Art

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This is a photograph of a painting being created. Credit: David Hiser.

"Art is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities".[1]

Humanities[edit]

Main source: Humanities

"The purpose of incorporating humanities teaching into medical education is to encourage students to develop into more sensitive and caring doctors who communicate well with their patients and colleagues."[2]

Colors[edit]

The painting depicts a view of Macugnaga, a village in the Verbano area, located at the foot of Monte Rosa. Credit: Leonardo Bazzaro/1895.

It "is possible for a painter to generate all colors by mixing together different ratios of three suitably chosen primaries, but, in fact, most painters use a wide range of paint colors."[3]

"The name Pomo[, or Pomo people,] ... originally meant "those who live at red earth hole" and was once the name of a village in southern Potter Valley near the present-day community of Pomo.[4] It may have referred to local deposits of the red mineral magnesite, used for red beads, or to the reddish earth and clay such as hematite mined in the area.[5]"[6]

"Some argue that cosmetic body art was the earliest form of ritual in human culture, dating over 100,000 years ago from the African Middle Stone Age. The evidence for this comes in the form of utilised red mineral pigments (red ochre) including crayons associated with the emergence of Homo sapiens in Africa.[7][8][9][10]"[11]

"A variant of ochre containing a large amount of hematite, or dehydrated iron oxide, has a reddish tint known as "red ochre". ... Red ochre, Fe2O3, takes its reddish color from the mineral hematite, which is a dehydrated iron oxide."[12]

Minerals[edit]

Main source: Minerals

"Small catalogues of reference Raman spectra of interest for analysing geomaterials or biomaterials of relevance to art history or archaeology are gradually being published by different research groups."[13]

Art theory[edit]

Def. "[t]he conscious production or arrangement of sounds, colours, forms, movements, or other elements in a manner that affects the sense of beauty, specifically the production of the beautiful in a graphic or plastic medium"[14] is called art.

Senses[edit]

Many art forms involve more than one sense.

"The theme of the Five Senses made its first appearance in the Early Middle Ages.1 From the outset, with the extraordinary Fuller broach in the British Museum, which dates from the ninth century, its monuments practically all belong to secular imagery.2 There are scattered instances in Romanesque art, but only from the thirteenth century on do the Senses become more frequently depicted."[15]

Audio[edit]

Audio (US) source, audio expression of the English pronunciation of the word skill.

"Besides technological developments, the evolution of digital sound and music was shaped by a multitude of earlier musical experiments that pointed to the possibilities of the new medium."[16]

Gustatory[edit]

Although this is a photograph, it shows an image of a typical meal in Ardennes country, France. Credit: Dip_44.

Although the image at right is of a plate of food specific to Ardennes, France, when the food is eaten, it may be considered pleasing.

"La cacasse à cul nu est un plat typique et symbolique de la cuisine ardennaise. C'était à l’origine un plat simple et nourrissant, une fricassée de pommes de terre, cuites dans un roux, dans une cocotte en fonte, que les personnes les plus modestes consommaient quand la viande était inabordable6."[17]

Kinesthetic[edit]

Def.

  1. the "perception of the movement of one's own body, its limbs and muscles etc",[18]
  2. a "spectator's perception of the motion of a performer, or, the effect of the motion of a scene on the spectator",[18]
  3. "the perception of the position and posture of the body; also, more broadly, including the motion of the body as well"[18]

is called kinesthesia.

Usage notes:

  • The traditional rules of pronunciation of Greco-Latin vocabulary prefer the I in the first syllable to be long. The more common pronunciation with short I is by analogy with other words from this root such as kinetic and kinesiology where short I is expected.[19]
  • The etymological meaning of the word as used in physiology refers specifically to the motion of the body, and a distinction between kinesthesia and the sense of the position of the body is sometimes made in technical texts. In popular use the distinction is made less often.[20]

Noceral[edit]

Olfactory[edit]

Tactile[edit]

This is a photograph of tactile paving as an end marker. Credit: Ichitaro.

As an example of tactile art there is the tactile paving at right shown in the photograph.

Functionally, the paving helps blind individuals locate the platform end. Is this only functional paving or is it also tactile art, especially to those who are blind and perceive it?

Thermals[edit]

Vestibular[edit]

Visuals[edit]

Main sources: Arts/Visuals and Visual arts
This is a photograph of the sculpture entitled Messalina by Eugène Cyrille Brunet. Credit: Caroline Léna Becker.

"[T]he visual arts [include] the creation of images or objects in fields [like] painting, sculpture, printmaking, [and] photography".[1]

Beauty[edit]

Def. "[t]he property, quality or state of being "that which pleases merely by being perceived" (Aquinas)"[21] is called beauty.

Skills[edit]

Def. a "[c]apacity to do something well"[22] is called a skill.

Mediums[edit]

Main sources: Astronomy/Mediums and Mediums

"An artistic medium is the substance or material the artistic work is made from, and may also refer to the technique used."[1]

Forms[edit]

"An art form is the specific shape, or quality an artistic expression takes. The media used often influence the form. For example, the form of a sculpture must exist in space in three dimensions, and respond to gravity. The constraints and limitations of a particular medium are thus called its formal qualities."[1]

Genre[edit]

"A genre is a set of conventions and styles within a particular medium."[1]

Style[edit]

"The style of an artwork, artist, or movement is the distinctive method and form followed by the respective art."[1]

Aesthetics[edit]

Def. "[t]he study or philosophy of beauty"[23] is called aesthetics.

Chemistry[edit]

Main sources: Chemicals/Chemistry and Chemistry

"The botanical sources and chemical compositions [...] of natural resins [are] used, [or] likely to have been used, in the fabrication of objects of art and archaeology. They fall into two main chemical groups: those containing diterpenoids—from the order Coniferales and from the Leguminosae family—and those containing triterpenoids from several families of broad-leaved trees."[24]

Paleolithic history[edit]

Cave painting of a horse from the Lascaux caves, circa 16,000 BP. Credit: .
New dating of cave paintings in Indonesia reveals that they are more than 40,000 years old. Credit: M. Aubert, et al.

The paleolithic period dates from around 2.6 x 106 b2k to the end of the Pleistocene around 12,000 b2k.

"Sculptures, cave paintings, rock paintings and petroglyphs from the Upper Paleolithic dating to roughly 40,000 years ago have been found".[1]

"New dating of cave paintings [a portion is shown on the left] in Indonesia reveals that they are more than 40,000 years old, casting doubt on theories of art in human prehistory. These paintings are among the earliest ever found, and their location is a surprise to archaeologists. Other contemporary cave art has been found only in Europe, and archaeologists thought that the practice of cave painting originated there. The revised age measurements, combined with previous findings that some carved patterns in Africa are 50,000 years old, suggest that humans may have developed artistic proclivities before their migration out of Africa, beginning around 75,000 years ago."[25]

"The oldest art objects in the world—a series of tiny, drilled snail shells about 75,000 years old—were discovered in a South African cave.[26] Containers that may have been used to hold paints have been found dating as far back as 100,000 years.[27]"[1]

Hypotheses[edit]

Main source: Hypotheses
  1. Art can be free of a dominant group.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 "Art, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. April 9, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  2. Ruric Anderson and David Schiedermayer (2003). "The Art of Medicine through the Humanities: an overview of a one‐month humanities elective for fourth year students". Medical Education 37 (6): 560-2. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2923.2003.01538.x. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2923.2003.01538.x/full. Retrieved 2014-07-02. 
  3. Margaret Livingstone (2002). DH Hubel. ed. Vision and Art - The Biology of Seeing. GoogleDrive. https://www.googledrive.com/host/0B4QDaAzM9KaiTkRPc2pBSFhxUm8/Biology/019receptors/Further%20reading/Vision%20Article.pdf. Retrieved 2014-07-01. 
  4. Alfred L. Kroeber (1916). "California place names of Indian origin". University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 12 (2): 31–69. http://soda.sou.edu/awdata/030731c1.pdf. .
  5. McClendon and Oswalt 1978:277.
  6. "Pomo people, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. July 1, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 
  7. Power, C. 2010. Cosmetics, identity and consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 17, 7-8: 73-94.
  8. Power, C. 2004. Women in prehistoric art. In G. Berghaus (ed.), New Perspectives in Prehistoric Art. Westport, CT & London: Praeger, pp. 75-104.
  9. Watts, Ian. 2009. Red ochre, body painting and language: in-terpreting the Blombos ochre. In The Cradle of Language, Rudolf Botha and Chris Knight (eds.), pp. 62–92. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  10. Watts, Ian. 2010. The pigments from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, Western Cape, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 392–411.
  11. "History of cosmetics, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. July 26, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-30. 
  12. "Ochre, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. July 28, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-30. 
  13. M. Bouchard, D.C. Smith (August 2003). "Catalogue of 45 reference Raman spectra of minerals concerning research in art history or archaeology, especially on corroded metals and coloured glass". Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 59 (10): 2247-66. doi:10.1016/S1386-1425(03)00069-6. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1386142503000696. Retrieved 2014-07-02. 
  14. "art, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. March 26, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-19. 
  15. Carl Nordenfalk (1985). "The Five Senses in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art". Journal of the Warburg and Courtauid Institutes 48: 1-22. http://storage.ugal.com/3871/nordenfalk---the-five-senses2.pdf. Retrieved 2014-07-02. 
  16. Christiane Paul (2003). Thames & Hudson. ed. Digital Art, In: world of art. Flong.com. pp. 132-6. http://www.flong.com/storage/pdf/press/2003_paul_digitalart.pdf. Retrieved 2014-07-02. 
  17. "Cacasse à cul nu, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. février 26, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 "kinesthesia, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 19 January 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-03. 
  19. John Sargeaunt, The Pronunciation of English Words Derived from the Latin, 1920. [1]
  20. Terence R. Anthoney, Neuroanatomy and the Neurologic Exam: A Thesaurus of Synonyms, Similar-Sounding Non-Synonyms, and Terms of Variable Meaning, 1993. ISBN 0849386314 [2]
  21. "beauty, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. April 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  22. "skill, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. December 13, 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  23. "aesthetics, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. February 25, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  24. John S. Mills and Raymond White (February 1977). "Natural Resins of Art and Archaeology Their Sources, Chemistry, and Identification". Science and Technology of Archaeological Research 22 (1): 12-31. http://www.maneyonline.com/doi/abs/10.1179/sic.1977.003. Retrieved 2014-07-02. 
  25. Katie Burke (1 January 2015). "Humans Made Art Earlier". Sigma Xi. Retrieved 2015-01-11. 
  26. Tim Radford (April 16, 2004). "World's Oldest Jewellery Found in Cave". Guardian Unlimited. http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/artsandhumanities/story/0,12241,1193237,00.html. Retrieved January 18, 2008. 
  27. "African Cave Yields Evidence of a Prehistoric Paint Factory". The New York Times. 13 October 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/14/science/14paint.html. 

External links[edit]

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