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Aquaculture broadly refers to the cultivation of aquatic flora and fauna in a controlled and modified environment to specifically enhance the growth, quantity and . Aquaculture is categorised in any number of ways, a common one being based on water salinity. Others take the species cultivated or extent of human control exerted into consideration. Based on water salinity the three categories include

  • Freshwater (cultivation in inland freshwater rivers, ponds,lakes or aquarium)
  • Mariculture (In the sea with the use of cages and pens)
  • Brackishwater ( in the estuaries where salinity fluctuation occurs between 5-25 parts per thousand (ppt)




Forms of Aquaculture[edit]


Shrimp and Prawn farming[edit]

Bivalve Culture[edit]


Based on the extent of control

  • Extensive (with very little human interference, such as no artificial feed or aeration)
  • Semi-intensive (some form of interference through addition of commercial pelleted feed, or fertilization of water body to enhance the productivity of the system, and the stocking density is not very high)
  • Intensive ( All factors are controlled including, aeration, use of commercial pellet feed and a very high stocking density)

Prawn farming[edit]

Sea prawn farming may be a lucrative business but the project requires a large track of land, access to sea water and sea water piping for irrigation and waste water management. Generally there are three stages involving the use of sea water. First, sea water has to be pumped into a retention pond with compartments for sediment to settle and to filter off impurities. Next, the treated sea water is transferred into breeding ponds which are usually divided into smaller cells of half a hectare in size. Finally, the waste water from each cell has to be treated before being discharged into the river or before being re-used.

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