Korean/Words/말+

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-ㄱ-ㄲ-ㄴ-ㄷ-ㄸ-ㄹ-ㅁ-ㅂ-ㅃ-ㅅ-ㅆ-ㅇ-ㅈ-ㅉ-ㅊ-ㅋ-ㅌ-ㅍ-ㅎ-
말+/말씀+/물+/불+
Basics/News/Notes/Legend

말+[edit | edit source]

Roman: mal+
Topic
  1. 과 함께 보기.
    Relating to the horse.


[edit | edit source]

A horse
Roman: mal
Noun
  1. 말과의 포유류. 어깨의 높이는 1.2~1.7미터이며, 갈색ㆍ검은색ㆍ붉은 갈색ㆍ흰색 따위가 있다. 네 다리와 목ㆍ얼굴이 길고 목덜미에는 갈기가 있으며, 꼬리는 긴 털로 덮여 있다. 초식성으로 3~4세에 성숙하고 16~20세까지 번식하는데, 4~6월이 번식기이고 수태한 후 335일 만에 한 마리의 새끼를 낳는다. 성질이 온순하고 잘 달리며 힘이 세어 농경, 운반, 승용, 경마 따위에 사용한다. [1] [2]
    horse
Compounds
  • 말- (mal-, prefix meaning "large")
Comparatives
mearh #Old English (“horse”) mare #Translations
  • Irish: marc
  • Welsh: march
  • Old Frisian: mar
  • Old High German: marah
  • Old Norse: marr
  • Dutch: merrie
  • German: (obsolete) Mähre
  • Icelandic: meri
  • Norwegian: merr
  • Swedish: märr

사마[edit | edit source]

Marshal Foch, circa 1920.
Roman: sama
Hanja: 司馬
Noun
  1. 중국 주(周) 나라 때 벼슬로 육경(六卿)의 하나. 나라의 군정(軍政)을 맡아 보았음. [3]
    (archaic) minister of national defence, as it were, in the ancient Far East. Literally, "horse manager" like Western marshal "horse servant".
Relatives
  • (mal, "horse")
Comparatives
Germanic Latinic Slavic

말-[edit | edit source]

Man o' War (1917-1947) [5] at the age of three
Roman: mal-
Alias: 왕-(王-, wang-, "king-")
Prefix
  1. ‘큰’의 뜻을 더하는 접두사. [6] [7]
    horse- (Usage notes: The noun can be used attributively in compounds and phrases to add the sense of large and/or coarse.) [8]
Compounds
말- 왕-
  • 개미 (-gaemi, "horse ant")
  • 거머리 (-geomeori, "horse leech")
  • 거미 (-geomi, lit. "horse spider")
  • (-gom, lit. "horse bear")
  • 매미 (-maemi, lit. "horse cicada")
  • (-beol, "horse bee")
  • 잠자리 (-jamjari, lit. "horse dragonfly")
  • 파리 (-pari, "horse fly")
  • 개미 (-gaemi, lit. "king ant")
  • 거미 (-geomi, lit. "king spider")
  • (-ge, "king crab")
  • 매미 (-maemi, lit. "king cicada")
  • (-beol, lit. "king bee")
  • 새우 (-sae-u, lit. "king lobster")
  • 잠자리 (-jamjari, lit. "king dragonfly")
  • 지네 (-jine, lit. "king centipede")
  • 파리 (-pari, lit. "king fly")
Chinese Sino-Korean Korean English
螞蟻 (mǎyǐ) 마의 (馬蟻, ma-ui) 말개미 (mal-gaemi) horse ant
螞蜂 (mǎfēng) 마봉 (馬蜂, ma-bong) 말벌 (mal-beol) *horse-bee [9]
馬蜂 (mǎfēng) 마봉 (馬蜂, ma-bong) 말벌 (mal-beol) *horse-bee
馬蛭 (mǎzhì) 마질 (馬蛭, ma-jil) 말거머리 (mal-geomeori) horse-leech
螞蟥 (mǎhuáng) 마황 (馬蟥, ma-hwang) 말거머리 (mal-geomeori) horse-leech
Comparatives
From large #Translations
Celtic Others

말개미[edit | edit source]

Formica rufa, also known as the red wood ant, southern wood ant, or horse ant, is ...
A caterpillar being bitten by F. rufa
Roman: mal-gaemi
Noun [13]
  1. ‘왕개미’를 일상적으로 이르는 말. [14] [15] [16]
    a horse ant, or Formica rufa if you like. [17]
Synonyms
  • 왕개미 (王-, wang-gaemi, lit. "king ant") [18]
  • 홍개미 (紅-, hong-gaemi, lit. "red ant") [19] [20]
Relatives
Comparatives
말개미 #Korean "horse ant"
(mal, "horse") + 개미 (gaemi, "ant")
馬蟻 #Sino-Korean
(ma, "horse") + (ui, "ant")
螞蟻 #Chinese
(, "insect") + (, "ant") [21]
horse ant #English
horse ("horse") + ant ("ant")
https://www.websters1913.com/words/Horse [22]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formica_rufa
Pherdeameise #German
Pferd ("horse") + e + Ameise ("ant")
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rote_Waldameise
Pferdeameise f. (동물) 붉은가슴개미
See also

말거머리[edit | edit source]

A horse leech on Wikipedia
Roman: mal-geomeori
Noun [23]
  1. 거머릿과의 환형동물. 몸의 길이는 10cm, 폭은 1.7cm 정도이며, 등은 누런 녹색이고, 배는 연한 녹색에 검고 작은 반점이 줄지어 있다. 몸은 대칭형으로 다소 평평하고 긴 가락 모양이다. 사람의 피부에 상처를 내기는 하나 피를 빨지는 못하며 조개류를 먹고 산다. 논이나 연못에 사는데 한국, 일본, 중국 등지에 분포한다. [24] [25]
    a horse-leech [26]
Relatives
Comparatives
Asiatic & Finno-Ugric Germanic & Slavic
馬蛭 #Chinese
(, "horse") + (zhì, "leech")
馬蛭 #Japanese Kotobank
ウマ (uma, "horse") + ビル (biru, "leech")
말거머리 #Korean
(mal, "horse") + 거머리 (geomeori, "leech")
đỉa trâu #Vietnamese
đỉa ("leech") + trâu ("water buffalo")
&
hobukaan #Estonian wp
hobu ("horse") + kaan ("leech")
hevosjuotikas #Finnish wp
hevos ("horse") + juotikas ("leech")
lópióca #Hungarian wp
("horse") + pióca ("leech")
Paardenbloedzuiger #Dutch wp
paarden ("horse") + bloedzuiger ("leech")
horse leech #English
horse ("horse") + leech ("leech")
Pferdeegel #German wp
Pferde ("horse") + Egel ("leech")
hesteigle #Norwegian wp
hest ("horse") + eigle ("leech")
hästigel #Swedish wp
häst ("horse") + igel ("leech")
&
pijavka koňská #Czech wp
pijavka ("leech") + koňská ("horse")
pijawka końska #Polish wp
pijawka ("leech") + końska ("horse")
ко́нская пия́вка #Russian
ко́нская ("horse") + пия́вка ("leech")
Wikt: horse-leech #Translations in History [27] [28]
larger than the common leech
  • Chinese:
  • Czechs: pijavka koňská
  • Estonian: hobukaan
  • Finnish: hevosjuotikas (fi)
  • German: Pferdeegel m
  • Hungarian: lópióca
  • Japanese: ウマヒル (umahiru)
  • Korean: 말거머리 (malgeomeori)
  • Norwegian: hesteigle
  • Polish: pijawka końska
  • Russian: конская пиявка f (kónskaja pijávka) [29]
  • Swedish: hästigel
  • Vietnamese: đỉa trâu [30]
See also
  • 말- (mal-, "large; coarse")
  • (mal, "horse")

말벌[edit | edit source]

A hornet or *horse-bee
Roman: mal-beol
Noun [31]
  1. ‘호박벌’을 일상적으로 이르는 말. 동물 말벌과의 벌을 통틀어 이르는 말. 동물 말벌과의 벌. 몸은 암컷이 2.5cm, 수컷이 2cm 정도이며, 검은 갈색에 갈색 또는 누런 갈색의 털이 나 있다. [32] [33]
    a hornet [34]
Relatives
  • (beol, "bee")
Comparatives
말벌 #Korean
(mal, "horse") + (beol, "bee")
馬蜂 #Chinese
(, "horse") + (fēng, "bee")
морин зөгий #Mongolian [35]
морин (morin, "horse") + зөгий (zögij, "bee")
eşek arısı #Turkish
eşek (eşek, "mule") + arısı (arısı, "bee's")
ձիաբոռ #Armenian
ձի (ji, "horse") + ա (a, interfix) + բոռ (boṙ, "bee")
lódarázs #Hungarian
(, "horse") + darázs (darázs, "bee")
shellan cabbyl #Manx
shellan ("bee") + cabbyl ("horse")
פֿערדבין #Yiddish
פֿערד‎ (ferd, "horse") +‎ בין‎ (bin, "bee")
*pferdebiene #German
Pferd ("horse") + e + Biene ("bee") [36]
*horse bee #English
horse ("horse") + bee ("bee")

왕게[edit | edit source]

Roman: wang-gae
Hanja: 王게
Noun [38]
  1. 왕겟과의 하나. 몸은 크고 몸무게는 7.5kg 정도이며, 등딱지는 붉은 자색의 오각형이다. 배는 누런색이고 비대칭이다. 표면과 다리에 가시가 있는데 집게다리는 오른쪽이 크다. 북태평양에 분포한다. [39] [40]
    (literally and actually) king crab [41]
Relatives
  • (ge, "crab")
Comparatives
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Königskrabbe
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_king_crab
https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuningasrapu
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crabe_royal_du_Kamtchatka
https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepiting_raja_Alaska
https://is.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rauði_kóngakrabbi
https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/왕게
https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rode_koningskrab
https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kongekrabbe
https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kungskrabba
See also

마로니에[edit | edit source]

A horse chestnut tree
Roman: maronie
From; French marronnier [42]
Noun
  1. 칠엽수과의 낙엽 교목. 줄기는 높이가 20~25미터이고 둘레가 6미터에 이르는 것도 있다. 잎은 마주나고 장상 복엽으로 길이가 20cm 정도인데 끝이 뾰족하고 톱니가 있다. 5~6월에 흰 바탕에 붉은 무늬가 있는 종 모양의 꽃이 원추(圓錐) 화서로 핀다. 마롱이라고 하는 열매는 삭과(蒴果)로 가시가 있고 단맛이 많은 전분질이어서 식용한다. 유럽 남부가 원산지이며 세계 4대 가로수, 정원수로 세계 각지에서 재배한다. ≒서양칠엽수. (Aesculus hippocastanum) [43] [44]
    horse chestnut tree
Synonyms
  • 서양칠엽수 (seoyang-chil-yeobsu)
  • 가시칠엽수 (gasi-chil-yeobsu) [45]
  • 일본칠엽수 (ilbon-chil-yeovsu) Aesculus turbinata
Hypernyms
Relatives
French confusion
marronnier d’Inde [48]
Synonymes
Antonymes
See also

마롱[edit | edit source]

The horse chestnut fruits (inedible!)
Roman: marong
From: French marron [58]
Noun
  1. 마로니에의 열매. 구워 먹는 밤의 하나로 지름 6cm 정도의 공 모양이며, 가시 모양의 돌기가 있는데 안에 한두 개의 씨가 들어 있다. [59]
    horse chestnut fruit [60]
Relatives
See also
  • 말밤* (mal-bam*, toward "horse chestnut" instead!)
The sweet chestnut fruits

마름[edit | edit source]

Water caltrop, aka. water chestnut (Trapa natans cf. Trapa japonica) fruits
A 16th-century caltrop
Corm of (Chinese) water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis)
Roman: mareum
Older: < 마람 (maram) < 말암 (mal-am) < 말왐 (mal-wam) < 말ㅸㅏㅁ (mal-vam[61]) < 말밤 (mal-bam) [62]
Noun
  1. 마름과에 속한 한해살이풀. 연못이나 늪에서 자란다. 뿌리는 진흙 속에 박고 줄기는 물위에까지 가늘고 길게 뻗는다. 잎은 줄기 꼭대기에 뭉쳐나고 삼각형이며, 잎자루에 공기가 들어 있는 부낭(浮囊)이 있어서 물위에 뜬다. 여름에 흰 꽃이 피며 마름모꼴의 열매가 열리는데 이것을 까서 먹는다. 한국, 일본, 중국 등지에 분포한다. 학명은 Trapa japonica이다. [63] [64]
    water caltrop, aka. water chestnut [65]
Compounds
Relatives
Comparatives
From water caltrop #Translations
  • Chinese: 菱角 (língjiao)
  • Danish: hornnød
  • Finnish: vesipähkinä
  • Hungarian: sulyom
  • Japanese: (ヒシ, hishi)
  • Korean: 마름 (mareum)
  • Russian: чёртов оре́х (čórtov oréx)
  • Spanish: castaña de agua
Alias
The water caltrop is any of three extant species of the genus Trapa: Trapa natans, Trapa bicornis and the endangered Trapa rossica. It is also known as water chestnut, buffalo nut, bat nut, devil pod, ling nut, lin kok, ling jow, ling kio nut, mustache nut or singhada.

[...]

The generic name Trapa is derived from the Latin word for "thistle", calcitrappa, as also is another common name for the water caltrop.

The Chinese name is língjiǎo (菱角), líng meaning "caltrop" and jiǎo meaning "horn". This is often rendered as ling nut by English-speakers.

-- Wikipedia: Water caltrop

See also

말밤[edit | edit source]

Roman: mal-bam
Hanja: 末栗 [69]
Noun
  1. ‘마름’의 방언(강원, 경상, 충북). [70] [71]
    (etymon, now dialect) water caltrop, water chestnut
Synonyms
  • 마름 (mareum) [72]
  • 물밤 (mul-bam, dialectic, lit. "water chestnut")
Antonyms
See also
  • 말밤* (mal-bam, toward "horse chestnut")

말밤*[edit | edit source]

The horse chestnut fruits, aka. conkers
The sweet chestnut fruits
Roman: mal-bam*
Alias: *말밤 (assumed of sense)
Hanja: 末栗 (literally "coarse chestnut" hence actually "horse chestnut")
Noun
  1. 학명 Aesculus hippocastanum 의 한 고유/차입 번역어. [73]
    horse chestnut [74]
Synonyms
  • 마로니에 (maronie, "horse chestnut") -- the loanword from French. [75]
  • 서양칠엽수 (seoyang-chil-yeobsu, "horse chestnut") [76]
  • 가시칠엽수 (gasi-chil-yeobsu) [77]
  • 일본칠엽수 (ilbon-chil-yeovsu) Aesculus turbinata [78]
Antonyms
Relatives
  • 말밤 (mal-bam, "water caltrop, water chestnut") -- the etymon, now dialect.
  • 마름 (mareum, "water caltrop, water chestnut") -- the corrupted, now canonized.
  • 물밤 (mul-bam, "water caltrop, water chestnut") -- the dialect, conforming to "water chestnut."
Comparatives
Selected from horse chestnut #Translations
Germanic Latinic [80] Slavic, etc.
  • French: marronnier,
    marronnier d’Inde
  • Italian: ippocastano,
    castagno d'India
  • Portug.: castanha-da-índia
  • Spanish: castaño de Indias
  • Bulgarian: конски кестен
    (konski kesten)
  • Finnish: hevoskastanja
  • Russian: ко́нский кашта́н
    (kónskij kaštán)
  • Slovak: pagaštan konský
  • Turkish: at kestanesi
  • Welsh: marchgastanwydden
References

말뫼[edit | edit source]

The King's Grave [81] -- Kiviksgrave burial site near Kivik, Sweden
Royal burial mounds at Gamla Uppsala
Burial mounds of the Silla kings in Korea
Roman: malmoe
From: Swedish Malmö [82]
Noun
  1. 스웨덴 남부에 있는 항구 도시. 건너편의 코펜하겐과는 철도 연락선으로 연결된다. [83]
    Malmö
Associatives
  • Native Korean 말뫼 from Middle Korean ᄆᆞᆯ 뫼 (molmoe) [84] aka. 말메 (malme), 말미 (malmi)
    1. high mountain; high tomb, tumulus
w: Tumulus
  • A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, and may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus.
w: Dolmen
  • A dolmen (...) is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table". Most date from the early Neolithic (4000–3000 BC) and were sometimes covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. [...] In many instances, the covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the mound intact.
  • The etymology of the German: Hünenbett, Hünengrab and Dutch: hunebed - with Hüne/hune meaning "giant" - all evoke the image of giants buried (bett/bed/grab = bed/grave) there. [85]
w: Großmugl
  • Großmugl is a town in the district of Korneuburg in Lower Austria in Austria.
  • The name of the village literally translates as "large steep hill," and refers to a nearby tumulus (locally known as the Leeberg) that is believed to have been erected by the people of the Kalenderberg culture, probably around 600-500 B.C.
The Leeberg, Central Europe's largest hill grave, rises from the fields near Großmugl
  • Mugel : (slang, dialect, Austria, Southern German) hillock"
    aka. Mugl
  • Hügel : hill
  • Hügelgrab from Hügel (“mound”) + Grab (“grave”)
  • Grabhügel from Grab (“grave”) + Hügel (“mound”)

Footnotes[edit | edit source]

  1. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=말
  2. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/말
  3. 뉴에이스 국어사전
  4. (máršal)
  5. Man o' War won 20 of 21 races.
  6. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=말-
  7. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/말#Etymology_2
  8. https://www.websters1913.com/words/Horse
  9. Assumed, hence the prefixed asterisk. cf. Yiddish פֿערדבין (ferdbin) lit. "horse bee"
  10. Etymology
    Probably from Latin mās, marem (“male”), with a shift in meaning; alternatively from an irregular shortened form of maior, maiōrem (“bigger”). Compare Romanian mare, and see there for a more detailed etymology.
  11. Etymology
    From Latin maior, maiōrem. Compare also Romanian mare (“large”).
  12. Etymology
    Several theories exist. One possibility is Latin maiōrem, masculine and feminine accusative singular of maiōr (“bigger”), irregularly clipped before the [j] → [d͡ʒ] sound change (the regular form would be *măjoare). Compare also Dalmatian maur (“large”). Another proposed etymology is Latin marem, accusative of mās (“male, man”) (however, the reason for the shift in meaning or the exact semantic development is uncertain; it may be because men are generally larger than women, or from a crossing with magnus, or more likely from use in idiomatic expressions (with equivalents found in many languages) such as s-a făcut mare, which can mean "he has grown up/grown older/become a man or adult", and this may have been eventually extended to mean "he/she has grown bigger", with the sense of the word shifting from "man/adult" to "big"). Less likely is the influence from mare (“sea”). Also found in Aromanian as mari (“big, large”).
  13. (mal, "horse") + 개미 (gaemi, "ant")
  14. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=말개미
  15. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/말개미
  16. 그러면, 거꾸로, 왕개미는 일상적인 ‘말개미’를 고답적으로 또는 학술적으로 이르는 말인가?
  17. However, you may not like its Korean calque or loan translation 홍개미 that must be 말개미 in Korean context!
  18. 개밋과의 곤충. 몸의 길이는 7~13mm이며, 검은색 또는 갈색이고 금빛 털이 빽빽하게 나 있다. 일개미의 머리는 타원형인데 수컷의 머리는 둥글다. 한국, 일본 등지에 분포한다.
  19. 개밋과의 곤충. 일개미의 몸의 길이는 8mm 정도이며 붉은 갈색이고, 배는 어두운 갈색이다. 암컷은 머리와 가슴이 검은 갈색이고 꽁지는 붉은 갈색이다. 한국, 유럽, 일본, 중국 등지에 분포한다.
  20. This looks like a loan translation of Formica rufa.
  21. Maybe it began with "horse ant"(馬蟻) and ended with simply "ant"(螞蟻), as 馬("horse") corrupted into 螞("insect").
  22. "Horse ant (Zoöl.), a large ant (Formica rufa); -- called also horse emmet."
  23. (mal, "horse") + 거머리 (geomeori, "leech")
  24. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=말거머리
  25. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/말거머리
  26. Etymology
    From Middle English horseleche, horse leche (“horse doctor; bloodsucker, leech”), equivalent to horse +‎ leech. So called because it commonly attacks the membrane that lines the inside of the mouth and nostrils of animals, such as horses, that drink at pools where it lives.
  27. Created by User:KYPark, 22 February 2013
  28. All the original {{t}} templates were made {{t-}} but for Finnish {{t+}} by Rukhabot, 2 April 2013.
  29. Added by User: Atitarev, 26 February 2013
  30. Added by User:Wyang, 22 February 2013
  31. (mal, "horse") + (beol, "bee")
  32. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=말벌
  33. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/말벌
  34. Or *horse-bee, as it is much bigger than common bees.
  35. Etymology: Probably a calque of Chinese 馬蜂 (mǎfēng).
  36. cf. Pferdeameise ("horse ant"), Pferdebremse ("horse fly"), Pferdeegel ("horse leech"), Pferdefliege ("horse fly").
  37. The most common is the red king crab, also called Kamchatka crab or Alaskan king crab, as native to the far northern Pacific Ocean. It can reach a leg span of 1.8 m (5.9 ft).
  38. (, wang, "king") + (ge, "crab")
  39. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=왕게
  40. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/왕게
  41. In https://www.websters1913.com/words/Horse, it reads: "Horse crab (Zoöl.), the Limulus; -- called also horsefoot, horsehoe crab, and king crab." Either king crab or horse crab is so big, hence the name.
  42. marronnier #French
    1. chestnut tree
    2. horse-chestnut tree
  43. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=마로니에
    ≒서양칠엽수. (Aesculus hippocastanum)
    (학명)Aesculus hippocastanum
  44. '식용한다'?
  45. 열매는 밤과 닮았지만, 사포닌과 글루코사이드가 들어있는 등 약한 독성을 띄고 있어서 먹을 수 없다.
  46. marron #French
    1. chestnut
    2. horse-chestnut
  47. 마로니에의 열매. 구워 먹는 밤의 하나로 지름 6cm 정도의 공 모양이며, 가시 모양의 돌기가 있는데 안에 한두 개의 씨가 들어 있다.
  48. So called perhaps because of misbelief that the origin is India.
  49. Literally, "sea or water chestnut"
  50. Literally, "horse chestnut"
  51. 1. chestnut, 2. horse chestnut.
  52. French marron confuses many senses, including water, horse, coarse, chestnut, horse or chestnut color, etc.
  53. Literally, "white chestnut," perhaps because of the horse-chestnut's whitish flower
  54. Literally, "common chestnut." Which sense of the marronier at all?
  55. Literally, "horse chestnut"
  56. Literally, "false chestnut"
  57. "chestnut"
  58. This confuses the inedible "horse chestnut" and the edible "sweet chestnut," perhaps unwisely. Korean loaned the former only.
  59. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=마롱
  60. Inedible! As such, the above Korean definition would be misleading.
  61. The soft labial ㅸ, hence /v/. This descendant meant not only "water caltrop" but also "caltrop," according to 교학고어사전, p.538, equating to 마름쇠.
  62. The oldest 말밤 is still used widely as a dialect, together with 물밤 (mul-bam).
  63. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=마름
  64. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/마름
  65. Either enjoys few Western #Translations.
  66. The Hanja translations include 능철(菱鐵, lit. "(water) caltrop iron"), 철릉(鐵菱, lit. "iron caltrop"), etc.
  67. A folk Sino-Korean name (鄕名, 향명, hyang-meong)
  68. Hence lit. the homonym "horse chestnut," as it were!
  69. Literally "coarse chestnut," contrasted with 단밤 (dan-bam, literally and actually "sweet chestnut," or simply (bam, "chestnut"). Meanwhile, French marron confuses "horse chestnut" and "sweet chest nut."
  70. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=말밤
  71. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=마름
  72. This canonic term is a corruption of the original 말밤 (末栗, "coarse chestnut"), which may be applicable to the horse chestnut as well, though not yet attested. Recall that the prefix horse means not only "big" but also "coarse" respectively relating to Korean homonyms 말(馬, "horse; big") and 말(末, "last; coarse").
  73. Unauthorized, hence the asterisk.
  74. The prefix "horse" here means "coarse" rather than "large," as is the case with most other botanical compounds. Then, Latin hippo should also mean "coarse" as English "horse" does.
  75. This is implausibly imported, perhaps under the Japanese watering influence; instead, it would be plausible to reuse the native 말밤 which is not used canonically. Also noteworthy is the resemblance of marron to 마름 (mareum) stemming from 말밤.
  76. A mundane Sino-Korean harangue, contrasting to the Japanese as yin-yang, either-or.
  77. 열매는 밤과 닮았지만, 사포닌과 글루코사이드가 들어있는 등 약한 독성을 띄고 있어서 먹을 수 없다. Inedible, in short.
  78. Framing around Japan? By whom?
  79. The [ sweet chestnut ] tree is to be distinguished from the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, to which it is only distantly related. The horse chestnut bears similar looking seeds (conkers) in a similar seed case, which are not palatable to humans.
  80. Why is the qualifier "of India" used? To avoid using "horse"?
  81. cf. 돌무지무덤: 시신 위나 시신을 넣은 석곽(石槨) 위에 흙을 덮지 않고 돌을 쌓아 올린 무덤. 선사 시대부터 고구려ㆍ백제 초기에 나타난다.
  82. Its original name was Malmhaug (with alternate spellings), meaning "Gravel pile" or "Ore Hill".
  83. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=말뫼
  84. 교학고어사전, p. 628
    ᄆᆞᆯ 뫼 [명] 말메. [지명(地名)] ¶ ᄆᆞᆯ 뫼:馬山(龍歌:42)
  85. Especially, German Hünengrab literally means the same as Korean 말뫼 (malmoe, "huge tomb").