Fats[edit | edit source]
Def. specialized "animal tissue with a high oil content, used for long-term storage of energy" is called fat.
Oils may be animal fats, vegetable oils, or petrochemicals in origin, and may be volatile or non-volatile.
Analysis of black walnut fat content in its oil showed the most prevalent fatty acids are linoleic acid (33.8%), followed (in the same units) by oleic acid (15.3%), linolenic acid (2.7%), palmitic acid (1.9%), and stearic acid (1.5%) (USDA table).
Black walnut kernels are 5% water, 59% fat, 24% protein, and 10% carbohydrates (table). In a 100 gram reference amount providing 619 calories, the kernels supply several dietary minerals in rich content (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV), including manganese (186% DV) and phosphorus (73% DV) among others, and the B vitamins, B6 (45% DV) and pantothenic acid (33% DV) (table). Black walnut kernels are a moderate source of vitamin E (14% DV).
Essential oils[edit | edit source]
Def. "a volatile oil, used to make perfumes and flavourings, especially one having the characteristic odour of the plant from which it is obtained" is called an essential oil.
Essential oils are volatile and liquid aroma compounds from natural sources, usually plants. They are not oils in a strict sense, but often share with oils a poor solubility in water. Essential oils often have an odor and are therefore used in food flavoring and perfumery. They are usually prepared by fragrance extraction techniques (such as distillation, cold pressing, or solvent extraction). Essential oils are distinguished from aroma oils (essential oils and aroma compounds in an oily solvent), infusions in a vegetable oil, absolutes, and concretes. Typically, essential oils are highly complex mixtures of often hundreds of individual aroma compounds.
Essential oils of Vitex agnus-cactus have been found in the fruits and in the leaves: the oil of leaves, unripe and ripe fruits differ in compounds, 50 compounds were identified in the oil of unripe fruits, 51 compounds in the oil of ripe fruits and 46 compounds in the oil of the leaves, 1,8-cineole and sabinene are the main monoterpene components and beta-caryophyllene is the major sesquiterpene compound found in the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus.
Agar oils[edit | edit source]
Agar oil distilled from agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis). Highly prized for its fragrance.
- Ajwain oil, distilled from the leaves of (Carum copticum). Oil contains 35–65% thymol.
- Angelica root oil, distilled from the Angelica archangelica.
Anise oils[edit | edit source]
Anise oil, from the Pimpinella anisum, rich odor of licorice
- Asafoetida oil, used to flavor food.
- Balsam of Peru, from the Myroxylon, used in food and drink for flavoring, in perfumes and toiletries for fragrance
- Basil oil, used in making perfumes, as well as in aromatherapy
- Bay leaf oil is used in perfumery and aromatherapy
- Bergamot oil, used in aromatherapy and in perfumes.
- Black pepper oil is distilled from the berries of Piper nigrum.
- Buchu oil, made from the buchu shrub. Considered toxic and no longer widely used. Formerly used medicinally.
- Birch oil used in aromatherapy
- Camphor oil Cinnamomum camphora used in cosmetics and household cleaners.
- Cannabis flower essential oil, used as a flavoring in foods, primarily candy and beverages. Also used as a scent in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, and candles.
- Calamodin oil or calamansi essential oil comes from a citrus tree in the Philippines extracted via cold press or steam distillation.
- Caraway seed oil, used a flavoring in foods. Also used in mouthwashes, toothpastes, etc. as a flavoring agent.
- Cardamom seed oil, used in aromatherapy. Extracted from seeds of subspecies of Zingiberaceae (ginger). Also used as a fragrance in soaps, perfumes, etc.
- Carrot seed oil, used in aromatherapy.
- Cedar oil (or cedarwood oil), primarily used in perfumes and fragrances.
Chamomile oils[edit | edit source]
- Chamomile oil, there are many varieties of chamomile but only two are used in aromatherapy, Roman and German. German chamomile contains a higher level of the chemical azulene
- Calamus oil, Acorus calamus, Used in perfumery and formerly as a food additive
- Cinnamon oil, used for flavoring
- Cistus ladanifer leaves and flowers used in perfumery.
- Citron oil, used in Ayurveda and perfumery.
- Citronella oil, from a plant related to lemon grass is used as an insect repellent
Clary sage oils[edit | edit source]
Sometimes called muscatel. Made by steam or water distillation of Salvia sclarea flowering tops and foliage. Yields range from 0.7 to 1.5%. A pale yellow to yellow liquid with a herbaceous odor and a winelike bouquet. Produced in large quantities in France, Russia and Morocco. The oil contains linalyl acetate, linalool and other terpene alcohols (sclareol), as well as their acetates.
Clary Sage oil is from Salvia sclarea, used in perfumery and as an additive flavoring in some alcoholic beverages.
- Clove oil used in perfumery and medicinally.
Coconut oils[edit | edit source]
Coconut oil contains only trace amounts of fatty acids (about 0.03 % by mass). Instead it contains esters. In the following content, the expressions "fatty acids" and "acid" below refer to esters rather than carboxylic acids.
The approximate concentration of fatty acids in coconut oil (midpoint of range in source):
|Type of fatty acid||Saturation||Percentage|
|caprylic acid||saturated C8||7|
|capric acid||saturated C10||8|
|lauric acid||saturated C12||48|
|myristic acid||saturated C14||16|
|palmitic acid||saturated C16||9.5|
|oleic acid||monounsaturated C18:1||6.5|
Coconut oil is used for skin, food, and hair.
Coffee oils[edit | edit source]
Coffee oil is used to flavor food. Because the coffee grounds are in direct contact with the water, all the coffee oils remain in the liquid, making it a stronger beverage.
- Coriander oil
- Costmary oil (bible leaf oil), Tanacetum balsamita, formerly used medicinally in Europe; still used as such in southwest Asia. Discovered to contain up to 12.5% of the toxin β-thujone.
- Costus root oil
- Cranberry seed oil, equally high in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, primarily used in the cosmetic industry.
- Cubeb oil, used to flavor foods.
- Cumin seed oil/black seed oil, used as a flavor, particularly in meat products
- Fokienia, Cypress oil, used in cosmetics
- Cypriol oil
- Curry leaf oil, used to flavor food.
Dalmatian sage oils[edit | edit source]
Also called English, Garden, and True sage oil. Made by steam distillation of Salvia officinalis partially dried leaves. Yields range from 0.5 to 1.0%. A colorless to yellow liquid with a warm camphoraceous, thujone-like odor and sharp and bitter taste. The main components of the oil are thujone (50%), camphor, pinene, and cineol.
Davana oils[edit | edit source]
Davana oil, from the Artemisia pallens, is used as a perfume ingredient.
- Dill oil, chemically almost identical to Caraway seed oil. High carvone content.
- Elecampane oil
- Elemi oil, used as a perfume and fragrance ingredient. Comes from the oleoresins of Canarium luzonicum and Canarium ovatum which are common in the Philippines.
Eucalyptus oils[edit | edit source]
Eucalyptus oil, historically used as a germicide.
- Fennel seed oil
- Fenugreek oil, used for cosmetics from ancient times.
- Fir oil
- Frankincense oil, used in aromatherapy and in perfumes.
- Galangal oil, used to flavor food.
- Galbanum oil, used in perfumery.
- Garlic oil is distilled from Allium sativum.
- Geranium oil, also referred to as geranol. Used in herbal medicine, aromatherapy, and perfumery.
- Ginger oil, used medicinally in many cultures, and has been studied extensively as a nausea treatment, where it was found more effective than placebo.
- Goldenrod oil used in herbal medicine, Solidago, including treatment of urological problems.
- Grapefruit oil, extracted from the peel of the fruit. Used in aromatherapy. Contains 90% limonene.
Greek sage oils[edit | edit source]
Made by steam distillation of Salvia triloba leaves. Grows in Greece and Turkey. Yields range from 0.25% to 4%. The oil contains camphor, thujone, and pinene, the dominant component being eucalyptol.
- Henna oil, used in body art. Known to be dangerous to people with certain enzyme deficiencies. Pre-mixed pastes are considered dangerous, primarily due to adulterants.
- Helichrysum oil
- Hickory nut oil
- Horseradish oil
- Idaho-grown Tansy
- Jasmine oil, used for its flowery fragrance.
Judaean sage oils[edit | edit source]
Made by steam distillation of Salvia judaica leaves. The oil contains mainly cubebene and ledol.
- Juniper berry oil, used as a flavor.
- Laurus nobilis
Lavender oils[edit | edit source]
Lavender oil is used primarily as a fragrance.
Two forms are distinguished, lavender flower oil, a colorless oil, insoluble in water, having a density of 0.885 g/mL; and lavender spike oil, a distillate from the herb Lavandula latifolia, having density 0.905 g/mL. Like all essential oils, it is not a pure compound; it is a complex mixture of phytochemicals, including linalool and linalyl acetate.
Lavender oil has long been used as a perfume, for aromatherapy, and for skin applications. Lavender oil is used in massage therapy as a way of inducing relaxation through direct skin contact.
Lavender oil is poisonous, due to the components linalyl acetate and linalool, and should not be ingested. In Australia, lavender oil is one of the many essential oils that have been increasingly causing cases of poisoning, mostly of children. In the period 2014-2018 there were 271 reported cases in New South Wales, accounting for 6.1% of essential oil poisoning incidents.
Other potential adverse effects include a sedative effect and contact dermatitis as an allergic reaction, possibly resulting from major lavender oil constituents: camphor, terpinen-4-ol, linalool and linalyl acetate.
- Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. Unlike other essential oils, lemon oil is usually cold pressed. Used in cosmetics.
- Lemongrass. Lemongrass is a highly fragrant grass from India. The oil is very useful for insect repellent.
- Litsea cubeba oil, lemon-like scent, often used in perfumes and aromatherapy.
- Mandarin orange
- Melissa oil (Lemon balm), sweet smelling oil
- Mint oil, used in flavoring toothpastes, mouthwashes and pharmaceuticals, as well as in aromatherapy, Mentha arvensis oil.
- Moringa oleifera oil, can be used directly on the skin and hair. It can also be used in soap and as a base for other cosmetics.
- Mountain Savory, Winter savory.
- Mugwort oil, used in ancient times for medicinal and magical purposes. Currently considered to be a neurotoxin.
- Mustard oil from mixing seeds with water, containing a high percentage of allyl isothiocyanate or other isothiocyanates, depending on the species of mustard
- Myrrh oil, warm, slightly musty smell.
- Myrtle, Myrtus communis.
- Neem oil or neem tree oil
- Neroli is produced from the blossom of the bitter orange tree.
- Nutmeg oil
- Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled. Consists of 90% d-Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods.
- Oregano oil, contains thymol and carvacrol
- Orris oil is extracted from the roots of the Florentine iris (Iris florentina), Iris germanica and Iris pallida. It is used as a flavouring agent, in perfume, and medicinally.
- Palo Santo, Bursera graveolens,
- Parsley oil, used in soaps, detergents, colognes, cosmetics and perfumes, especially men's fragrances.
- Patchouli oil, very common ingredient in perfumes.
- Perilla essential oil, extracted from the leaves of the perilla plant. Contains about 50–60% perillaldehyde.
- Pennyroyal oil, Mentha pulegium, highly toxic. It is abortifacient and can even in small quantities cause acute liver and lung damage.
- Peppermint oil
- Pine oil, used as a disinfectant, and in aromatherapy.
- Ravensara aromatica
- Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana.
Roman Chamomile oils[edit | edit source]
Chamomile essential oil contains sesquiterpenes, terpene lactones (including the blue compound, chamazulene), acetylene derivatives, and polyphenols, which contribute to the fragrance and may be extracted individually.
- Rose oil, distilled from rose petals, used primarily as a fragrance.
- Rosehip oil, distilled from the seeds of the Rosa rubiginosa or Rosa mosqueta.
- Rosemary oil, distilled from the flowers of Rosmarinus officinalis.
- Rosewood oil, used primarily for skin care applications.
Myrrh oils[edit | edit source]
Myrrh is mentioned as a rare perfume.
Sandalwood oils[edit | edit source]
Sandalwood oil is used primarily as a fragrance: pleasant and woody.
- Sassafras oil, from sassafras root bark. Used in aromatherapy, soap-making, perfumes, and the like. Formerly used as a spice, and as the primary flavoring of root beer, inter alia. Sassafras oil is heavily regulated in the United States due to its high safrole content.
- Savory oil, from Satureja species. Used in aromatherapy, cosmetic and soap-making applications.
- Schisandra chinensis oil
Spanish sage oils[edit | edit source]
Made by steam distillation of Salvia lavandulifolia leaves and twigs. A colorless to pale yellow liquid with the characteristic camphoraceous odor. Unlike Dalmatian sage oil, Spanish sage oil contains no or only traces of thujone; camphor and eucalyptol are the major components.
- Spearmint oil, often used in flavoring mouthwash and chewing gum, among other applications.
- Spruce oil
- Star anise oil, highly fragrant oil using in cooking. Also used in perfumery and soaps, has been used in toothpastes, mouthwashes, and skin creams. 90% of the world's star anise crop is used in the manufacture of Tamiflu, a drug used to treat influenza, and is hoped to be useful for H5N1 (avian flu).
- Tarragon oil, distilled from Artemisia dracunculus
Tea tree oils[edit | edit source]
Tea tree oil is extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia.
- Thyme oil
- Tsuga belongs to the pine tree family.
Turmeric oils[edit | edit source]
Valerian oils[edit | edit source]
The chief constituent of Valerian is a yellowish-green to brownish-yellow oil present in the dried root, varying in content from 0.5 to 2.0%. This variation in quantity may be determined by location; a dry, stony soil yields a root richer in oil than moist, fertile soil. The volatile oils that form the active ingredient are pungent, somewhat reminiscent of well-matured cheese, though some people remain partial to the earthy scent, others find it unpleasant, comparing the odor to that of unwashed feet.
- Warionia, used as a perfume ingredient
- Vetiver oil (khus oil) a thick, amber oil, primarily from India. Used as a fixative in perfumery, and in aromatherapy.
- Western red cedar
Yarrow oils[edit | edit source]
Yarrow can be used for dying wool as it contains apigenin and luteolin. Depending on the mordant the color may be green to yellow.
The dark blue essential oil of yarrow contains chemicals called proazulenes.
Lipids[edit | edit source]
Def. any "of a group of organic compounds including the fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides, characterized by being insoluble in water, and account for most of the fat present in the human body" is called a lipid.
Lipids can be classified by the way that they are made by an organism, their chemical structure and their limited solubility in water compared to oils, have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are considerably lacking in oxygen compared to other organic compounds and minerals; they tend to be relatively nonpolar molecules, but may include both polar and nonpolar regions as in the case of phospholipids and steroids.
Petroleum[edit | edit source]
Def. a "flammable liquid ranging in color from clear to very dark brown and black, consisting mainly of hydrocarbons, occurring naturally in deposits under the Earth's surface" is called a petroleum.
Def. "any compound derived from petroleum or natural gas" is called a petrochemical.
Crude oil, or petroleum, and its refined components, collectively termed petrochemicals, originates from ancient fossilized organic materials, such as zooplankton and algae, which geochemical processes convert into oil.
A 42-US-gallon (35 imp gal; 160 L) barrel of crude oil produces approximately 10 US gallons (8.3 imp gal; 38 L) of diesel, 4 US gallons (3.3 imp gal; 15 L) of jet fuel, 19 US gallons (16 imp gal; 72 L) of gasoline, 7 US gallons (5.8 imp gal; 26 L) of other products, 3 US gallons (2.5 imp gal; 11 L) split between heavy fuel oil and liquified petroleum gases, and 2 US gallons (1.7 imp gal; 7.6 L) of heating oil. The total production of a barrel of crude into various products results in an increase to 45 US gallons (37 imp gal; 170 L).
Petrochemicals are the refined components of crude oil
Cooking oils[edit | edit source]
Cooking oils are derived either from animal fat, as butter, lard and other types, or plant oils from the olive, corn (maize), sunflowers and many other species.
Animal oils[edit | edit source]
Whale oil is preferred for lubricating clocks, because it does not evaporate, leaving dust, although its use was banned in the USA in 1980.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, whale oil was commonly used for lamps, which was replaced with natural gas and then electricity.
Vegetable oils[edit | edit source]
|Almond oil||216 °C (421 °F)|
|Avocado oil||11.6||70.6||52-66||13.5||1||12.5||12.5:1||250 °C (482 °F)|
|Brazil nut||24.8||32.7||31.3||42.0||0.1||41.9||419:1||208 °C (406 °F)|
|Canola oil||7.4||63.3||61.8||28.1||9.1||18.6||2:1||238 °C (460 °F)|
|Cocoa butter oil|
|Coconut oil||82.5||6.3||6||1.7||175 °C (347 °F)|
|Corn oil||12.9||27.6||27.3||54.7||1||58||58:1||232 °C (450 °F)|
|Cottonseed oil||25.9||17.8||19||51.9||1||54||54:1||216 °C (420 °F)|
|Grape seed oil||10.5||14.3||14.3||74.7||-||74.7||very high||216 °C (421 °F)|
|Hemp oil||7.0||9.0||9.0||82.0||22.0||54.0||2.5:1||166 °C (330 °F)|
|Linseed oil||9.0||18.4||18||67.8||53||13||0.2:1||107 °C (225 °F)|
|Olive oil||13.8||73.0||71.3||10.5||0.7||9.8||14:1||193 °C (380 °F)|
|Palm oil||49.3||37.0||40||9.3||0.2||9.1||45.5:1||235 °C (455 °F)|
|Palm oil||Hydrogenated fat||88.2||5.7||0|
|Peanut oil||20.3||48.1||46.5||31.5||0||31.4||very high||232 °C (450 °F)|
|Rice bran oil||232 °C (450 °F)|
|Safflower oil||7.5||75.2||75.2||12.8||0||12.8||very high||212 °C (414 °F)|
|Soybean oil||Partially hydrogenated||14.9||43.0||42.5||37.6||2.6||34.9||13.4:1|
|Soybean oil||15.6||22.8||22.6||57.7||7||51||7.3:1||238 °C (460 °F)|
|St. John's oil|
|Sunflower oil||10.3||19.5||19.5||65.7||0||65.7||very high||227 °C (440 °F)|
|Sunflower oil (< 60% linoleic)||10.1||45.4||45.3||40.1||0.2||39.8||199:1|
|Sunflower oil (> 70% oleic)||9.9||83.7||82.6||3.8||0.2||3.6||18:1||232 °C (450 °F)|
|Walnut oil||unrefined||9.1||22.8||22.2||63.3||10.4||52.9||5:1||160 °C (320 °F)|
|The nutritional values are expressed as percent (%) by mass of total fat.|
Annatto oils[edit | edit source]
Annatto oil is also rich in tocotrienols, beta-carotene, essential oils, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, and vitamin C.
Bixa orellana is a shrub native to a region between northern South America and Mexico. Bixa orellana is best known as the source of annatto, a natural orange-red condiment (also called achiote or bijol) obtained from the waxy arils that cover its seeds.
Calendula oils[edit | edit source]
According to sixteenth-century Englishman John Gerard, every proper soup of Dutch cuisine in his era would include Calendula petals.
The petals are edible and can be used fresh in salads or dried and used to color cheese or as a substitute for saffron. It can be used to add color to soups, stews, poultry dishes, custards and liquors.
The common name for Calendula officinalis in Britain is 'pot-marigold,' named so because of its use in broths and soups.
The petals and pollens of Calendula officinalis contain triterpenoid esters and the carotenoids: flavoxanthin and auroxanthin (antioxidants and the source of the yellow-orange coloration). The leaves and stems contain other carotenoids, mostly lutein (80%), zeaxanthin (5%), and beta-carotene. Plant extracts are also widely used by cosmetics, presumably due to presence of compounds such as saponins, resins, and essential oils.
The flowers of Calendula officinalis contain flavonol glycosides, triterpene oligoglycosides, oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, saponins, and a sesquiterpene glucoside. Calendula flowers are a rich source of lutein, containing 29.8 mg/100g.
Canola oils[edit | edit source]
The official definition of canola is "Seeds of the genus Brassica (Brassica napus, Brassica rapa, or Brassica juncea) from which the oil shall contain less than 2% erucic acid in its fatty acid profile and the solid component shall contain less than 30 micromoles of any one or any mixture of 3-butenyl glucosinolate, 4-pentenyl glucosinolate, 2-hydroxy-3 butenyl glucosinolate, and 2-hydroxy- 4-pentenyl glucosinolate per gram of air-dry, oil-free solid."
Rapeseed oil had a distinctive taste and a disagreeable greenish color, due to the presence of chlorophyll and contained a high concentration of erucic acid.
Canola was bred from rapeseed cultivars of B. napus and B. rapa at the University of Manitoba, Canada, having then a different nutritional profile than present-day oil in addition to much less erucic acid. Canola was originally a trademark name of the Rapeseed Association of Canada, and the name was a condensation of "Can" from Canada and "OLA " meaning "Oil, low acid", but is now a generic term for edible varieties of rapeseed oil in North America and Australasia. The change in name serves to distinguish it from natural rapeseed oil, which has much higher erucic acid content.
Canola oil is considered safe for human consumption, and has a relatively low amount of saturated fat, a substantial amount of monounsaturated fat, with roughly a 2:1 mono- to polyunsaturated fats ratio.
"Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 1 1/2 tablespoons (19 grams) of canola oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the unsaturated fat content in canola oil. To achieve this possible benefit, canola oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day. One serving of this product contains [x] grams of canola oil."
There is a substantial reduction in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and an increase in tocopherol levels and improved insulin sensitivity, compared with other sources of dietary fat.
Health effects from consuming plant oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid, including canola, stated that there was moderate benefit for lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, and type-2 diabetes.
|Compound||Family||% of total|
|Alpha-linolenic acid||ω-3||11% 9%|
|Saturated fatty acids||7%|
Paintings[edit | edit source]
The oldest known extant oil paintings date from 650 AD.
Lamp oils[edit | edit source]
Whale oil is preferred for lubricating clocks, because it does not evaporate, leaving dust, although its use was banned in the USA in 1980.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, whale oil was commonly used for lamps, which was replaced with natural gas and then electricity.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
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Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Eric Braverman (1979). "Orthomolecular Medicine and Megavitamin Therapy: Future and Philosophy". Orthomolecular Psychiatry 8 (4): 265-72. http://www.orthomolecular.org/library/jom/1979/pdf/1979-v08n04-p265.pdf. Retrieved 2014-08-20.