3.600 Ma (Lourens et al., 1996a)."
"The boundary-stratotype of the stage is located in the Eraclea Minoa section on the southern coast of Sicily (Italy), at the base of the Trubi Formation. The age of the Zanclean and Pliocene GSSP at the base of the stage is 5.33 Ma in the orbitally calibrated time scale, and lies within the lowermost reversed episode of the Gilbert Chron (C3n.4r), below the Thvera normal subchron."
The Miocene dates from 23.03 x 106 to 5.332 x 106 b2k.
The Neogene dates from 23.03 x 106 to 2.58 x 106 b2k.
Holarctic-Antarctic Ice Age
"This late Cenozoic ice age began at least 30 million years ago in Antarctica; it expanded to Arctic regions of southern Alaska, Greenland, Iceland, and Svalbard between 10 and 3 million years ago. Glaciers and ice sheets in these areas have been relatively stable, more-or-less permanent features during the past few million years."
The Oligocene dates from 33.9 ± 0.1 x 106 to 23.03 x 106 b2k.
The Eocene dates from 55.8 ± 0.2 x 106 to 33.9 ± 0.1 x 106 b2k.
The Paleocene dates from 65.5 ± 0.3 x 106 to 55.8 ± 0.2 x 106 b2k.
The Paleogene Period extends from 65.5 ± 0.3 to 23.03 ± 0.05 x 106 b2k.
The Permian/Triassic boundary occurs at 248.2 ± 4.8 Ma (million years ago).
"The Cretaceous period is the third and final period in the Mesozoic Era. It began 145.5 million years ago after the Jurassic Period and ended 65.5 million years ago, before the Paleogene Period of the Cenozoic Era."
The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary occurs at 144.2 ± 2.6 Ma (million years ago).
The Triassic/Jurassic boundary occurs at 205.7 ± 4.0 Ma (million years ago).
The Triassic/Jurassic boundary occurs at 205.7 ± 4.0 Ma (million years ago).
The Permian/Triassic boundary occurs at 248.2 ± 4.8 Ma (million years ago).
The Paleozoic era spanned 542.0 ± 1.0 to 251.0 ± 0.7 Mb2k.
The Permian lasted from 299.0 ± 0.8 to 251.0 ± 0.4 Mb2k.
The Permian/Triassic boundary occurs at 248.2 ± 4.8 Ma (million years ago).
The Carboniferous began 359.2 ± 2.5 Mb2k and ended 299.0 ± 0.8 Mb2k.
The Pennsylvanian lasted from 318.1 ± 1.3 to 299.0 ± 0.8 Mb2k.
The Mississippian lasted from 359.2 ± 2.5 to 318.1 ± 1.3 Mb2k.
Karoo Ice Age
The "Karoo [occurred] between 360 and 260 Ma [but] did not achieve a global extent."
The Devonian spanned 416.0 ± 2.8 to 359.2 ± 2.5 Mb2k.
The Silurian spanned 443.7 ± 1.5 to 416.0 ± 2.8 Mb2k.
Andean-Saharan ice age
The "Andean-Saharan [occurred] between 450 and 420 Ma […] did not achieve a global extent."
The Ordovician lasted from 488.3 ± 1.7 to 443.7 ± 1.5 Mb2k.
The Cambrian lasted from 542.0 ± 1.0 to 488.3 ± 1.7 Mb2k.
The Phanerozoic eon includes the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. It lasted from 542.0 ± 1.0 Mb2k to the present
- "the time and geology dated before the Phanerozoic" or
- the "eon (or supereon) and rock formations dated before 541.0±1.0 million years ago, coinciding with the first appearance of the fossils of hard-shelled animals"
is called the precambrian.
Cryogenian ice age
The Cryogenian Ice Age, or the Stuartian-Varangian Ice Age, a "Late Proterozoic ice age was apparently the greatest of all. Glacial strata are known from all modern continents (except Antarctica) with an overall time range of about 950 to 600 million years old.
Def. "a geologic era within the Proterozoic eon; comprises the Tonian, Cryogenian and Ediacaran periods from about 1000 to 544 million years ago, when algae and sponges flourished" is called the Neoproterozoic.
Def. "a geologic era within the Proterozoic eon; comprises the Calymmian, Ectasian and Stennian periods from about 1600 to 900 million years ago, when the Rodinia supercontinent was formed" is called the Mesoproterozoic.
Def. the "era from 2,500 Ma to 1,600 Ma, marked by a dramatic increase in atmospheric oxygen" is called the Paleoproterozoic.
Huronian ice age
The Huronian Ice Age is known "mainly from Canada and the United States in North America, where dated rocks range from 2500 to 2100 million years old."
The "Makganyene glaciation begins some time after 2.32 Ga and ends at 2.22 Ga, the three Huronian glaciations predate the Makganyene snowball."
Def. the "eon from 2,500 Ma to 541.0±1.0 Ma, the beginning of the Phanerozoic, marked by the build up of oxygen in the atmosphere and the emergence of primitive multicellular life" is called the Proterozoic.
- destitute "of any vestige of organic life, or at least of animal life",
- anterior "to the existence of animal life", or
- formed "when there was no animal life on the globe"
Def. "older than the lowest rocks which contain organic remains" is called the hypozoic.
- "a geologic era within the Archaean eon from about 2800 to 2500 million years ago" or
- the "era from 2,800 Ma to 2,500 Ma"
is called the Neoarchean.
The Pongola glaciation is dated "at 2.9 Ga".
- "a geologic era within the Archaean eon from about 3200 to 2800 million years ago; stromatolites have existed from this time" or
- the "era from 3,200 Ma to 2,800 Ma"
is called the Mesoarchean.
- "a geologic era within the Archaean eon from about 3600 to 3200 million years ago; the first aerobic bacteria appeared at this time" or
- the "era from 3,600 Ma to 3,200 Ma"
is called the paleoarchean.
Archaean is an alternate spelling of Archean.
- "the geologic eon from about 3,800 to 2,500 million years ago; comprises the Eoarchean, Paleoarchean, Mesoarchean and Neoarchean eras; marked by an atmosphere with little oxygen, the formation of the first continents and oceans and the emergence of simple life" or
- the "eon from 2,500 Ma to 4,000 Ma"
is called the Archaean, or Archean.
- "a geologic era within the Archaean eon from about 4600 to 3600 million years ago; the first single-celled life began at this time" or
- the "era from 4,000 Ma to 3,600 Ma"
is called the Eoarchean.
- "the geologic eon from about 4,600 to 3,800 million years ago; marked by the formation of the solar system, a stable Earth-Moon orbit and the first rocks" or
- the "eon before 4,000 Ma"
is called the Hadean.
"With some of it on the south and more of it on the north of the great main thoroughfare that connects Aldgate and the East India Docks, St. Bede's at this period of its history was perhaps the poorest and most miserable parish in the East End of London."
"US history is replete with examples of the confounding of dominant group and national interests."
"Throughout U. S. history, dominant groups have attempted to impose a set of values and norms on subordinate groups."
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- This topic is covered in a very accessible manner in Chapter 11 Richard Fortey (1997). Life: An Unauthorised Biography.
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- Sasha Naomi Bharier Leigh (2007). A STUDY OF THE DYNAMICS OF THE BRITISH ICE SHEET DURING MARINE ISOTOPE STAGES 2 AND 3, FOCUSING ON HEINRICH EVENTS 2 AND 4 AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE NORTH ATLANTIC GLACIOLOGICAL AND CLIMATOLOGICAL CONDITIONS. St Andrews, Scotland: University of St Andrews. pp. 219. https://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/10023/525/Sasha%20Leigh%20MPhil%20thesis.pdf?sequence=1. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
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- Catherine Brahic (08 August 2014). "Human exodus may have reached China 100,000 years ago". New Scientist. Retrieved 2014-08-16.
- Felix M. Gradstein, Frits P. Agterberg, James G. Ogg, Jan Hardenbol, Paul Van Veen, Jacques Thierry, and Zehui Huang (1995). A Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous Time Scale, In: Geochronology Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlation. SEPM Special Publication No. 54. Society for Sedimentary Geology. doi:1-56576-024-7. http://archives.datapages.com/data/sepm_sp/SP54/A_Triassic_Jurassic_and_Cretaceous_Time_Scale.htm. Retrieved 2017-02-14.
- Janaina C. Santos; Alcina Magnólia Franca BarretoII; Kenitiro Suguio (16 August 2012). "Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil". Geologia USP. Série Científica 12 (3). doi:10.5327/Z1519-874X2012000300008. http://ppegeo.igc.usp.br/scielo.php?pid=S1519-874X2012000300009&script=sci_arttext. Retrieved 2015-01-20.
- Maria Bianca Cita, Philip L. Gibbard, Martin J. Head, and the ICS Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (September 2012). "Formal ratification of the GSSP for the base of the Calabrian Stage (second stage of the Pleistocene Series, Quaternary System)". Episodes 35 (3): 388-97. http://www.stratigraphy.org/GSSP/Calabrian2.pdf. Retrieved 2015-01-18.
- Philip L. Gibbard and Martin J. Head (September 2010). "The newly-ratified definition of the Quaternary System/Period and redefinition of the Pleistocene Series/Epoch, and comparison of proposals advanced prior to formal ratification". Episodes 33 (3): 152-8. http://www.stratigraphy.org/GSSP/Quaternary&Pleistocene.pdf. Retrieved 2015-01-20.
- D. Castradori, D. Rio, F. J. Hilgen, and L. J. Lourens (June 1998). "The Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) of the Piacenzian Stage (Middle Pliocene)". Episodes 21 (2): 88-93. http://www.stratigraphy.org/GSSP/Piacenzian.pdf. Retrieved 2015-01-23.
- John A. Van Couvering, Davide Castradori, Maria Bianca Cita, Frederik J. Hilgen, and Domenico Rio (September 2000). [http://www.stratigraphy.org/GSSP/Zanclean.pdf "The base of the Zanclean Stage and of the Pliocene Series"]. Episodes 23 (3): 179-87. http://www.stratigraphy.org/GSSP/Zanclean.pdf. Retrieved 2015-01-23.
- James S. Aber (2008). "GLACIATIONS THROUGHOUT EARTH HISTORY". Emporia, Kansas USA: Emporia State University. Retrieved 2014-11-06.
- Gaidheal1 (May 16, 2012). "Cretaceous Period, In: Wikiversity". Retrieved 2012-07-24.
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