As with other humanities, music may have dominant groups of music itself or in some way associated with music and the artists that perform it.
Dominant group may be an artifact of human endeavor or may have preceded humanity.
Dominant group[edit | edit source]
Examples from primary sources are to be used to prove or disprove each hypothesis. These can be collected per subject or in general.
- Accident hypothesis: dominant group is an accident of whatever processes are operating.
- Artifact hypothesis: dominant group may be an artifact of human endeavor or may have preceded humanity.
- Association hypothesis: dominant group is associated in some way with the original research.
- Bad group hypothesis: dominant group is the group that engages in discrimination, abuse, punishment, and additional criminal activity against other groups. It often has an unfair advantage and uses it to express monopolistic practices.
- Control group hypothesis: there is a control group that can be used to study dominant group.
- Entity hypothesis: dominant group is an entity within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
- Evolution hypothesis: dominant group is a product of evolutionary processes, such groups are the evolutionary process, produce evolutionary processes, or are independent of evolutionary processes.
- Identifier hypothesis: dominant group is an identifier used by primary source authors of original research to identify an observation in the process of analysis.
- Importance hypothesis: dominant group signifies original research results that usually need to be explained by theory and interpretation of experiments.
- Indicator hypothesis: dominant group may be an indicator of something as yet not understood by the primary author of original research.
- Influence hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article containing original research to indicate influence or an influential phenomenon.
- Interest hypothesis: dominant group is a theoretical entity used by scholarly authors of primary sources for phenomena of interest.
- Metadefinition hypothesis: all uses of dominant group by all primary source authors of original research are included in the metadefinition for dominant group.
- Null hypothesis: there is no significant or special meaning of dominant group in any sentence or figure caption in any refereed journal article.
- Object hypothesis: dominant group is an object within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
- Obvious hypothesis: the only meaning of dominant group is the one found in Mosby's Medical Dictionary.
- Original research hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article by the author to indicate that the article contains original research.
- Primordial hypothesis: dominant group is a primordial concept inherent to humans such that every language or other form of communication no matter how old or whether extinct, on the verge of extinction, or not, has at least a synonym for dominant group.
- Purpose hypothesis: dominant group is written into articles by authors for a purpose.
- Regional hypothesis: dominant group, when it occurs, is only a manifestation of the limitations within a region. Variation of those limitations may result in the loss of a dominant group with the eventual appearance of a new one or none at all.
- Source hypothesis: dominant group is a source within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
- Term hypothesis: dominant group is a significant term that may require a 'rigorous definition' or application and verification of an empirical definition.
Music theory[edit | edit source]
"This grouping is shared with the major set, however, the pre-dominant group does not include major chords on II."
"With astonishing abruptness the bridge begins in G major (m. 9); it leads, through the V of B major, to a dominant group containing two ideas, a "second theme" (mm. 14-18) and a codetta, (mm. ... A striking augmentation marks the climax of the harmonic transition from B minor to A major (Ex. 16c). A diminution begins the first strain of the dominant group (Ex. 16d); later on the motive is transposed to AG# -F# -E (Ex. 16e)."
Music analysis[edit | edit source]
“The new 'key' would then dissolve into an augmented sixth leading to the introductory V of the dominant group.”
"Music theorists perpetuate this understanding by juxtaposing description and analysis: Music theory pedagogue Michael Rogers writes that “the goal of description…is to collect information,” whereas “analysis seeks to answer ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions” (2004:74-75). Rogers sees description as a necessary, but separate prerequisite to analysis. As he sees it, it is only once we begin to analyze, to move beyond mere description, that we show our intellectual, stylistic, and political selves."
"Heteroglossia is not often recognized by speakers. This, Bakhtin suggests, is no accident: Given that dominant groups often seek to impose a particular notion of reality on others, their rule is threatened by the existence of multiple worldviews. Thus by highlighting one linguistic genre as primary dominant groups elevate a single worldview—one that likely reinforces their position of power."
The dominants[edit | edit source]
"Traditionally, the harmony moves from subdominant to dominant group."
In German, the word “Dominanten” may mean a dominant or dominants. The phrase “den Dominanten” occurs in 1774 usually referring to “die Dominante” in music. The plural is “die Dominanten” (the dominants). But, “the dominant” translates to “die dominierende”.
A teaching textbook for piano from 1826 contains “Sind die Grundtöne der Dur- und Moll-Tonarten, jedoch ohne die mindeste Beziehung auf ihre Dominanten, durch den Zirkel angesetzt, so werden die Dominanten dann hinterher beigefügt.”
Texts for musical composition contain "the dominants", such as “Doch leide« dieses Berkoth eine Ausnahme, wenn die Dominanten häufig von kommen.” from 1781.
The earliest occurrence so far for "the dominants" comes from 1757, “so sind solche entweder tonische Noten, Dominanten, oder Unterdominanren, und die Dominanten können simple oder tonische Dominanten seyn.”
Criticism[edit | edit source]
"These are the "insight" critics, who Atkins believes to be the dominant group of his period. ... What all this comes back to in the end is the position Atkins has been staking out in his notes, reviews, poems, and music theory all along, an emphasis upon conspicuous technique and "designed" imagination."
Music education[edit | edit source]
"The word 'different' to refer to world music occurs 25 times within the 30 minute interview. The centre to which this 'difference' is compared however, is only implied. Moon (1992) notes that the dominant group, the seeming foundation to which all other styles are likened, is often a hidden and implicit construct, which functions to naturalise its position of power."
"Functionalism’s approach to the transmission of knowledge also supports the reproduction of the social status quo—in particular, of the knowledge, ideologies, and practices of dominant social groups that have a vested interest in preventing or minimizing change and, thus, of maintaining their advantages over other groups. ... These theories stress the problems (conflicts) associated with schools that serve mainly (or only) the purposes of dominant groups that have vested interests in maintaining social, economic, gender, and ethnic inequities. ... Viewed as a social practice, it is not a question of whose music, which musics (etc.) to teach, but of stressing the personal and social agency of music—in general and across various groups (dominant or not, in conflict or not). ... Teachers will not, as a result, presume to impose the music of a dominant group, nor will they seek to reproduce society (or music in society) in status quo terms. ... The question of “whose” music to teach recognizes music as social practice from the very first. It can refer to the musics of different ethnic groups in a multicultural community, or to the music imposed by dominant groups on the rest of society. Dominance (power) is not simply an economic or ‘class’ issue (although whose musics get government subsidy does highlight economic and class inequalities): it can involve the dominance of an ethnic majority, or the power (authority) granted to music teachers over their students and, thus, the power to impose one music or a narrow range of musics on students to the exclusion of others."
"Pierre Bourdieu and Jean-Claude Passeron (1977) have written extensively about how the relatively autonomous character of a school conceals its function as the most effective means for the cultural reproduction of the privileges of the dominant class. ... According to Young (1990) cultural imperialism involves the universalisation of a dominant group's experience and culture, and its establishment as the norm. Because the values and perspectives of dominant groups permeate cultural and institutional norms, members of oppressed groups have their lives interpreted through the lens of the dominant group, defined as ‘common sense’. Furthermore, oppressed groups often internalise the negative stereotypes to which their group is subjected (Baker, et al., 2004; Bell, 1997; Freire 1997a; 1997b). The focus of the music circles is on listening to what would be regarded by the dominant groups as the pinnacles of musical achievement, and to act as a culture study (Giroux, 1986). ... The procedure followed within these circles tries to change the meaning of those cultural products which express the dominant group's perspective on and interpretation of events and elements in society, including other groups in society, insofar as they attain cultural status at all (Young, 1990)."
Music professionalism[edit | edit source]
"Gramsci maintains that for a sociopolitically dominant group to sustain power, it must forge alliances that establish comprehensive social authority by winning the consent of subordinate groups, thus making this authority seem a natural and legitimate construction of social reality -- a reality taken for granted by culture members as the truth of common sense".
Latin American music[edit | edit source]
“These comprise: 1. The "spontaneous" consent given by the great masses of the population to the general direction imposed on social life by the dominant fundamental group; this consent is "historically" caused by the prestige (and consequent confidence) which the dominant group enjoys because of its position and function in the world of production.”
Modernist music[edit | edit source]
"In the first analysis, Crawford's String Quartet (1931) movement iii, Hisama weaves several analytical threads: composer/theorist Robert Morris's innovative analysis of "musical contour"; literary theorist Elaine Showalter's term "double-voiced discourse" and related literary concepts of Showalter's; anthropologist Edwin Ardener's position that "women in a society operate both within a dominant group and in a space outside it [and consequently] express their views of the world".
Popular music[edit | edit source]
“Within this framework, popular music represents the legitimate expression of members of the subdominant group who resist and oppose oppression by members of the dominant group.”
"It can be used by a dominant group to arouse loyalty to the nation and to those in power, and this is visible in the patriotic songs which are found in many countries."
Rap[edit | edit source]
"Dominant group perception of rap as violent and loud emerges, for Rose, out of a fear of black resistance and defiance."
"Sterling Stuckey (1987) and James Scott (1990) recognize African American music as critical and resistant to the dominant group."
Religious music[edit | edit source]
Notation: let the symbol CCM stand for "Contemporary Christian music".
“Avant garde artists are not the dominant group in terms of record sales and religious radio airplay, but they command a significant following among Christian youth.” "In challenging these basic premises of the dominant group's hegemony, CCM provides a space for potentially overcoming that dominance."
Rhythm and blues[edit | edit source]
"The concept of folk music was created by academic elites, but remained unfamiliar to most people until the organized left took it on as a cultural project in the late 1930s and 1940s. Both academic elites and political activists constructed the genre as an alternative to the racialized genres that the commercial recording industry had dubbed “race records” and “hillbilly music.”"
"As the music of “a people” or “a folk” it conforms to the principle of homology. But, in fact, folk music is typically the appropriation by one group, usually a dominant group, of someone else's music, fortifying social boundaries by breaching the principle of homology. ... Rhythm and blues has been so explicitly coded as black that it was first recorded on “race records” (Oliver 1984)."
"Unlike the proletarian, slave or peasant, the teenager through the passage of time becomes part of the gerontocratically dominant group. ... However, the influences here were the Donald Wood rhythm and blues hit “Death of an Angel” (c. 1955) with a touch of “Endless Sleep.""
Hypotheses[edit | edit source]
- Dominant group is more than musical notes in music.
For music the proof of concept initially is that dominant group is involved at all.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Martin Rohrmeier, Ian Cross (August 2008). Statistical Properties of Tonal Harmony in Bach's Chorales, In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (ICMPC 2008) (PDF). Sapporo, Japan. pp. 619–27. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
- Carl Schachter (Spring 1982). "Beethoven's Sketches for the First Movement of Op. 14, No. 1: A Study in Design". Journal of Music Theory 26 (1): 1-21. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/843353. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
- Carl Schachter (March 1983). "The First Movement of Brahms's Second Symphony: The Opening Theme and Its Consequences". Music Analysis 2 (1): 55-68. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/853952. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
- B Teitelbaum (2008). "Describing Music". Technomusicology: A Sandbox Journal 1 (1). http://library.brown.edu/OJS/index.php/MusicGrads/article/view/49. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
- Sergiu Gherman (2009). "Harmony and its Functionality: A Gloss on the Substantial Similarity Test in Music Copyrights". Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal 19 (Book 2): 483-517. http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1434&context=iplj. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
- Johann Philipp Kirnberger (1774). Die Kunst des reinen Satzes in der Musik: aus sicheren Grundsätzen hergeleitet und mit deutlichen Beyspielen erläutert, Volume 1. Berlin: G. F. Deder and G. L. Hartung. p. 250. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
- Carl Gottfried Wehner (1826). Theoretisch-practisches Lehrsystem des Pianofortespieles oder deutliche und gründliche Anleitung, neben der practischen Fertigkeit, welche mit Hülfe eines durch Erfahrung bereits bewährten Apparats in kurzer Zeit erworben wird, auch die mathematisch begründeten Gesetze der Harmonie in naturgemässer Stufenfolge zu erlernen: Theoretischer Theil. Leipzig: Klinkicht. p. 96. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
- Johan Philip Kirnberger (1781). Grundsätze des Generalbasses als erste Linien zu Composition. Berlin: J. J. Hummel. p. 88. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
- Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (1757). Systematische Einleitung in die musicalische Setzkunst. Leipzig: Joh. Gottlob Immanuel Breitlopf. p. 136. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
- Aldon Lynn Nielsen (Fall-Winter 1996). "Black Deconstruction: Russell Atkins and the Reconstruction of African-American Criticism". Diacritics 26 (3/4): 86-103. doi:10.1353/dia.1996.0029. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/diacritics/v026/26.3-4nielsen.html. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
- Kathy Thompson (December 2002). "A Critical Discourse Analysis of World Music as the 'Other' in Education". Research Studies in Music Education 19 (1): 14-21. doi:10.1177/1321103X020190010301. http://rsm.sagepub.com/content/19/1/14.short. Retrieved 2012-05-18.
- Thomas A. Regelski (2008). "Music Education for a Changing Society". Diskussion Musikpädagogik 38 (08): 34-42. http://www.tarleton.edu/faculty/boucher/Regelski%20article.pdf. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
- Danilo Martins de Castro Chaib (Spring 2010). "Music listening circles: Contributions from development education to democratising classical music". Policy & Practice A Develpment Education Review 10 (Spring): 42-58. http://www.developmenteducationreview.com/issue10-focus1?page=show. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
- Donna A. Buchanan (Fall 1995). "Metaphors of Power, Metaphors of Truth: The Politics of Music Professionalism in Bulgarian Folk Orchestras". Ethnomusicology 39 (3): 381-416. http://compus.uom.gr/MUS317/document/Dialeksh_10-11/Buchanan,_D._1995_Metaphors_of_power,_metaphors_of_truth.pdf. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
- Thomas Turino (Autumn - Winter 1988). "The music of Andean migrants in Lima, Peru: Demographics, social power, and style". Latin American Music Review/Revista de Música Latinoamericana 9 (2): 127-50. http://www.jstor.org/pss/780291. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
- Susan Borwick (Fall 2003). "Reclaiming Gender in Modernist Music". NWSA Journal 15 (3): 189-96. doi:10.1353/nwsa.2004.0002.
- M Mattern (1998). "Cajun music, cultural revival: Theorizing political action in popular music". Popular Music & Society 22 (2). doi:10.1080/03007769808591704. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03007769808591704. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
- Lily Kong (1995). "Popular music and a "sense of place" in Singapore". Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 9 (2): 51-77. http://profile.nus.edu.sg/fass/geokongl/xroadpap.pdf. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
- Theresa A. Martinez (Summer 1997). "Popular Culture as Oppositional Culture: Rap as Resistance". Sociological Perspectives 40 (2): 265-86. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/1389525. Retrieved 2012-02-19.
- Jay R. Howard (Summer 1992). "Contemporary Christian music: Where rock meets religion". The Journal of Popular Culture 26 (1): 123-30. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1992.00123.x. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1992.00123.x/abstract. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
- William G. Roy (September 1, 2002). "Aesthetic identity, race, and American folk music". Qualitative Sociology 25 (2): 459-69. doi:10.1023/A:1016094232372. http://stephaniekim.bol.ucla.edu/cide/democracyinstitute/readings/AestheticIdentity.pdf. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
- R. Serge Denisoff (Spring 1983). "“Teen Angel”: Resistence, Rebellion and Death—Revisited*". The Journal of Popular Culture 16 (4): 116-22. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1983.1604_116.x. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1983.1604_116.x/abstract. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (1757). Systematische Einleitung in die musicalische Setzkunst. Leipzig: Joh. Gottlob Immanuel Breitlopf. p. 136. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
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