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Diagram is of the Earth. Credit: Kelvinsong.

Geognosy is the science and theory of the constitution of the Earth.

Theoretical geognosy[edit]

The planet Earth is made up of three main shells: the very thin, brittle crust, the mantle, and the core; the mantle and core are each divided into two parts; all parts are drawn to scale. Credit: Eugene C. Robertson, USGS.

Def. the "geological study of the Earth's structure and composition"[1] is called geognosy.


Seismic velocities and boundaries are diagrammed for the interior of the Earth sampled by seismic waves. Credit: .

"Evidence from geoseismology, heat flow at the surface, and mineral physics is combined with the Earth's mass and moment of inertia to infer models of the Earth's interior - its composition, density, temperature, pressure. For example, the Earth's mean specific gravity (5.515) is far higher than the typical specific gravity of rocks at the surface (2.7–3.3), implying that the deeper material is denser. This is also implied by its low moment of inertia (0.33 M R2, compared to 0.4 M R2 for a sphere of constant density). However, some of the density increase is compression under the enormous pressures inside the Earth. The effect of pressure can be calculated using the Adams–Williamson equation. The conclusion is that pressure alone cannot account for the increase in density."[2]

"Reconstruction of seismic reflections in the deep interior indicate some major discontinuities in seismic velocities that demarcate the major zones of the Earth: inner core, outer core, mantle, lithosphere and crust."[2]

"The seismic model of the Earth does not by itself determine the composition of the layers. For a complete model of the Earth, mineral physics is needed to interpret seismic velocities in terms of composition. The mineral properties are temperature-dependent, so the geotherm must also be determined. This requires physical theory for thermal conduction and convection and the heat contribution of [radionuclides] radioactive elements. The main model for the radial structure of the interior of the Earth is the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). Some parts of this model have been updated by recent findings in mineral physics (see post-perovskite) and supplemented by seismic tomography."[2]


The key principle of plate tectonics is that the lithosphere exists as separate and distinct tectonic plates, which float on the fluid-like (visco-elastic solid) asthenosphere. Credit: USGS.
The thickness of Earth's crust is shown in kms. Credit: USGS/USGov.

"In geologic terms, a plate is a large, rigid slab of solid rock. The word tectonics comes from the Greek root "to build." Putting these two words together, we get the term plate tectonics, which refers to how the Earth's surface is built of plates. The theory of plate tectonics states that the Earth's outermost layer is fragmented into a dozen or more large and small plates that are moving relative to one another as they ride atop hotter, more mobile material."[3]

On the right is a subsurface map portraying the thickness of Earth's crust in kms.


These geologic province maps depict only features approximately 150 km across and greater due to the fact that the resolution of the maps should be consistent with the resolution of the seismic refraction data. Credit: USGS.

Def. "(cold) electrically resistive, seismically fast material with an anisotropy direction often different from present-day absolute plate motion (APM)"[4] is called the lithosphere.

"Between the crust and the mantle is the Mohorovičić discontinuity.[5]"[2]

"Between 100 and 200 kilometers below the Earth's surface, the temperature of the rock is near the melting point; molten rock erupted by some volcanoes originates in this region of the mantle. This zone of extremely yielding rock has a slightly lower velocity of [seismic] waves and is presumed to be the layer on which the tectonic plates ride. Below this low-velocity zone is a transition zone in the upper mantle; it contains two discontinuities caused by changes from less dense to more dense minerals. The chemical composition and crystal forms of these minerals have been identified by laboratory experiments at high pressure and temperature. The lower mantle, below the transition zone, is made up of relatively simple iron and magnesium silicate minerals, which change gradually with depth to very dense forms. Going from mantle to core, there is a marked decrease (about 30 percent) in [seismic] wave velocity and a marked increase (about 30 percent) in density."[6]

Def. "the depth at which seismic anisotropy direction changes from a lithospheric "fossil" direction to an asthenospheric plate-flow direction parallel to APM"[4] is called the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.


This is an idealized drawing of the location of the asthenosphere. Credit: Massey University.

Def. "the ductile part of the earth"[7] is called the asthenosphere.

Def. "(hot) electrically conductive, seismically slow material with an anisotropy direction parallel to [absolute plate motion] APM"[4] is called an asthenosphere.

"The asthenosphere is about 180 km thick."[7]

"The hypothesis that the Earth has an asthenosphere can be tested by searching experimentally for a layer with physical properties attributable to its low strength. Since the shear modulus of a material reduces as its melting temperature is approached the asthenosphere should retard the passage of earthquake S-waves, whose velocity is directly proportional to the shear modulus of the material through which it is travelling. The presence of a seismological low velocity layer (LVL) or zone (LVZ) near the top of the mantle thus provides evidence for the asthenosphere. The evidence is particularly convincing since S-waves, which are more sensitive to the prevailing shear modulus than P-waves, are slowed down to a greater extent than the latter. The low velocity zone is much better developed under ocean basins than under continental shield areas where it sometimes barely developed. Hence, oceanic lithosphere is much better defined seismologically than continental lithosphere."[8]

Def. an asthenosphere with a "rapid increase in electrical conductivity, at upper mantle depths"[4] is called an electrical asthenosphere.

The oceanic asthenosphere is apparently at a much lower depth than the asthenosphere is detected at beneath continents.

Conrad discontinuity[edit]

"While most impact craters are characterised by negative magnetic anomalies over their central regions, aeromagnetic surveys over the Vredefort meteorite impact crater reveal multiple concentric magnetic patterns with no significant anomaly at its centre. [A] prominent negative magnetic anomaly... extends in a broad semicircular belt about half way into the basement floor of the crater. Magnetic anomalies defined by our data are most often negative and occur over a wide range of wavelengths. The longest wavelength negative anomaly coincides well with aeromagnetic data. [This] feature is centred over the amphibolite to granulite metamorphic facies transition exposed in the basement floor. The transition zone is analogous to the Conrad discontinuity, observed at depths of about 20 km elsewhere in the Kaapvaal craton. Petrographic studies show a marked increase in the intensity of the impact-related thermal and shock metamorphism at this transition, which we explain by the focusing and defocusing of shock waves at a rheologic interface during impact. We therefore suggest that the magnetic signature at this boundary is caused by a combination of both thermal and shock effects related to the impact event. A numerical model of the long wavelength anomaly suggests that it is underlain by a body of coherently magnetised rock whose direction and intensity are similar to those found in pseudotachylites and impact melts that formed during impact. On the other hand, negative anomalies occurring over smaller (100 to 20 m) wavelengths often do not coincide with the surface geology. These features cannot be modeled using the same criteria as that for the long wavelength anomaly."[9]

Mohorovicic' discontinuity[edit]

Def. "a depth where seismic waves change velocity and there is also a change in chemical composition"[10] is called the Mohorovicic' discontinuity.

"The Moho is the boundary between the crust and the mantle in the earth."[10]

"The boundary is between 25 and 60 km deep beneath the continents and between 5 and 8 km deep beneath the ocean floor."[10]

Lehmann discontinuity[edit]

S-wave velocity near Earth's surface for three tectonic provinces: TNA= tectonic North America SNA= shield North America & ATL = north Atlantic. Credit: Brews ohare.


"The mantle is mainly composed of silicates, and the boundaries between layers of the mantle are consistent with phase transitions.[11]"[2]

"The mantle acts as a solid for seismic waves, but under high pressures and temperatures it deforms so that over millions of years it acts like a liquid. This makes plate tectonics possible. Geodynamics is the study of the fluid flow in the mantle and core."[2]

"The mantle itself is divided into the upper mantle, transition zone, lower mantle and D′′ layer."[2]

"The deep Earth holds about the same amount of water as our oceans. That’s the conclusion from experiments on rocks typical of those in the mantle transition zone, a global buffer layer 410 to 660 kilometres beneath us that separates the upper from the lower mantle."[12]

"If our estimation is correct, it means there’s a large amount of water in the deep Earth. The total amount of water in the deep Earth is nearly the same as the mass of all the world’s ocean water."[13]

There "is much more water than expected beneath us, mostly locked up within the crystals of minerals as ions rather than liquid water."[12]

"[W]ater-rich rock fragments [have been discovered] in volcanic debris originating from the mantle."[12]

"The vast amount of water locked inside rocks of this deep region of the mantle will certainly force us to think harder about how it ever got there, or perhaps how it could have always been there since solidification of the mantle. It’s a key question about the evolution of the Earth, which extends to extrasolar planets as well."[14]

"Already, real-world geophysical and seismic measurements have revealed that the viscosity of the mantle transition zone is lower than that of the upper mantle above and the lower mantle below, which extends as deep as 2900 kilometres, right down to Earth’s core."[12]

"We determined the relationship between water content and dislocation mobility [in synthetic versions of ringwoodite from the transition zone], then used this to estimate the water content in the transition zone."[13]

"These very difficult and very well-performed experiments are part of a growing picture emerging from laboratory and field observations via geophysics and natural studies that indicate that the mantle transition zone is likely to host significant water."[15]


"The core was the first internal structural element to be identified. It was discovered in 1906 by R.D. Oldham, from his study of earthquake records, and it helped to explain Newton's calculation of the Earth's density. The outer core is presumed to be liquid because it does not transmit shear (S) waves and because the velocity of compressional (P) waves that pass through it is sharply reduced. The inner core is considered to be solid because of the behavior of P and S waves passing through it."[6]

"Data from [seismic] waves, rotations and inertia of the whole Earth, magnetic-field dynamo theory, and laboratory experiments on melting and alloying of iron all contribute to the identification of the composition of the inner and outer core. The core is presumed to be composed principally of iron, with about 10 percent alloy of oxygen or sulfur or nickel, or perhaps some combination of these three elements."[6]

Outer cores[edit]

Depiction shows where the molten iron jet is moving - in the outer core. Credit: ESA.

"Reconstructions of seismic waves in the deep interior of the Earth show that there are no S-waves in the outer core. This indicates that the outer core is liquid, because liquids cannot support shear. The outer core is liquid, and the motion of this highly conductive fluid generates the Earth's field (see geodynamo)."[2]

A "kind of "jet stream" - a fast-flowing river of liquid iron [depicted with an artist's impression in the image on the right] is surging westwards under Alaska and Siberia."[16]

"The moving mass of metal has been inferred from measurements made by Europe’s Swarm satellites. [...] the jet is the best explanation for the patches of concentrated field strength that the satellites observe in the northern hemisphere."[16]

"This jet of liquid iron is moving at about fifty kilometres per year. That might not sound like a lot to you on Earth's surface, but you have to remember this a very dense liquid metal and it takes a huge amount of energy to move this thing around and that's probably the fastest motion we have anywhere within the solid Earth.”[17]

The "jet [is] about 420 km wide, and [...] wraps half-way around the planet."[16]

“It's likely that the jet stream has been in play for hundreds of millions of years."[18]

"It currently wraps about 180 degrees around the tangent cylinder [a boundary between two different regions in the core, a tube sitting around the solid inner core, running along Earth’s rotation axis]. Although observations only constrain the jet stream on the edge of the core, our theoretical understanding suggests that the jet could in principle go very deep indeed - possibly in fact all the way down to the edge of the core in the southern hemisphere (i.e. at the other end of the tangent cylinder)."[18]

"When liquid iron approaches the boundary from both sides, it gets squeezed out sideways to form the jet, which then hugs the imaginary tube."[16]

"Of course, you need a force to move fluid towards the tangent cylinder. This could be provided by buoyancy, or perhaps more likely from changes in the magnetic field within the core."[19]

Inner cores[edit]

Artist's impression depicts the inner core scaled outward. Credit: BBC Science Photo Library.

"[W]e know that the Earth's core is composed of an alloy of iron and other minerals.[11]"[2]

"A PKJKP [P wave, traversing the outer core K, and the inner core J, to emerge again as the P wave] traverses the inner core as a shear wave, so this is the direct evidence that the inner core is solid, because only in the solid material the shear wave can exist. In the liquid material, say water, only the compressional wave can travel through."[20]

Studying "archived data from about 20 large earthquakes, all monitored by an array of German seismic detectors back in the 1980s and '90s" has "reliably detected" a PKJKP wave in 2005, demonstrating that the inner core is solid.[21]

"The inner core, however, is solid because of the enormous pressure.[5]"[2]

The inner core "is a solid ball of superhot iron and nickel alloy about 760 miles (1,220 kilometers) in diameter. ... the inner core is, at 10,800 degrees Fahrenheit (6,000 degrees Celsius), as hot as the surface of the sun."[22]

"We know the Earth's inner core is composed mostly of iron".[23]

"The metal [iron] was subjected to more than 200 billion pascals of pressure".[22]

"[M]aterial within Earth's inner core is apparently distributed in a lopsided way ... The weakness of iron might lead crystallites in the inner core to flow and line up a certain way".[22]

"[T]he speed at which the inner core spun apparently fluctuated over the course of approximately decades between 1961 and 2007."[22]

"As the inner core cools, crystallizing iron releases impurities, sending lighter molten material into the liquid outer core. This upwelling, combined with the Earth's rotation, drives convection, forcing the molten metal into whirling vortices. These vortices stretch and twist magnetic field lines, creating Earth’s magnetic field. Currently, the center of the field, called an axis, emerges in the Arctic Ocean west of Ellesmere Island, about 300 miles (500 kilometers) from the geographic North Pole."[24]

"In the last decade, seismic waves from earthquakes revealed the inner core looks like a navel orange, bulging slightly more on its western half. Geoscientists recently explained the asymmetry by proposing a convective loop: The inner core might be crystallizing on one half and melting on the other."[24]

"The lopsided growth of the inner core makes convection in the outer core a little bit lopsided, and that then induces the geomagnetic field to have this lopsided or eccentric character too".[25]

"Magnetic particles trapped and aligned in rocks reveal that the magnetic north pole wandered around the Western Hemisphere over the past 10,000 years, and circled the Eastern Hemisphere before that — a result mirrored by the numerical test."[24]

"The key question for interesting ideas like translational instability is, 'Can we test it?' ... What we're doing is proposing a test, and we think it's a good test because people can go out and look for eccentricity in the rock record and that will either confirm or shoot down this idea."[25]

"Within less than 100 million years, everything that has been crystallized on the west will have melted on the east"[26]

Seismic "waves appear to travel faster through the inner core from north to south than from west to east. Seismic properties also seemed to vary between the Eastern and Western hemispheres of the globe."[27]

There is a "124-mile (200-km) thick layer of dense material detected on its surface."[27]

"[T]he inner core [may be] shifted slightly off-center, just to the east. This would put more pressure on the western side, where it would be closer to the center of the planet, and less pressure on the eastern side. The result could be a perpetually denser Western hemisphere and a continual flow of dense fluid from the east that eventually spreads out atop the entire inner core."[27]

"The inner core is basically regenerating itself. And superimposed on that is this overall cooling that makes the inner core bigger and bigger over time".[28]

"It is the first observational evidence that the inner core rotates at a variety of speeds with respect to the mantle...It also reconciles old discrepancies".[29]

"The inner core, on average, rotates eastward. At the speeds it travels, it might, on average, complete a revolution every 750 to 1,440 years. However, these speeds appear unstable, which makes it uncertain just how long it actually takes to finish a turn on its axis".[22]

"Earth’s magnetic field [...] is powered by circulation of iron-rich fluid in the core. [...] Earth’s solid inner core [may have] formed after 565 million years ago, saving a weakening magnetic field from collapse."[30]

"We don’t have many real benchmarks for the thermal history of our planet."[31]

"We know the interior was hotter than today, because all planets lose heat. But we don’t know what the average temperature was a billion years ago, compared with today. Pinning down when iron in the inner core began to crystallize could offer a window into how hot the interior of the planet was at the time."[31]

"Proposed ages have been anywhere from 500 million years ago to older than 2.5 billion years."[32]

"The interplay of the two layers drives the geodynamo, the circulation of iron-rich fluid that powers the magnetic field. That field, surrounding the planet, protects Earth from being battered by the solar wind, a constant flow of charged particles ejected by the sun. As the inner core cools and crystallizes, the composition of the remaining fluid changes; more buoyant liquid rises like a plume while the cooling crystals sink. That self-sustaining, density-driven circulation generates a strong magnetic field with two opposing poles, north and south, or polarity."[30]

"Traces of magnetism in ancient rocks suggest that Earth had a magnetic field as far back as 4.2 billion years ago. That earlier field was likely generated by heat within the planet driving circulation within the molten core. But over time, computer simulations suggest, the heat-driven circulation wouldn’t have been strong enough alone to continue to power a strong magnetic field. Instead, the field began to shut down, signaled in the rock record by weakening intensities and rapid polarity reversals over millions of years. And then, at some point, Earth’s inner core began to crystallize, jump-starting the geodynamo and generating a new, strong magnetic field."[30]

Magnetic "inclusions within a suite of rocks in Quebec, Canada, dating to about 565 million years ago [...] — needlelike iron-rich grains that align themselves with the orientation of the magnetic field that existed when the rocks formed — show that the planet’s magnetic field was extremely weak at that time. These paleo-intensity values were 10 times less than the present magnetic field, lower than anything observed previously. It suggested there’s something fundamental going on in the core."[32]

"Combined with previous studies that have found that the magnetic field was also rapidly reversing polarity during that time period, the new result indicates that Earth’s field may have been on the point of collapse about 565 million years ago. That suggests that the inner core hadn’t yet solidified."[30]

"Because the rocks bearing the magnetic grains didn’t cool instantaneously but over a long time, the data represent an average field intensity for about a 100,000-year period. [A] true, persistent signal [was found]. Computer simulations have suggested that the weak field phase may have lasted much longer, from about 900 million to 600 million years ago."[31]

If "the core is cooling quickly, that means it was very hot in the recent past, and that the lower mantle was very hot in the recent past — so hot that both were molten just 1 billion to 2 billion years ago. We absolutely do not see that in the rock record."[33]

Palaeointensity "data from the Ediacaran (~565 million years old) Sept-Îles intrusive suite measured on single plagioclase and clinopyroxene crystals that hosted single-domain magnetic inclusions [indicates] a time-averaged dipole moment of ~0.7 × 1022 A m2, the lowest value yet reported for the geodynamo from extant rocks and more than ten times smaller than the strength of the present-day field."[34]

"Palaeomagnetic directional studies of these crystals define two polarities with an unusually high angular dispersion (S = ~26°) at a low latitude. Together with 14 other directional data sets that suggest a hyper-reversal frequency, these extraordinary low field strengths suggest an anomalous field behaviour, consistent with predictions of geodynamo simulations, high thermal conductivities and an Ediacaran onset age of inner core growth."[34]


Abundance (atom fraction) of the chemical elements in Earth's upper continental crust as a function of atomic number. The rarest elements in the crust (shown in yellow) are not the heaviest, but are rather the siderophile (iron-loving) elements in the Goldschmidt classification of elements. These have been depleted by being relocated deeper into the Earth's core. Their abundance in meteoroid materials is relatively higher. Additionally, tellurium and selenium have been depleted from the crust due to formation of volatile hydrides. Credit: Gordon B. Haxel, Sara Boore, and Susan Mayfield from USGS.

Def. "an element that forms alloys easily with iron and [may be] concentrated in the Earth's core"[35] is called a siderophile.

Siderophile (metal-loving) chemical elements include W, P, Co, Ni, Mo, Re, and Ir.[36]

"The platinum group elements (PGE: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) and Re are highly siderophile elements (HSE)".[37]

"We believe that silicon is a major element - about 5% [of the Earth's inner core] by weight could be silicon dissolved into the iron-nickel alloys."[38]

"The innermost part of Earth is thought to be a solid ball with a radius of about 1,200 km (745 miles)."[39]

"It is mainly composed of iron, which makes up an estimated 85% of its weight, and nickel, which accounts for about 10% of the core."[39]

"These difficult experiments are really exciting because they can provide a window into what Earth's interior was like soon after it first formed, 4.5 billion years ago, when the core first started to separate from the rocky parts of Earth."[40]

"But other workers have recently suggested that oxygen might also be important in the core."[40]

"In a way, these two options [oxygen was sucked into the core that would leave the rocky mantle surrounding the core depleted of the element or a larger amount of silicon had been incorporated in Earth's core more than four billion years ago, that would have left the rest of the planet relatively oxygen rich] are real alternatives that depend a lot on the conditions prevailing when Earth's core first began to form."[40]


  1. The core of the Earth is not the origin of the Earth's magnetic field.

See also[edit]


  1. "geognosy". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 2015-02-19.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 "Geophysics, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. October 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
  3. JM Watson (7 August 2012). "Historical perspective [This dynamic Earth]". Reston, Virginia USA: USGS. Retrieved 2014-12-01.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Alan G. Jones, Jaroslava Plomerova, Toivo Korja, Forough Sodoudi, and Wim Spakman (November 2010). "Europe from the bottom up: A statistical examination of the central and northern European lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary from comparing seismological and electromagnetic observations". Lithos 120 (1-2): 14-29. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2010.07.013. Retrieved 2014-12-01. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Lowrie, William (2004). Fundamentals of Geophysics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-46164-2.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Eugene C. Robertson (14 January 2011). "The Interior of the Earth". Reston, Virginia USA: USGS. Retrieved 2014-12-01.
  7. 7.0 7.1 U.S. Geological Survey (July 24, 2012). "Earthquake Glossary - asthenosphere". Reston, Virginia, USA: U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2014-12-01.
  8. The Geological Society (2012). "The Crust and Lithosphere". United Kingdom: The Geological Society. Retrieved 2014-12-01.
  9. Manfriedt Muundjua, Rodger J. Hart, Stuart A. Gilder, Laurent Carporzen, Armand Galdeano (September 2007). "Magnetic imaging of the Vredefort impact crater, South Africa". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 261 (3-4): 456-68. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.07.044. Retrieved 2014-12-01. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Andrija Mohorovicic' (July 24, 2012). "Moho". Menlo Park, California USA: USGS. Retrieved 2014-12-01.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Jean-Paul Poirier (2000). Introduction to the Physics of the Earth's Interior. Cambridge Topics in Mineral Physics & Chemistry. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66313-X.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Andy Coghlan (7 June 2017). "There's as much water in Earth's mantle as in all the oceans". New Scientist. Retrieved 2017-06-10.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Fei Hongzhan (7 June 2017). "There's as much water in Earth's mantle as in all the oceans". New Scientist. Retrieved 2017-06-10.
  14. Steven Jacobsen (7 June 2017). "There's as much water in Earth's mantle as in all the oceans". New Scientist. Retrieved 2017-06-10.
  15. Graham Pearson (7 June 2017). "There's as much water in Earth's mantle as in all the oceans". New Scientist. Retrieved 2017-06-10.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Jonathan Amos (19 December 2016). "Iron 'jet stream' detected in Earth's outer core". London, England: BBC. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  17. Chris Finlay (19 December 2016). "Iron 'jet stream' detected in Earth's outer core". London, England: BBC. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Phil Livermore (19 December 2016). "Iron 'jet stream' detected in Earth's outer core". London, England: BBC. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  19. Rainer Hollerbach (19 December 2016). "Iron 'jet stream' detected in Earth's outer core". London, England: BBC. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  20. Aimin Cao (April 14, 2005). "Finally, a Solid Look at Earth's Core". Live Science. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  21. Robert Roy Britt (April 14, 2005). "Finally, a Solid Look at Earth's Core". Live Science. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 Charles Q. Choi (May 13, 2013). "Earth's Rotating Inner Core Shifts Its Speed". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  23. Arianna Gleason (May 13, 2013). "Earth's Rotating Inner Core Shifts Its Speed". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Becky Oskin (July 18, 2012). "Why Earth's Magnetic Field Is Wonky". LiveScience. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Peter Olson (July 18, 2012). "Why Earth's Magnetic Field Is Wonky". LiveScience. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  26. Thierry Alboussiere (August 4, 2010). "Earth's Inner Core Might Be on the Move". Live Science. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Lynne Peeples (August 4, 2010). "Earth's Inner Core Might Be on the Move". Live Science. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  28. Michael Bergman (August 4, 2010). "Earth's Inner Core Might Be on the Move". Live Science. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  29. Hrvoje Tkalcic (May 13, 2013). "Earth's Rotating Inner Core Shifts Its Speed". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 Carolyn Gramling (March 2, 2019). "Earth’s core may have hardened just in time to save its magnetic field". Science News 195 (4): 13. Retrieved 13 March 2019. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Peter Olson (March 2, 2019). "Earth’s core may have hardened just in time to save its magnetic field". Science News 195 (4): 13. Retrieved 13 March 2019. 
  32. 32.0 32.1 John Tarduno (March 2, 2019). "Earth’s core may have hardened just in time to save its magnetic field". Science News 195 (4): 13. Retrieved 13 March 2019. 
  33. Peter Driscoll (March 2, 2019). "Earth’s core may have hardened just in time to save its magnetic field". Science News 195 (4): 13. Retrieved 13 March 2019. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 Richard K. Bono, John A. Tarduno, Francis Nimmo & Rory D. Cottrell (28 January 2019). "Young inner core inferred from Ediacaran ultra-low geomagnetic field intensity". Nature Geoscience 12: 143–147. Retrieved 13 March 2019. 
  35. "siderophile". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 2015-02-19.
  36. Horton E. Newsom (13 October 1986). W. K. Hartmann, R. J. Phillips, and G. J. Taylor, ed. Constraints on the origin of the Moon from the abundance of molybdenum and other siderophile elements, In: Origin of the moon. Kona, HI USA: Lunar and Planetary Institute. pp. 203–29. Retrieved 2016-10-31.CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link)
  37. C.W. Dale, K.W. Burton, D.G. Pearson, A. Gannoun, O. Alard, T.W. Arglesb, and I.J. Parkinson (2009). "The behaviour of highly siderophile elements in oceanic crust during subduction: whole-rock and mineral-scale insights from a high-pressure terrain". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73 (5): 1394-416. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2008.11.036. Retrieved 2016-10-31. 
  38. Eiji Ohtani (10 January 2017). "New candidate for 'missing element' in Earth's core". London, England: BBC. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  39. 39.0 39.1 Rebecca Morelle (10 January 2017). "New candidate for 'missing element' in Earth's core". London, England: BBC. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 Simon Redfern (10 January 2017). "New candidate for 'missing element' in Earth's core". London, England: BBC. Retrieved 2017-01-11.

External links[edit]