- 1 Biophysics Projects
- 2 Welcome to an International Biophysics Course !
- 2.1 Syllabus
- 2.2 Learning materials and introductory articles
- 2.3 Selected Examples
- 2.4 Things remaining to do-Short list
- 2.5 Instructors
- 2.6 Molecular Models of DNA
- 2.7 History
- 2.8 Importance
- 2.9 Fundamental concepts
- 2.10 DNA structure determination using molecular modeling and DNA X-ray patterns
- 2.11 Paracrystalline lattice models of B-DNA structures
- 2.12 Genomic and biotechnology applications of DNA molecular modeling
- 2.13 Gallery of DNA models
- 2.14 See also
- 2.15 External links for the International Biophysics Course
- 2.16 References
- 2.17 Further reading
- 2.18 External links
- 2.19 References
- 2.20 Virtual Labs
- Biologie Moléculaire http://fr.wikiversity.org/wiki/Département:Biologie_moléculaire
- Portal:Physical Sciences
Welcome to the Biophysics Project and the Department of Biophysics!
Département de Biophysique
- "Cette discipline aboutit à l'utilisation de moyens modernes d'investigation qualitatifs et quantitatifs en Biologie comme en Médecine, ainsi que, dans cette dernière, à des moyens thérapeutiques à partir de l'utilisation notamment des ondes et radiations."
"La biophysique est l'étude des phénomènes physiques intervenant chez les êtres vivants."
- Faculté de Biologie
Département de Biologie Moléculaire
"La biologie moléculaire est une discipline scientifique au croisement de la génétique, de la biochimie et de la physique, dont l'objet est la compréhension des mécanismes de fonctionnement de la cellule au niveau moléculaire. La biochimie est la discipline scientifique qui étudie les réactions chimiques ayant lieu au sein des cellules."
Languages: (en),(fr), (ro)
- "Biophysics is the study of physical phenomena that occur in living beings"... , but without a definition of Life, or of the "living", the subject of Biophysics would remain only vaguely pointing at functional organisms. Determining what Life is also remains, therefore, in the domain of Biophysics--specifically of Mathematical biophysics or Relational Biology. In other words, one is asking:
- What are the fundamental relations among the components and processes, and also <relations> among relations occurring in an organism that distinguish the latter from a simple or complex physical system, such as a crystal, a stone, a machine or automaton, a robot, a computer, and so on ?
- A related question is that of the underlying operational logics of an organism (which is not Boolean, and it is not perhaps even a quantum logic), and of its defining axioms.
To get started, you may
You do not need to be an educator to edit. You only need to be bold to contribute and to experiment with the sandbox or your userpage. See you around Wikiversity! --~~~~
Welcome to an International Biophysics Course !
- Lecture notes can be now obtained in: English (en), French (fr) and Romanian (ro), (ISO 691-1) languages.
- New instructors or students may add, however, more languages-- among those already approved by the Wikiversity for such educational and research web site projects.
- The addition to this website of specialized expert new lectures or lecture notes or web links to Lecture notes and other Biophysics or Crystallography departments-- that fit in with the announced Syllabus-- is encouraged and appreciated.
- For questions regarding Ph.D. review questions in Crystallography see also Doctoral review questions in Crystallography
- Protein and Nucleic Acid Structure and Dynamics:
Up-to-date descriptions of the background, methods and techniques of protein crystallography, including the mathematical concepts and tools needed to understand X-ray and neutron diffraction, as well as 2D-FT NMR determination of molecular structure in solution. (See also a simple introduction to Proton (H-1) NMR (fr))
- Protein crystallography is a multidisciplinary area of research that overlaps in part with several subfields of biochemistry, structural molecular biology, bioinformatics, biophysics, biochemistry and organic chemistry.
Lecture 15:Examples of crystal lattices: fcc, bcc, diamond; Miller indices of crystal lattice planes.
- Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and confocal imaging microscopy of cellular processes and structures.
- Single molecule detection (SMD) and enzyme kinetics.
- Mathematical Foundations of Biophysics:
- Computational biophysics: Molecular Dynamics and computer simulation techniques (e.g., Monte Carlo)
- Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Biophysics and Quantum Biochemistry
- Harmonic analysis in Medical Diagnostic Imaging and Patient image processing, contrast enhancement or reconstruction
- Modelling cells and multicellular organisms
- Biotopology and Algebraic Topology applications to Mathematical Biophysics
- Relational Networks and Categories of Metabolic-Replication Systems
- Relational Biology applications to understanding Aging and Metabolic Disorders
The Lessons in the
Photosynthetic Mechanisms ORIENTATION
- Syllabus of an International Course on Photosynthesis
- Structure and Dynamics of Photosynthetic Membranes
- Quantum mechanisms of photosynthetic water oxidation in algae and higher plants
- Mechanisms of PS I photosystem
- Manganese and calcium ion role(s) in photosynthetic water oxidation
- The Oxygen Evolving Complex: Structure and Function
- FCS applications to Photosynthesis
- Single Molecule Detection and Femtosecond Laser Spectroscopy studies of Photosynthesis
- High-field and 2D-NMR investigations of Photosynthetic Mechanisms
- FT-NIR Spectroscopy and Hyper-spectral/Chemical Imaging of Photosynthetic Cells and Functional Chloroplasts
Learning materials and introductory articles
- w:C4 carbon fixation: trace experiments with radioactive labels
- Quantum physics aspects of w:Photosynthesis
- Photosynthetic systems: w:PSI and w:PSII coupling
- Specific w:chloride channels
- w:Hydronium ion
- Specific w:Hydronium ion
- Beta counting
- Specific inhibitors of photosynthesis, such as hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and uncouplers
- Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
- Gamma counting
- w:Enzyme assays
- Manganese ions' role(s) in photosynthesis
- Neutron activation analysis of Mn contents in purified, active thylakoid (photosynthetic) membranes and PSII-particles
- Manganese ions' role(s) in photosynthesis
- Krebs' cycle
- w:Pyruvate decarboxylation
- The ATP cycle and its coupling to photosynthetic processes
- w:Oxidative phosphorilation
- w:Calvin Cycle
- Dickens-Horecker cycle
- Hexose interconversions
- w:Cori cycle
- w:fatty acids
- Essential fatty acids
- The w:lipid bilayer, item, and transport across the bilayer through pores, channels, etc.
- Bessel functions arise in many mathematical models such as those for vibrating surfaces. Such functions also occur in the analysis of X-ray Diffraction patterns of helical molecules such as certain proteins and also nucleic acids (DNAs, RNAs.)
"When mathematically analyzing a vibrating drum the boundary conditions lead to solutions that are harmonic functions. When using cylindrical coordinates, the solutions are sines, cosines or Bessel functions (in the radial direction)".
- Medical biophysics is an important area of biophysics applications.
- Presentation = Présentation sur Protéines
"Protéine, macromolécule composée d'acides aminés reliés par des liaisons peptidiques, présente chez les organismes vivants et essentielle à leur fonctionnement. Découvertes en 1838, les protéines sont le principal composant des cellules, représentant plus de 50 p. 100 de leur poids sec. Le mot protéine vient du grec proteios qui signifie « premier ».
La forme des protéines est très variable : elle va des longues fibres présentes dans les tissus conjonctifs et les cheveux aux globules compacts et solubles capables de traverser la membrane des cellules. Les protéines sont des macromolécules dont le poids moléculaire varie de quelques milliers à plus d'un million d'unités. Elles sont spécifiques à chaque espèce vivante et à chaque organe. On estime qu'il existe environ trente mille protéines différentes chez l'Homme, dont 2 p. 100 seulement ont été décrites. Les protéines servent à construire et à entretenir les cellules, et leur dégradation chimique fournit de l'énergie, produisant près de 4 kilocalories par gramme (voir Métabolisme).
Outre leur rôle dans la croissance et l'entretien des cellules, les protéines sont également responsables de la contraction des muscles. Les enzymes digestives sont des protéines, de même que l'insuline et la plupart des autres hormones, ainsi que les anticorps du système immunitaire et l'hémoglobine. Les chromosomes, qui transmettent toutes les caractéristiques héréditaires sous forme de gènes, sont constitués d'acides nucléiques et de protéines (histones)."
- See also: Continuum Mechanics
- H.R. Wilson. ``Diffraction of X-rays by Proteins, Nucleic acids and Viruses'' London: Arnold publs. (1966).
- Lehninger. "Biochemistry", latest edition.
- D.W. Ball. "Physical Chemistry". (2003).
- Voet & Voet. "Biochemistry". J.Wiley:Oxford, U.K.(2000).
- Advanced DNA Techniques
- Molecular Modelling and Dynamics
- Spectroscopy and Imaging: Principles, Theory, Techniques and Applications
- Continue and expand lectures
- New Instructor involvement in biophysics courses
- Web links to biophysics and protein structure syllabi at several universities
- Add other resources (such as: Structure and Genomic Databases, Image libraries and galleries, Library links, and so on.
- Develop student Enrollment and student Help pages
- PPS2--Protein Crystallography International Web Course--Birkbeck College, University of London: Principles of Protein Structure--World-wide participation from over 250 students and consultants in 27 countries]
- Mathematical biophysics
- Membrane biophysics
- ==Lectures (en), (fr),(ro)==
- Lecture 1. Axioms and Logic in Mathematical Biophysics (2011)
- Protéine Leçon 1ere
- Lecture 2. Complex Systems Biology
- Lecture 4. Quantum Topology and Quantum Computing, (2012)
- Lecture 5. Novel Techniques for Microspectroscopy and Chemical Imaging Analysis of Cells and Embryos
- Lecture 6. Electron Microscopy of Cellular Structures (2011).
- Lecture 7. X-ray microscope. (2011)
- Lecture 8. Molecular Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaques (2010).
- Lecture 9. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Applications in Biophysics (2012)
- Lecture 10. Selected Mathematics Applications in Physics, Chemistry and Life Sciences.
- Microspéctroscopie et Analyse Biochimique des Images d'Embryon
Leçons par thèmes = Lectures by subject
- Données de physique utilisées en biologie [Modifier]
Leçons par niveau = Lectures by level
- Novice Niveau 0 à 2 Débutant Niveau 2 à 5 Intermédiaire Niveau 6 à 9
- Avancé Niveau 10 à 12
- Données de physique utilisées en biologie
- Expert Niveau 13 à 15
- Ondes et optique géométrique
- Perfectionnement Niveau 16 à 18
- Modèle:2--Microspéctroscopie et Analyse Biochimique des Images d'Embryon. Modifier!
Short list of course consultants and instructors:
- User:Bci21- Instructor & Professor-Professeur
Molecular Models of DNA
Molecular models of DNA structures are representations of the molecular geometry and topology of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules using one of several means, with the aim of simplifying and presenting the essential, physical and chemical, properties of DNA molecular structures either in vivo or in vitro. These representations include closely packed spheres (CPK models) made of plastic, metal wires for 'skeletal models', graphic computations and animations by computers, artistic rendering. Computer molecular models also allow animations and molecular dynamics simulations that are very important for understanding how DNA functions in vivo.
The more advanced, computer-based molecular models of DNA involve molecular dynamics simulations as well as quantum mechanical computations of vibro-rotations, delocalized molecular orbitals (MOs), electric dipole moments, hydrogen-bonding, and so on. DNA molecular dynamics modeling involves simulations of DNA molecular geometry and topology changes with time as a result of both intra- and inter- molecular interactions of DNA. Whereas molecular models of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules such as closely packed spheres (CPK models) made of plastic or metal wires for 'skeletal models' are useful representations of static DNA structures, their usefulness is very limited for representing complex DNA dynamics. Computer molecular modeling allows both animations and molecular dynamics simulations that are very important for understanding how DNA functions in vivo.
From the very early stages of structural studies of DNA by X-ray diffraction and biochemical means, molecular models such as the Watson-Crick double-helix model were successfully employed to solve the 'puzzle' of DNA structure, and also find how the latter relates to its key functions in living cells. The first high quality X-ray diffraction patterns of A-DNA were reported by Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling in 1953. The first calculations of the Fourier transform of an atomic helix were reported one year earlier by Cochran, Crick and Vand, and were followed in 1953 by the computation of the Fourier transform of a coiled-coil by Crick.
Structural information is generated from X-ray diffraction studies of oriented DNA fibers with the help of molecular models of DNA that are combined with crystallographic and mathematical analysis of the X-ray patterns.
The first reports of a double-helix molecular model of B-DNA structure were made by Watson and Crick in 1953. Last-but-not-least, Maurice F. Wilkins, A. Stokes and H.R. Wilson, reported the first X-ray patterns of in vivo B-DNA in partially oriented salmon sperm heads.
The development of the first correct double-helix molecular model of DNA by Crick and Watson may not have been possible without the biochemical evidence for the nucleotide base-pairing ([A---T]; [C---G]), or Chargaff's rules. Although such initial studies of DNA structures with the help of molecular models were essentially static, their consequences for explaining the in vivo functions of DNA were significant in the areas of protein biosynthesis and the quasi-universality of the genetic code. Epigenetic transformation studies of DNA in vivo were however much slower to develop in spite of their importance for embryology, morphogenesis and cancer research. Such chemical dynamics and biochemical reactions of DNA are much more complex than the molecular dynamics of DNA physical interactions with water, ions and proteins/enzymes in living cells.
An old standing dynamic problem is how DNA "self-replication" takes place in living cells that should involve transient uncoiling of supercoiled DNA fibers. Although DNA consists of relatively rigid, very large elongated biopolymer molecules called "fibers" or chains (that are made of repeating nucleotide units of four basic types, attached to deoxyribose and phosphate groups), its molecular structure in vivo undergoes dynamic configuration changes that involve dynamically attached water molecules and ions. Supercoiling, packing with histones in chromosome structures, and other such supramolecular aspects also involve in vivo DNA topology which is even more complex than DNA molecular geometry, thus turning molecular modeling of DNA into an especially challenging problem for both molecular biologists and biotechnologists. Like other large molecules and biopolymers, DNA often exists in multiple stable geometries (that is, it exhibits conformational isomerism) and configurational, quantum states which are close to each other in energy on the potential energy surface of the DNA molecule.
Such varying molecular geometries can also be computed, at least in principle, by employing ab initio quantum chemistry methods that can attain high accuracy for small molecules, although claims that acceptable accuracy can be also achieved for polynuclelotides, as well as DNA conformations, were recently made on the basis of VCD spectral data. Such quantum geometries define an important class of ab initio molecular models of DNA whose exploration has barely started especially in connection with results obtained by VCD in solutions. More detailed comparisons with such ab initio quantum computations are in principle obtainable through 2D-FT NMR spectroscopy and relaxation studies of polynucleotide solutions or specifically labeled DNA, as for example with deuterium labels.
In an interesting twist of roles, the DNA molecule itself was proposed to be utilized for quantum computing. Both DNA nanostructures as well as DNA 'computing' biochips have been built.
The chemical structure of DNA is insufficient to understand the complexity of the 3D structures of DNA. On the other hand, animated molecular models allow one to visually explore the three-dimensional (3D) structure of DNA. The DNA model shown (far right) is a space-filling, or CPK, model of the DNA double-helix. Animated molecular models, such as the wire, or skeletal, type shown at the top of this article, allow one to visually explore the three-dimensional (3D) structure of DNA. Another type of DNA model is the space-filling, or CPK, model.
The hydrogen bonding dynamics and proton exchange is very different by many orders of magnitude between the two systems of fully hydrated DNA and water molecules in ice. Thus, the DNA dynamics is complex, involving nanosecond and several tens of picosecond time scales, whereas that of liquid ice is on the picosecond time scale, and that of proton exchange in ice is on the millisecond time scale. The proton exchange rates in DNA and attached proteins may vary from picosecond to nanosecond, minutes or years, depending on the exact locations of the exchanged protons in the large biopolymers.
A simple harmonic oscillator 'vibration' is only an oversimplified dynamic representation of the longitudinal vibrations of the DNA intertwined helices which were found to be anharmonic rather than harmonic as often assumed in quantum dynamic simulations of DNA.
The structure of DNA shows a variety of forms, both double-stranded and single-stranded. The mechanical properties of DNA, which are directly related to its structure, are a significant problem for cells. Every process which binds or reads DNA is able to use or modify the mechanical properties of DNA for purposes of recognition, packaging and modification. The extreme length (a chromosome may contain a 10 cm long DNA strand), relative rigidity and helical structure of DNA has led to the evolution of histones and of enzymes such as topoisomerases and helicases to manage a cell's DNA. The properties of DNA are closely related to its molecular structure and sequence, particularly the weakness of the hydrogen bonds and electronic interactions that hold strands of DNA together compared to the strength of the bonds within each strand. 22.214.171.124 (discuss) 12:35, 10 May 2014 (UTC) Experimental techniques which can directly measure the mechanical properties of DNA are relatively new, and high-resolution visualization in solution is often difficult. Nevertheless, scientists have uncovered large amount of data on the mechanical properties of this polymer, and the implications of DNA's mechanical properties on cellular processes is a topic of active current research.
The DNA found in many cells can be macroscopic in length - a few centimetres long for each human chromosome. Consequently, cells must compact or "package" DNA to carry it within them. In eukaryotes this is carried by spool-like proteins known as histones, around which DNA winds. It is the further compaction of this DNA-protein complex which produces the well known mitotic eukaryotic chromosomes.
Alternate non-double-helical models have been proposed for the in vivo structure of DNA, such as in plasmids and chromatin. Such "side-by-side" models of DNA were proposed early in the history of molecular biology, but these were set aside in favor of the double-helical model due to X-ray crystallography of DNA duplexes and later the nucleosome core particle, as well as the discovery of topoisomerases, and these non-double-helical models are not currently accepted by the mainstream scientific community.
DNA structure determination using molecular modeling and DNA X-ray patterns
After DNA has been separated and purified by standard biochemical techniques one has a sample in a jar much like in the figure at the top of this article. Below are the main steps involved in generating structural information from X-ray diffraction studies of oriented DNA fibers that are drawn from the hydrated DNA sample with the help of molecular models of DNA that are combined with crystallographic and mathematical analysis of the X-ray patterns.
Paracrystalline lattice models of B-DNA structures
A paracrystalline lattice, or paracrystal, is a molecular or atomic lattice with significant amounts (e.g., larger than a few percent) of partial disordering of molecular arrangements. Limiting cases of the paracrystal model are nanostructures, such as glasses, liquids, etc., that may possess only local ordering and no global order. A simple example of a paracrystalline lattice is shown in the following figure for a silica glass:
Highly hydrated B-DNA occurs naturally in living cells in such a paracrystalline state, which is a dynamic one in spite of the relatively rigid DNA double-helix stabilized by parallel hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide base-pairs in the two complementary, helical DNA chains (see figures). For simplicity most DNA molecular models omit both water and ions dynamically bound to B-DNA, and are thus less useful for understanding the dynamic behaviors of B-DNA in vivo. The physical and mathematical analysis of X-ray and spectroscopic data for paracrystalline B-DNA is therefore much more complicated than that of crystalline, A-DNA X-ray diffraction patterns. The paracrystal model is also important for DNA technological applications such as DNA nanotechnology. Novel techniques that combine X-ray diffraction of DNA with X-ray microscopy in hydrated living cells are now also being developed.
Genomic and biotechnology applications of DNA molecular modeling
There are various uses of DNA molecular modeling in Genomics and Biotechnology research applications, from DNA repair to PCR and DNA nanostructures. Two-dimensional DNA junction arrays have been visualized by Atomic force microscopy.
DNA molecular modeling has various uses in genomics and biotechnology, with research applications ranging from DNA repair to PCR and DNA nanostructures. These include computer molecular models of molecules as varied as RNA polymerase, an E. coli, bacterial DNA primase template suggesting very complex dynamics at the interfaces between the enzymes and the DNA template, and molecular models of the mutagenic, chemical interaction of potent carcinogen molecules with DNA. These are all represented in the gallery below.
Technological application include a DNA biochip and DNA nanostructures designed for DNA computing and other dynamic applications of DNA nanotechnology. The image at right is of self-assembled DNA nanostructures. The DNA “tile” structure in this image consists of four branched junctions oriented at 90° angles. Each tile consists of nine DNA oligonucleotides as shown; such tiles serve as the primary “building block” for the assembly of the DNA nanogrids shown in the AFM micrograph.
Gallery of DNA models
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Database.|
- w:Crystal lattices
- w:DiProDB Dinucleotide Property Database. The database is designed to collect and analyse thermodynamic, structural and other dinucleotide properties.
- w:X-ray microscopy
- w:X-ray scattering
- w:Neutron scattering
- w:Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD)
- w:Raman spectroscopy/microscopy and CARS
- Sir w:Lawrence Bragg, FRS
- w:List of nucleic acid simulation software
- w:Abalone (molecular mechanics)
- w:Sirius visualization software
- NMR microscopy
- w:Microwave spectroscopy
- Spectral, Hyperspectral, and w:Chemical imaging
- w:Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
- w:Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy and FRET
- w:Confocal microscopy
- Wikipedia biophysics article
- Biophysical Society
- Biophysical Journal
- British Biophysical Society
- Society for Mathematical Biology
- Relational Biology
- Weak Protein-Ligand Interactions:
- NMR Spectroscopy,Mass Spectroscopy,
- X-Ray Crystallography, Small Angle Light Scattering,
- In Vivo Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer(FRET),Single Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy,
- Atomic Force Microscopy]
- Biomolecules -- Structures, classification and properties of:
- Laboratory and Analytical Methods
- Amino acids
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- Herbert R. Wilson, FRS. Diffraction of X-rays by proteins, Nucleic Acids and Viruses., London: Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd. 1966.
- Kurt Wuthrich. NMR of Proteins and Nucleic Acids., New York, Brisbane,Chicester, Toronto, Singapore: J. Wiley & Sons. 1986., 292 pages.
- Hallin PF, David Ussery D (2004). "CBS Genome Atlas Database: A dynamic storage for bioinformatic results and DNA sequence data". Bioinformatics 20 (18): 3682–6. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/bth423. PMID 15256401.
- Zhang CT, Zhang R, Ou HY (2003). "The Z curve database: a graphic representation of genome sequences". Bioinformatics 19 (5): 593-599.  PMID 12651717
- DNA the Double Helix Game From the official Nobel Prize web site
- MDDNA: Structural Bioinformatics of DNA
- Double Helix 1953–2003 National Centre for Biotechnology Education
- DNAlive: a web interface to compute DNA physical properties. Also allows cross-linking of the results with the UCSC Genome browser and DNA dynamics.
- Further details of mathematical and molecular analysis of DNA structure based on X-ray data
- Bessel functions corresponding to Fourier transforms of atomic or molecular helices.
- overview of STM/AFM/SNOM principles with educative videos
Databases for DNA molecular models and sequences
- NDB ID: UD0017 Database
- X-ray Atlas -database
- PDB files of coordinates for nucleic acid structures from X-ray diffraction by NA (incl. DNA) crystals
- Structure factors dowloadable files in CIF format
- ISIS neutron source: ISIS pulsed neutron source:A world centre for science with neutrons & muons at Harwell, near Oxford, UK.
- NMR Atlas--database
- mmcif downloadable coordinate files of nucleic acids in solution from 2D-FT NMR data
- NMR constraints files for NAs in PDB format
Genomic and structural databases
- CBS Genome Atlas Database — contains examples of base skews.
- The Z curve database of genomes — a 3-dimensional visualization and analysis tool of genomes.
- DNA and other nucleic acids' molecular models: Coordinate files of nucleic acids molecular structure models in PDB and CIF formats
Atomic force microscopy
- S.H. Strogatz, Nonlinear dynamics and Chaos: Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering. Perseus, 2001, ISBN 0-7382-0453-6
- N.G. van Kampen, Stochastic Processes in Physics and Chemistry, North Holland., 3rd ed. 2001, ISBN 0-444-89349-0
- L.A. Segel, Modeling dynamic phenomena in molecular and cellular biology. C.U.P., 1984. ISBN 0-521-27477-X
- von Bertalanffy, Ludwig (28 March 1976) . General System theory: Foundations, Development, Applications. George Braziller. pp. 295. ISBN 978-0-8076-0453-3.
- Hodgkin, Alan L; Huxley, Andrew F (28 August 1952)."A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve". Journal of Physiology 117 (4): 500–544. PMC 1392413. PMID 12991237. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- Noble, Denis (5 November 1960). "Cardiac action and pacemaker potentials based on the Hodgkin-Huxley equations". Nature 188 (4749): 495–497. Bibcode 1960Natur.188..495N. DOI:10.1038/188495b0. PMID 13729365.
- Bu Z, Callaway DJ (2011). "Proteins Move! Protein dynamics and long-range allostery in cell signaling". Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology. Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology 83: 163–221. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-381262-9.00005-7. ISBN 978-0-12-381262-9. PMID 21570668.
(Schéma d'un analyseur de type trappe ionique (pièges à ions) 3D et trajectoire des ions, en spectrométrie de mass).
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- Biophysics. (2012, June 5). Wikiversity, . Retrieved 18:44, June 5, 2012 from http://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?title=Biophysics&oldid=918460.