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나귀[edit | edit source]

An ass, aka. donkey in English
Roman: nagwi
Noun [2] [3]
  1. 말과의 포유류. 말과 비슷한데 몸은 작고 앞머리의 긴 털이 없으며 귀가 길다. 털빛은 대부분 누런 갈색ㆍ잿빛 황색ㆍ잿빛 흑색이며, 어깨ㆍ다리에 짙은 줄무늬가 있고 허리뼈가 다섯 개이다. 병에 대한 저항력이 강하여 부리기에 적당하다. 아프리카의 야생종을 가축화한 것으로 전 세계에 분포한다.
    ass, donkey
See also
  • (mal, "horse")



낮다[edit | edit source]

Roman: naj-da
Noun [5] [6]
  1. 아래에서 위까지의 높이가 기준이 되는 대상이나 보통 정도에 미치지 못하는 상태에 있다.
    to be low
  • 난쟁이 (nanjaeng-i, "dwarf")
dwarf # Translations
  • Catalan: nan, nano
  • French: nain, naine
  • Galician: anano
  • Greek: νάνος (nános)
  • Italian: nano, nana
  • Korean: 난쟁이 (nanjaeng-i)
  • Latin: nānus, nana
  • Maltese: nanu
  • Portuguese: anão
  • Spanish: enano

낳다[edit | edit source]

Female aphid giving birth
Lambing (The second of twins being born)
Roman: nah-da
Noun [7] [8]
  1. 배 속의 아이, 새끼, 알을 몸 밖으로 내놓다. [9]
    to bear, or give birth to (a baby or youngling);
    to lay (an egg).
  • 아이 (ai, "baby") cf. Dutch ei, German Ei "egg"
  • (al, "egg") cf. Dutch ei, German Ei "egg"
  • 새끼 (saekki, "youngling") [10]
birth # Translations
  • French: naissance [11]
  • Friulian: nassince
  • Galician: nacemento, nacenza
  • Italian: nascita [12]
  • Korean: 낳다 (nah-da) vt.
  • Latin: nascentia, nativitas
  • Occitan: naissença
  • Portuguese: nascimento
  • Romanian: naștere, născare
  • Spanish: nacimiento

[edit | edit source]

The Seine basin and much more, including Aisne, Marne, Ouanne, Vanne, Yonne, Essonne, etc.
Roman: nae
Noun [13] [14]
  1. 시내보다는 크지만 강보다는 작은 물줄기.
    river, a flowing body of water.
시냇물 (작사: 이종구)
냇물아 흘러 흘러 어디로 가니
강물 따라 가고 싶어 강으로 간다      
강물아 흘러 흘러 어디로 가니
넓은 세상 보고 싶어 바다로 간다      
  • 미르 (mireu, "dragon")
  • (mul, "water; body of water")
Danube #Translation Seine #Translations Rhine #Translations
Slavic, etc.
  • Aromanian: Duna
  • Azerbaijani: Dunay
  • Belarusian: Дуна́й (Dunáj)
  • Czech: Dunaj
  • Hungarian: Duna
  • Polish: Dunaj
  • Russian: Дуна́й (Dunáj)
  • Slovak: Dunaj
  • Sorbian: Dunaj
  • Turkush: Tuna
  • Ukrainian: Дуна́й (Dunáj)
  • Catalan: Sena
  • French: Seine
  • Italian: Senna
  • Occitan: Sèina
  • Portuguese: Sena
  • Spanish: Sena
  • Czech: Seina
  • Dutch: Seine
  • English: Seine
  • German: Seine
  • Hungarian: Szajna
  • Russian: Се́на (Séna)
Slavic, etc.
  • Hungarian: Rajna
  • Latvian: Reina
  • Lithuanian: Reinas
  • Macedonian: Ра́јна (Rájna)
  • Serbo-Croatian: Рајна (Rajna)



[edit | edit source]

Acrobatic seesawing [16]
Acrobatic seesawing [17]
Roman: neol
  1. [같은 말] 널빤지(판판하고 넓게 켠 나뭇조각).
    panel, board, plank
  2. 널뛰기할 때에 쓰는 널빤지. 단단하면서 탄력이 좋은 나무를 사용한다.
    acrobatic seesaw, teeter-totter [18]
European children's seesawing
  • 뛰다 (ttwi-da, "to jump, run")
See also

[edit | edit source]

Roman: ne
[20] [21]
  1. 그 수량이 넷임을 나타내는 말.
    (adjectival) four
  • 넷 (net)
Arabic Roman Hanja Nominal Adjectival English
1 I 하나 (hana) 한 (han) one
2 II (dul) 두 (du) two
3 III (set) 세 (se) [22] three
4 IV (net) 네 (ne) four
5 V 다섯 (daseot) 다섯 (daseot) five
four #Translations
  • Ainu: イネ (ine)
  • Chichewa: nayi
  • Hungarian: négy
  • Korean: 네 (ne), 넷 (net)
  • Lenape: Unami: newa
  • Montagnais: neu
  • Nahuatl: nahui
  • Pipil: nawi, nahui
  • Swahili: nne
  • Xhosa: ne
  • Zulu: ne
  • Erzya: ниле (nile)
  • Estonian: neli
  • Finnish: neljä
  • Karelian: nelʹlʹä
  • Komi: нёль (njolʹ)
  • Kven: nelje
  • Livonian: nēļa
  • Mansi: нила (nila)
  • Moksha: ниле (nile)
  • Udmurt: ньыль (nʹylʹ)
  • Veps: nel'l'
  • Votic: nellä
  • Võro: nelli


[edit | edit source]

The rower rows the oar.
Roman: no
Older: 로 (ro)
Noun [23] [24]
  1. 물을 헤쳐 배를 나아가게 하는 기구.
    oar [25]
  • 노를 젓다 (no-reul jeotda, lit. "to row the oar") [26]
  • (ki, "rudder")
oar #Translations row #Translations
  • Old Norse: ár
  • Danish: åre
  • Faroese: ár
  • Icelandic: ár
  • Norwegian: åre
  • Swedish: åra
  • Dutch: riem
  • English: oar
  • German: Ruder
  • Old Norse: róa
  • Danish: ro
  • Faroese: rógva
  • Icelandic: róa
  • Norwegian: ro
  • Swedish: ro
  • Dutch: roeien
  • English: row
  • German: rudern

노래[edit | edit source]

The Lorelei rock (1900) [27]
The Lorelei (song) [28]
Siren from Myrina, first century BC (before Christ)
Kristus i Getsemane (1873), an angel comforting Jesus before his arrest in the Garden of Gethsemane,[29] by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1834–1890).
Roman: norae
Older: 로래 (rorae)
Noun [30] [31]
  1. 가사에 곡조를 붙여 목소리로 부를 수 있게 만든 음악. 또는 그 음악을 목소리로 부름.
    song, singing.
  • 노래방 (-bang, "karaoke" literally "singing room" popular in South Korea)
  • 노랫말 (-mal, "lyrics")
  • Lorelei #English
    Borrowed from German Lorelei (“siren of Rhine”), not used as a given name in Germany. [32] [33]
  • Lorelei § Etymology
    The name comes from the old German words lureln, Rhine dialect for 'murmuring', and the Celtic term ley "rock". The translation of the name would therefore be: 'murmur rock' or 'murmuring rock'. [...] Other theories attribute the name to the many boating accidents on the rock, by combining the German verb lauern ('to lurk, lie in wait') with the same "ley" ending, with the translation "lurking rock".
  • Siren § Appearance
    The first-century Roman historian Pliny the Elder discounted Sirens as a pure fable, [...] In his notebooks, Leonardo da Vinci wrote, "The siren sings so sweetly that she lulls the mariners to sleep; then she climbs upon the ships and kills the sleeping mariners."
  • Siren § Christian belief and modern reception
    By the fourth century, when pagan beliefs were overtaken by Christianity, the belief in literal sirens was discouraged. [...]
    The early Christian euhemerist interpretation of mythologized human beings received a long-lasting boost from Isidore's Etymologiae:
    [The Greeks] imagine that "there were three Sirens, part virgins, part birds," with wings and claws. "One of them sang, another played the flute, the third the lyre. They drew sailors, decoyed by song, to shipwreck. According to the truth, however, they were prostitutes who led travelers down to poverty and were said to impose shipwreck on them." They had wings and claws because Love flies and wounds. [...]
  • Mermaid § Origins
    The sirens of Greek mythology (especially the Odyssey), conceived of as half-bird and half-woman, gradually shifted to the image of a fish-tailed woman. [...]
    Some attributes of Homer's sirens, such as the enticement of men and their beautiful song, also became attached to the mermaid.
  • Angel § Interaction
    • In Luke 22:43 an angel comforts Jesus Christ during the Agony in the Garden.
    • Pope John Paul II emphasized the role of angels in Catholic teachings in his 1986 address titled "Angels Participate In History Of Salvation", in which he suggested that modern mentality should come to see the importance of angels.
    • According to the Vatican's Congregation for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, "The practice of assigning names to the Holy Angels should be discouraged, except in the cases of Gabriel, Raphael and Michael whose names are contained in Holy Scripture."
  • Angel § Islam
    In Islam, just like in Judaism and Christianity, angels are often represented in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size or wearing heavenly articles. The Quran describes them as "messengers with wings -- two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases..." Common characteristics for angels are their missing needs for bodily desires, such as eating and drinking. Their lack of affinity to material desires is also expressed by their creation from light: Angels of mercy are created from nur (cold light) in opposition to the angels of punishment created from nar (hot light). [34]

노루[edit | edit source]

Male (buck) and female (doe) roe deer [35]
Roman: noru
Older: 노로 (noro)
Noun [36] [37]
  1. 사슴과의 포유류. 몸은 1~1.2미터, 어깨의 높이는 65~86cm이다. 여름에는 누런 갈색이고 겨울에는 누런 흙색으로 꽁무니에 흰 반점이 나타난다. 수컷은 세 갈래로 돋은 뿔이 있는데 겨울에 빠지고 봄에 새로 나며, 꼬리는 흔적만 남아 있다. 삼림 지대에서 풀이나 열매 따위를 먹고 사는데 4~5월에 1~3마리의 새끼를 낳는다. 한국, 아무르, 중국, 유럽 등지에 분포한다.
    roe deer
  • 사슴 (saseum, "deer")
roe deer #Translations
  • Danish: rådyr
  • Dutch: ree
  • English: roe deer
  • Faroese: rádýr
  • German: Reh
  • Japanese: ノロ (noro),[38] ノロジカ (noro-jica) [39]
  • Korean: 노루 (noru)
  • Norwegian: rådyr
  • Swedish: rådjur



놓다[edit | edit source]

Laying down an empty cup on the table
Roman: nohda
Sound: 노타 (nota)
Verb [40] [41]
  1. 손으로 무엇을 쥐거나 잡거나 누르고 있는 상태에서 손을 펴거나 힘을 빼서 잡고 있던 물건이 손 밖으로 빠져나가게 하다.
    to lay
  • 내놓다 (nae-, "to lay out(side)")
  • 내려놓다 (naeryeo-, "to lay down")
  • 놓아두다 (noh-aduda, "to keep laying") > 놔두다 (nwaduda)
  • 낳다 (nahda, "to lay (an egg)")
  • (son, "hand")
  1. (cf. 놓다 (nohda)) To place down in a position of rest, or in a horizontal position
  2. (cf. 낳다 (nahda)) To produce and deposit an egg
lay #Translations, etc.
  • Danish: lægge
  • Dutch: leggen
  • English: lay
  • German: legen
  • Korean: 놓다 (nohda), 낳다 (nahda)
  • Icelandic: leggja
  • Norwegian: legge
  • Swedish: lägga

누나[edit | edit source]

Nuns [42] [43]
Roman: nuna
Alias: 누님 (nunim)
Noun [44] [45]
  1. 같은 부모에게서 태어난 사이거나 일가친척 가운데 항렬이 같은 사이에서, 남자가 손위 여자를 이르거나 부르는 말. 때로는 남남끼리 나이가 적은 남자가 손위 여자를 정답게 이르거나 부르는 말. 예: 옆집 누나.
    older sister of a male (by extension applied to close, friendly older females)
  • 누이 (nui, "younger sister of a male")
  • 언니 (eonni, "older sister of a female")
Germanic Norse Others

[edit | edit source]

Roman: nun
Noun [50] [51]
  1. 빛의 자극을 받아 물체를 볼 수 있는 감각 기관. 척추동물의 경우 안구ㆍ시각 신경 따위로 되어 있어, 외계에서 들어온 빛은 각막ㆍ눈동자ㆍ수정체를 지나 유리체를 거쳐 망막에 이르는데, 그 사이에 굴광체(屈光體)에 의하여 굴절되어 망막에 상을 맺는다.
  • 눈꺼풀 (-kkeopul, "eyelid")
  • 눈동자 (-dongja, "pupil")
  • 눈두덩 (-dudeong, "upper eyelid")
  • 눈물 (-mul, ""tears" lit. "eye-water")
  • 눈썹 (-sseob, "eyebrows"), 속눈썹 (sog-nunsseob, "eyelash")
  • 눈시울 (-siul, "edge of the eyelid" lit. "showl of eyes")
  • 눈알 (-al, "eyeball" lit. "eye-egg")
  • 홍채 (hongchae, "iris")
  • 흰자위 (huinjawi, "white of eyes"), cf. "the white of the egg"
  • 알 (al, "egg")
  • eye, cf. egg
eye #Translations
  • Dutch: oog
  • Faroese: eyga
  • Old English: ēaġ
  • German: Aug
  • Icelandic: auga
  • Norwegian: auge, auga
  • Swedish: öga
  • eyeball
eyeball #Translations
lit. "eye-egg" lit. "eye-apple," etc.
  • Estonian: silmamuna [52]
  • Finnish: silmämuna [53]
  • Korean: 눈알 (nun-al) [54]
  • Dutch: oogappel
  • English: eyeball
  • Old English: ēaġæppel
  • German: Augapfel
  • Norwegian: øyeeple
  • Swedish: ögonglob


Footnotes[edit | edit source]

  1. Macaroni was a present from Lyndon Johnson. Macaroni roamed freely around the White House grounds and received thousands of fan letters from the American public.
  2. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=나귀
  3. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/나귀
  4. This has few cognates.
  5. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=낮다
  6. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/낮다
  7. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=낳다
  8. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/낳다
  9. This vital concept is not well (concisely and precisely) worded in English, at least.
  10. For example, calf, colt, lamb, kitty, puppy, etc.
  11. donner naissance (vt.) "to give birth or rise to"
  12. nascere (vt.) "to give birth to"
  13. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=내
  14. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/내
  15. called neolttwigi in Korean
  16. English Description: "Young women in national dress practice the typical Korean sport: seesawing." (1958)
  17. perhaps elsewhere than Korea
  18. A structure composed of a plank, balanced in the middle, used as a game in which one person goes up as the other goes down.
    1. 긴 널빤지의 중간을 괴어 놓고 양쪽 끝에 한 사람씩 올라서서 번갈아 뛰어 오르는 놀이. 우리나라 고유의 놀이로 주로 음력 정월이나 단오, 추석에 여자들이 한다.
      acrobatic seesawing played on traditional holidays in Korea, called neolttwigi
  19. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=네
  20. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/네
  21. 서너 (seoneo, "three and/or four)
  22. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=노
  23. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/노
  24. The oar is to row.
  25. English oar and row may be practically a metathesis, hence cognates. From Korean perspective, it seems to begin with 로 (, ro, "oar") and end with 요 (, yo, "to row"), hence 搖櫓 "to scull."
  26. which may literally mean "singing rock" rather than "murmuring rock".
  27. In 1824, Heinrich Heine wrote one of his most famous poems, "Die Lorelei". It describes the eponymous female as a sort of siren who, sitting on the cliff above the Rhine and combing her golden hair, unwittingly distracted shipmen with her beauty and song, causing them to crash on the rocks. In 1837, Friedrich Silcher set this lyrics to music, when the Nazy Germany was rising and Jewish Heine was falling.
  28. The Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane was an event in the life of Jesus from the New Testament, between the Farewell Discourse at the conclusion of the Last Supper and Jesus' arrest.
  29. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=노래
  30. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/노래
  31. Yet there is no wikt: Lorelei #German since 2016!
  32. This etymology would not see Lorelei as a compound of lore "murmuring" and lei "rock" but as a German equivalent or Rhenish kind of Siren, hence no sense of either "murmuring" or "singing".
  33. cf. Korean 노을 (no-eul, "evening light") and (nal, "daylight")
  34. w:ko: 유럽 노루
  35. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=노루
  36. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/노루
  37. Also ノル (noru), according to 엣센스 일한사전. Note parallelity with Korean 노로 (noro) > 노루 (noru).
  38. Literally "roe deer." Perhaps the calque of English roe deer.
  39. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=놓다
  40. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/놓다
  41. Benedictine nuns of the Mariendonk Abbey, Grefath, Düsseldorf, Germany.
  42. What a coincidence it is that all wear glasses!
  43. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=누나
  44. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/누나
  45. Synonyms:
  46. Synonyms:
  47. https://www.websters1913.com/words/Nun
    Nun (?), n. [OE. nunne, AS. nunne, fr. L. nonna nun, nonnus monk; cf. Gr. ?, ?; of unknown origin. Cf. Nunnery.]
  48. Synonyms:
  49. https://ko.dict.naver.com/#/search?query=눈
  50. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/눈
  51. Literally, "eye-egg"
  52. Literally, "eye-egg"
  53. Literally, "eye-egg"