Dominant group/Business

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An image of the business compartment shows a business conference. Credit: Bernhard Lehn.

"A business (also known as enterprise or firm) is an organization engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers.[1]"[2]

Notations[edit]

Main source: Notations

Notation: let the symbol B2B stand for business to business.

Business[edit]

Main source: Business

Def. a "specific commercial enterprise or establishment"[3] is called a business.

Dominant group[edit]

Main source: Dominant group

Examples from primary sources are to be used to prove or disprove each hypothesis. These can be collected per subject or in general.

  1. Accident hypothesis: dominant group is an accident of whatever processes are operating.
  2. Artifact hypothesis: dominant group may be an artifact of human endeavor or may have preceded humanity.
  3. Association hypothesis: dominant group is associated in some way with the original research.
  4. Bad group hypothesis: dominant group is the group that engages in discrimination, abuse, punishment, and additional criminal activity against other groups. It often has an unfair advantage and uses it to express monopolistic practices.
  5. Control group hypothesis: there is a control group that can be used to study dominant group.
  6. Entity hypothesis: dominant group is an entity within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  7. Evolution hypothesis: dominant group is a product of evolutionary processes, such groups are the evolutionary process, produce evolutionary processes, or are independent of evolutionary processes.
  8. Identifier hypothesis: dominant group is an identifier used by primary source authors of original research to identify an observation in the process of analysis.
  9. Importance hypothesis: dominant group signifies original research results that usually need to be explained by theory and interpretation of experiments.
  10. Indicator hypothesis: dominant group may be an indicator of something as yet not understood by the primary author of original research.
  11. Influence hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article containing original research to indicate influence or an influential phenomenon.
  12. Interest hypothesis: dominant group is a theoretical entity used by scholarly authors of primary sources for phenomena of interest.
  13. Metadefinition hypothesis: all uses of dominant group by all primary source authors of original research are included in the metadefinition for dominant group.
  14. Null hypothesis: there is no significant or special meaning of dominant group in any sentence or figure caption in any refereed journal article.
  15. Object hypothesis: dominant group is an object within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  16. Obvious hypothesis: the only meaning of dominant group is the one found in Mosby's Medical Dictionary.
  17. Original research hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article by the author to indicate that the article contains original research.
  18. Primordial hypothesis: dominant group is a primordial concept inherent to humans such that every language or other form of communication no matter how old or whether extinct, on the verge of extinction, or not, has at least a synonym for dominant group.
  19. Purpose hypothesis: dominant group is written into articles by authors for a purpose.
  20. Regional hypothesis: dominant group, when it occurs, is only a manifestation of the limitations within a region. Variation of those limitations may result in the loss of a dominant group with the eventual appearance of a new one or none at all.
  21. Source hypothesis: dominant group is a source within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
  22. Term hypothesis: dominant group is a significant term that may require a 'rigorous definition' or application and verification of an empirical definition.

Examples from primary sources are to be used to prove or disprove each hypothesis. These can be collected per subject or in general.

Business to business[edit]

"It is interesting that our clustering of India B2B sales force ads reveals the BE group as the dominant group."[4]

Entrepreneurship[edit]

"Theories of residential segregation and succession point to forces reducing interethnic competition for business vacancies, although we recognize that segregation itself reflects a dominant group's success in insulating itself from a minority group."[5]

Finance[edit]

Main sources: Income/Finances and Finance

"[T]he dominant group of financial institutions in the USA are bank trust departments who manage almost two thirds of the total institutional stock ownership, about $290 billion in 1978 (Farrar & Girton, 1981; Herman, 1975)."[6]

Consumers[edit]

Main sources: Income/Consumers and Consumers

"For the dominant group among baby boomers - women in educated two-income families - it was not money that determined where to shop. Time was the primary factor, and this generation's women could not afford to spend their time shopping in department stores."[7]

"Kabyle women are attracted by new fashion codes that imitate, re-interpret, or contest dominant group aesthetics, and recent exogamic marriages offer them a greater opportunity to attend Arab marriages."[8]

Producers[edit]

Main sources: Income/Producers and Producers

"But once this dominant group has been deposed, other producers take their place and can assert their hegemony, drawing authority away from consumers by a process of de-commodification."[9]

Markets[edit]

Main sources: Income/Markets and Markets

"Markets where the Islamic population is the dominant group."[10]

"These concerns regarding the level of concentration are heightened by fears that the size of the dominant group could reduce further."[11]

Trade[edit]

Main sources: Income/Trade and Trade

"From 1650, the slave trade flourished in the city of Cadiz as a consequence of its increasing involvement in American colonial trade. The city received North African Muslims, subjects of the Ottoman Empire and especially black Africans, who started to be the dominant group in the 1670s."[12]

Labor[edit]

Main sources: Income/Labor and Labor

"Firms are classified into four groups depending on whether the dominant group in the firm is blue-collar low-skilled (production), blue-collar high-skilled (technical), white-collar low-skilled (clerical) or white-collar high-skilled (professional/managerial)."[13]

"The dominant group of Hindu nationalists come from the three upper castes ( Brahmins, Kshatriyas, and Vaishyas ) that constitute only 10 per cent of the total Indian population. But, they claim perhaps 80 % of the jobs in the new economy, in sectors such as software, biotechnology, and hotel management."[14]

Management[edit]

Main sources: Income/Management and Management

“This approach begs the empirical question of whether or not such a single dominant group actually exists in a given situation.”[15]

"Unwilling or unable to take on the dominant business culture and also not assimilated into the dominant group, this individual, if she is a manager, is likely to be dissatisfied with the organization and probably will not remain with or succeed in it."[16]

"[A]n alternative view suggests that men, as the typically dominant group in most business organizations, wish to maintain that dominance by intentionally excluding women from informal interactions."[17]

"[T]hose in power, who tend to be members of a dominant group, perpetuate their group's dominance by conferring senior positions on those with the same group membership (for example, Thomas, 1989; Cox and Nkomo, 1991; Friedman and Carter, 1993; Ibarra, 1993; Feagin and Sikes, 1994)."[18]

Hypotheses[edit]

Main source: Hypotheses
  1. Each dominant group in business is only and always interested in monopolistic practices.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Arthur O' Sullivan and Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 29. ISBN 0-13-063085-3. 
  2. "Business, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 16, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  3. SemperBlotto (4 March 20005). "business, In: Wiktionary". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2016-02-09. 
  4. Murali Mantrala, Shrihari Sridhar, Xiaodan Dong (2012). "Developing India-centric B2B sales theory: an inductive approach using sales job ads". Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 27 (3): 169-75. doi:10.1108/08858621211207207. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17015252&show=abstract. Retrieved 2012-04-16. 
  5. Howard E. Aldrich and Roger Waldinger (1990). "Ethnicity and entrepreneurship". Annual Review of Sociology 16: 111-35. doi:10.2307/2083265. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/2083265. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  6. Richard Whitley (1986). "The transformation of business finance into financial economics: the roles of academic expansion and changes in US capital markets". Accounting, Organizations and Society 11 (2): 171-92. doi:10.1016/0361-3682(86)90029-2. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0361368286900292. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  7. Peter F. Drucker (September-October 1994). "The Theory of the Business". Harvard Business Review: 95-104. http://www.secondroad.net/foundations/conversation6/the_theory_of_business_drucker.pdf. Retrieved 2012-04-16. 
  8. Nacima Ourahmoune, Nil Özçağlar-Toulouse (March 2012). "Exogamous weddings and fashion in a rising consumer culture: Kabyle minority dynamics of structure and agency". Marketing Theory 12 (1): 81-99. doi:10.1177/1470593111424182. http://mtq.sagepub.com/content/12/1/81. Retrieved 2012-04-16. 
  9. Russell Keat, Nigel Whiteley, Nicholas Abercrombie (1994). Russell Keat, Nicholas Abercrombie and Nigel Whiteley. ed. Preface, In: The Authority of the consumer. New York: Routledge. pp. 1-22. ISBN 0-415-08918-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=gW4VFFHPLUQC&dq=%22visual+arts%22+%22dominant+group%22&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 2011-09-01. 
  10. Murray Hunter (March 2012). "The emerging Halal cosmetic and personal care market". Personal Care: 37-41. http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1021&context=murray_hunter&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3D%2522dominant%2Bgroup%2522%2Btrade%26btnG%3DSearch%26as_sdt%3D0%252C3%26as_ylo%3D2012%26as_vis%3D0#search=%22dominant%20group%20trade%22. Retrieved 2012-04-16. 
  11. Vivien Beattie, Alan Goodacre, Stella Fearnley (2003). "And then there were four: A study of UK audit market concentration-causes, consequences and the scope for market adjustment". Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance 11 (3): 250-65. doi:10.1108/13581980310810561. http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/3337/1/Audconc2002-draft10.pdf. Retrieved 2012-09-12. 
  12. Arturo Morgado Garcia (2012). "The Presence of Black African Women in the Slave System of Cadiz (1650–1750)". Slavery & Abolition: A Journal of Slave and Post-Slave Studies. doi:10.1080/0144039X.2011.641851. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0144039X.2011.641851. Retrieved 2012-04-16. 
  13. Kamil Galuščắk, Mary Keeney, Daphne Nicolitsas, Frank Smets, Pawel Strzelecki, Matija Vodopivec (June 2012). "The determination of wages of newly hired employees: Survey evidence on internal versus external factors". Labour Economics 10 (3). doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2012.03.009. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927537112000280. Retrieved 2012-04-16. 
  14. Robert Lindsay (February 4, 2011). "cogito ergo sum". Globalization. bakulaji.typepad.com. Retrieved 2012-05-26. 
  15. Terry Connolly, Edward J. Conlon, Stuart Jay Deutsch (April 1980). "Organizational effectiveness: A multiple-constituency approach". Academy of Management Review 5 (2): 211-7. http://www.jstor.org/stable/257430. Retrieved 2011-10-21. 
  16. Jacqueline N. Hood, Christine S. Koberg (February 1994). "Patterns of Differential Assimilation and Acculturation for Women in Business Organizations". Human Relations 47 (2): 159-81. doi:10.1177/001872679404700202. http://hum.sagepub.com/content/47/2/159.short. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  17. Daniel J. Brass (June 1, 1985). "Men's and women's networks: a study of interaction patterns and influence in an organization". Academy of Management Journal 28 (2): 327-43. doi:10.2307/256204. http://amj.aom.org/content/28/2/327.short. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  18. Katherine Giscombe and Mary C. Mattis (April 2002). "Leveling the Playing Field for Women of Color in Corporate Management: Is the Business Case Enough?". Journal of Business Ethics 37 (1): 103-19. doi:10.1023/A:1014786313354. http://www.springerlink.com/content/q2nxf40e2pht7k0v/. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

{{Dominant group}}{{Economics resources}}{{Terminology resources}}

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