Reproductive health/Glandular system

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Exocrinology[edit | edit source]

Exocrine organs are glands with ducts.

Mammary gland and montgomery's glands are two exocrine organs.

Endocrinology[edit | edit source]

Endocrine organs are ductless glands.

Hypothalamus[edit | edit source]

The hypothalamus regulates hormone cycles. Neuroestradiol,[1] gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) ,[2] and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH)[2] are produced in the hypothalamus. Glucocorticoids produced by the adrenal gland due to stress promote GnIH and inhibit GnRh.[2]

Pituitary (hypophysis)[edit | edit source]

There is a link connecting the posterior pituitary to the anterior by a vein and to the hypothalamus.

Anterior (adenohypophysis)[edit | edit source]

Prolactin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) are produced in the Anterior hypothalamus (adenohypophysis). MSH is responsible for pigments.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) regulates the thyroid gland: its growth and its functions.[3]

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACSH) regulates the adrenal gland and provides its cue for the hormone regulation of cortisol.[3]

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is responsible for estrogen.[3] Lutenizing hormone (LH) is also responsible for estrogen, along with testosterone, and progestin.[3] FSH and LH are gonadotrophins, and their production is controlled by either GnIH or GnRh.[4]

Somatotropin is responsible for overall growth.[3]

Posterior (neurohypophysis)[edit | edit source]

The hypothalamus regulates the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis), which in turn regulates the anterior pituitary.[3] Oxytocin and vassopressin (ADH) are made here in the neurohypophysis.

Adrenal glands[edit | edit source]

Glucocorticoids are produced by the adrenal glands.[2]

Corpus luteum[edit | edit source]

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine organ that produces progesterone which is signaled by prolactin.[5]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Adetunji (December 2013), "The brain also produces the sex hormone oestrogen", JCEM, The Conversation, doi:10.1210/jc.2013-2140Adetunji (December 2013), "The brain also produces the sex hormone oestrogen", The Journal of Neuroscience, The Conversation, doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3878-13.2013
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Sanders (June 2009), "Stress puts double whammy on reproductive system, fertility", PNAS, University of California - Berkeley
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 "Pituitary gland". Britannica. (2012).
  4. Sanders (December 2009), "New human reproductive hormone could lead to novel contraceptives", PLoS ONE, University of California - Berkeley
  5. "Prolactin". Encyclopedia Britannica. (2012).

External links[edit | edit source]