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The composite image shows a classification of galaxies. Credit: Ville Koistinen.

Galaxy evolution is a lecture about a specific theory from astrophysics for the origin and accumulated changes of galaxies. It is an offering from the radiation astronomy department.

You are free to take this quiz based on galaxy evolution at any time.

To improve your score, read and study the lecture, the links contained within, listed under See also, External links, and in the {{stars resources}} template. This should give you adequate background to get 100 %.

As a "learning by doing" resource, this quiz helps you to assess your knowledge and understanding of the information, and it is a quiz you may take over and over as a learning resource to improve your knowledge, understanding, test-taking skills, and your score.

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Enjoy learning by doing!

Quiz[edit | edit source]


1 Yes or No, For the elliptical galaxies, the classification En, where "n=1, 2, .... , 7 indicates the ellipticity of the image without the decimal point.


2 Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Intracluster medium - A
Mayall's object - B
M82 PAHs - C
Milky Way bubbles - D
Local Hot Bubble - E
Stephan's Quintet - F
UGC 8335 - G
Arp 272 - H
Hubble Interacting Galaxy UGC 8335 (2008-04-24).jpg

Outflow from M82 galaxy.jpg

Stephan's Quintet with annotation.jpg

Local bubble.jpg

800 nasa structure renderin2.jpg

A2199 Xray Optical2.jpg

Hubble Interacting Galaxy NGC 6050 (2008-04-24).jpg

Hubble Interacting Galaxy Arp 148 (2008-04-24).jpg


3 Yes or No, The formation of exponential disks is an outstanding problem in cosmogony.


4 Complete the text:

Yarkovsky–O'Keefe–Radzievskii–Paddack (YORP)

lead many objects to

and then re-accrete.

5 Complete the text:

Match up the image with the star-forming regions:
Messier 17 - A
RCW 79 - B
Flame Nebula - C
Cone Nebula - D
NGC 1999 - E
R136 - F
HH 46/47 - G
RCW 108 - H
Carina Nebula - I
NGC 3582 - J
NGC 1097 - K
Hubble-X - L
NGC 6334 - M
Arp 220 - N
Sh 2-106 - O
Rho Ophiuchi complex - P
Ghost Head Nebula - Q
NGC 2366 - R
NGC 2363 - S
Dragonfish nebula - T
Rho Ophiuchi.jpg



Cone Nebula (NGC 2264) Star-Forming Pillar of Gas and Dust.jpg


Wide Field Imager view of the star formation region NGC 3582.jpg

Star-forming region S106 (captured by the Hubble Space Telescope).tif

Wide-field view of the star-forming region around the Herbig-Haro object HH 46 47.jpg

Messier 17.jpg

Hubble Interacting Galaxy Arp 220 (2008-04-24).jpg

Small Section of the Carina Nebula.jpg

Grand star-forming region R136 in NGC 2070 (captured by the Hubble Space Telescope).jpg

Glowing Gas Cloud in the Star-Forming Region of Galaxy NGC 6822 (Hubble).jpg

Spectacular star-forming region known as the Flame Nebula, or NGC 2024.jpg

Hubble view of NGC 2366 - Heic1207a.jpg


Star-forming Region RCW 108 in Ara.jpg

Star-Forming "Bubble" RCW 79.jpg


The star-forming Cat’s Paw Nebula through ArTeMiS’s eyes.jpg


6 Yes or No, While fusion may be the primary mechanism by which first generation stars produce energy, repulsion between like nucleons may cause neutron emission from a collapsed core.


7 Which of the following may be true regarding the interacting galaxies of UGC 9618?

the pair of galaxies appear to be interacting rather than a mere galaxy double
a lack of luminous sources at any wavelength in the interaction volume
asymmetry is approximately centered on the interaction volume
a common origin originally between them
the large X-ray output surrounding primarily the more central portion of the edge-on galaxy suggests a very high temperature galactic coronal cloud
the infrared portion of the composite image with ultraviolet strongly suggests that the edge-on galaxy is much cooler in general than the face-on galaxy
orange and yellow astronomy reveal that the edge-on galaxy may be composed of older or cooler stars
VV340A appears to be more than 33 % involved in the interaction

8 True or False, In the evolution of elements much more material has gone into the even-numbered elements than into those which are odd.


9 Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Einstein ring - A
stellar nebula - B
Andromeda galaxy - C
Triplet galaxies interacting - D
Hubble galaxies - E
Dark matter halo simulation - F
Fairall 9 (Seyfert galaxy in X-rays) - G
Tycho Brahe observatory, remotely controlled telescope, captured galaxy - H
Andromeda's Colorful Rings.jpg


A Horseshoe Einstein Ring from Hubble.JPG

SWIFT J0123.9-5846 Hard X-ray.jpg

Dark matter halo.png

AmCyc Nebula - Stellar Nebula.jpg

Dorian Gray.jpg

Cosmic Interactions.jpg


10 It is important to study the stellar populations of nearby galaxies in order to understand the processes of galaxy



Spiral Galaxy M100.jpg
The galaxy image at the right has approximately which type of rotational symmetry??

one-fold - ⊙
two-fold - ⊖
three-fold - ▲
four-fold - ◈
five-fold - ✪
six-fold - ✱

12 True or False, With respect to the core of the Sun, the high-hydrogen, low-iron model was suddenly adopted without opposition.


13 True or False, Cosmogony is any scientific theory concerning the coming into existence, or origin, of the cosmos or universe, or about how what sentient beings perceive as "reality" came to be.


14 Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion may be connected by which of the following?

means for concentrating actinide elements and for separating actinide elements from reactor poisons exist
thermonuclear fusion reactions in stars are ignited by nuclear fission energy
dark matter
the feasibility of thermal neutron fission and fast neutron fission in planetary and protostellar matter may be calculated from nuclear reactor theory
brown dwarfs

15 For a few special cases, rotational velocities for protostars have been obtained directly from observations of the outer optically


16 True or False, The overdense regions having turned into dark population III objects.


17 Complete the text:

In the case of B335,

is not important in determining the

balance in the outer regions, and this object is in fact undergoing


18 True or False, Cosmological redshift is seen due to the expansion of the universe, and sufficiently distant light sources (generally more than a few million light years away) show redshift corresponding to the rate of increase of their distance from Earth.


19 True or False, The temperature of the cores of stars may be determined by the balance between the gravitational attraction and the gas pressure.


20 True or False, In cosmogonic schemes involving cold dark matter, there is an equally obvious process that might inhibit galaxy formation in the incipient voids.


21 Which of the following are likely phenomena associated with population III stars

not enough of them
individual masses must either be less than 0.1 M
in the range 103–106 Μ
too much background light
too much material
heavy elements

22 Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the cosmogonic possibilities below:
interior models of the giant planets - A
high interest for cosmogony, geophysics and nuclear physics - B
hierarchical accumulation - C
clouds and globular clusters - D
cosmic helium abundance - E
deuterium fusion - F
a large deficiency of light elements - G
after galactic sized systems had collapsed - H
the motions of hydrogen

formation of luminous quasars

stars with an initial mass less than the solar mass

rotating liquid drops

primordial is less than 26 per cent

a solar mixture of elements dominated by hydrogen and helium gas

around 13 Jupiter masses

smaller rocky objects


23 Which phenomenon are associated with cold dark matter?

unseen mass
a bubble in space
range of masses of galaxies
hot neutrinos
Einstein-de-Sitter 'flat' universe
the cosmological density parameter Ω

24 Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
E0 - A
E1 - B
E2 - C
E3 - D
E4 - E
E5 - F
E6 - G
E7 - H

M32 Lanoue.png

Messier 105 2MASS.jpg

Ngc185 rgb combined.jpg

2MASS NGC 4125 JHK.jpg

NGC 1427 Hubble WikiSky.jpg

M105 (37482401952).jpg

at left


See also[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]