Te was pronounced approximately dugh during the early Chou period (about 1100 to 600 B.C.). The meanings it conveys in texts from that era are "character," "[good or bad] intentions," "quality," "disposition," "personality," "personhood," "personal strength," and "worth." There is a very close correlation between these meanings and words deriving from Proto-Indo-European dugh (to be fit, of use, proper; acceptable; achieve). And there is a whole series of words derived from the related Teutonic verbal root dugan. There are Old High German tugan, Middle High German tugen, and modern German taugen, all of which mean "to be good, fit, of use." There is another cognate group of words relating to modern English "doughty" (meaning worthy, valiant, stouthearted) that also contribute to our understanding of te. They are Middle English douhti, dohti, of dühti ("valiant"). (1990:134)
In modern Dutch, the noun "de" can be translated as "deugd"; the verb "deugen" means 'to have virtue'.
이십사절기의 하나. 대설(大雪)과 소한(小寒) 사이에 들며 태양이 동지점을 통과하는 때인 12월 22일이나 23일경이다. 북반구에서는 일 년 중 낮이 가장 짧고 밤이 가장 길다. 동지에는 음기가 극성한 가운데 양기가 새로 생겨나는 때이므로 일 년의 시작으로 간주한다. 이날 각 가정에서는 팥죽을 쑤어 먹으며 관상감에서는 달력을 만들어 벼슬아치들에게 나누어 주었다고 한다. ≒아세1(亞歲)ㆍ이신4(履新)ㆍ이신지경ㆍ이장11(履長)ㆍ이장지경.
Schematic cross-section of Offa's Dyke, showing the design intended to protect Mercia against attacks/raids from Powys. The deep ditch makes the high dyke. Korean 굳 (gud, "ditch") is the anagram as well as antonym of 둑 (dug, "dyke").
The readers do miss the story of such a thrilling success he made by controlling the huge body of water that he may well be called the father of flood control, or 한물(hanmur, "flood") + 아비(abi, "father") in Korean wordplay.
Sino-Korean 둔 (屯, dun), synonymous to 진 (陣, jin; once 딘, din), is phono-semantically too similar to English dun from Scottish Gaelic dùn to be ignored. What a casual, if not causal, coincidence!
Topologically, #둔, meaning "hill," may well compare with #둑, as follows:
The former is a thinly-topped or obtusely-topping heap or hill, say, dune. It may further compare with English down, town, dun, etc., and with the other Germanic relatives.
The latter is a thickly-topped or acutely-topping heap or hill, say, dyke. It may further compare with English tight, thigh, dough, etc., and with their Dutch and German (or Yiddish) counterparts.
"In pre-Christian times, the term designated the two-month midwinter season (December and January). After Christianization, it became a narrower reference to the twelve days of Christmas."
from Old English ġeōl, ġeōla ("Christmastide, midwinter")
Yule in itself is simply "midwinter," or more simply "winter," or more precisely, "the two-month midwinter season (December and January)" as noted above. Etymology reads Proto-Germanic meaning "festivity, celebration," and PIE "joke, play," while OE ġeōl, equivalent to Korean 겨울 (gyeoul, "winter"), may well compare with Italian gelo ("intense cold, frost"), Latin gelo ("I freeze, cause to congeal"), even English cold, etc.
↑ One theory about the etymology of 바둑 (badug) is that it was known as 바독 (badog), a diminutive of 바닥 (badag, "base"), hence the go board. Another is that either 바둑 or 바독 or the dialect 바돌 (badol) means 바둑돌 (badug-dol, "go stone"), which fits the opening phrase well.