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Arcs rise above an active region on the surface of the Sun in this series of images taken by the STEREO (Behind) spacecraft. Credit: Images courtesy of the NASA STEREO Science Center.

Sun is a lecture about an entity, source, and/or object observed on or near the surface of the Sun with radiation astronomy.

You are free to take this quiz based on the Sun at any time.

Once you've read and studied it, the links contained within, and listed under See also, External links, you should have adequate background to score 100 %. You are always free to have a look at additional resources in the {{stars resources}} template.

Suggestion: Have the lecture available in a separate window.

Enjoy learning by doing!

Quiz[edit | edit source]


1 Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

ultraviolet emission
X-ray emission
gamma-ray emission
neutron emission
7Be emission
meteor emission

2 True or False, The Norikura Solar Observatory uses its own designations for solar active regions rather than those of other observatories or NOAA.


3 Which of the following is not a characteristic of solar active regions?

coronal clouds
spot central meridian passage
a surface coverage of at least 95%.

4 During the late 1600s the sunspot cycle lost its usual intensity and became what?

5 True or False, Naked sunspots seen in Hα which are devoid of plage are never associated with coronal holes.


6 The Sun as a star has what geographical property?

it's a primordial population III star
it passes once a year across the Lockman Hole
silicates have been discovered in its interior structure
optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium
it has a surface temperature of ~700 K
it has a longitude and latitude grid system for locating surface features

7 Complete the text:

Early spectroscopy of the Sun using estimates of the

of several lines by eye to derive the

of elements concluded that the

is largely made of


8 True or False, Any small luminous dot appearing in the cloudless portion of the night sky, especially with a fixed location relative to other such dots is most likely to be a galaxy.


9 When faculae are present, what characteristics are readily observed?

bright spots
bright patches
temporary increases in TSI
arising between granules
neon clouds

10 In each latitudinal hemisphere for the greater part of the sunspot period there is practically but one what?

11 True or False, At least in emission sodium astronomy, Mercury is a dwarf gaseous object.


12 Which of the following is not a prominent feature associated with solar clouds?

coronal mass ejections
magnetic clouds
coronal clouds
magnetic field lines

13 In general there is no proper motion at all in the plage or the surrounding?

14 True or False, "Some prominences break apart and give rise to coronal mass ejections."


15 Which of the following is not a phenomenon usually associated with sunspots?

solar photosphere
a hole in the granulated photosphere
production of 7Be
solar cycle
flip-flop cycle

16 Complete the text:

"When a prominence is viewed from a different perspective so that it is against the

instead of against space, it appears

than the surrounding


17 True or False, In 1947, G. E. Kron proposed that starspots were the reason for periodic changes in brightness on blue dwarfs.


18 Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with a flip-flop cycle?

active regions
hemisphere shifts
binary RS CVn stars
single stars
cyclical period
meridian passage

19 A Mt. Wilson spot number usually corresponds with which other region number?

20 True or False, Hale region numbers are greater for the same regions than NOAA numbers.


21 Which of the following sunspot phenomena are associated with the Maunder minimum?

extensively long quiet Sun
lowest 14C concentration from as far back as 1100 BP.
a period of lower-than-average European temperatures
a surface coverage of about 88%
only about 50 sunspots during one 30-year period
11-year cycles

22 Solar observation is performed all around the surface of the Earth by?

23 True or False, The Kodaikanal Solar Observatory is a solar observatory owned and operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics.


24 Which of the following are phenomena usually associated with a heliostat?

geographic coordinates
a mirror which turns so as to keep reflecting sunlight toward a predetermined target
the target is usually stationary
computer control
a two-axis motorized system

25 Naked spots are long-lived and show rotation rates close to what?

26 True or False, Helicity (H) is a quantitative measure of the chiral properties of the structures observed in the solar atmosphere.


27 Which of the following are associated with the Sun control group?

rocky objects
gaseous objects
plasma objects
a photosphere
watery surface

28 The relative abundances of solar cosmic rays reflect those of the solar

29 True or False, The surface of the Sun is a known source of neutrons.


30 Which of the following are characteristic of solar proton astronomy?

the solar wind
polar coronal holes
protons originating from the photosphere
the electron neutrino

31 Using a coordinate system, sunspot passage is generally noted by what meridian?

32 True or False, "75% of the naked sunspots represented the return of large dominant f spots which had been part of large active regions during previous rotations."


33 Which geographical phenomena are associated with sunspots?

moving across the surface of the Sun
manifesting intense magnetic fields
a north geographic and magnetic pole
a prime meridian
average sunspot latitudes
the solar equator

34 Neutrinos detected from the solar octant may be from nucleosynthesis within the coronal cloud in the near vicinity of the Sun or perhaps from nucleosynthesis occurring within what theoretical interior structure of the Sun?

35 True or False, X-ray photons can be effectively backscattered by photosphere atoms and electrons.


36 Phenomena associated with the color index?

a simple numerical expression
the magnitude of an object
a set of passbands or filters
UBVRI filters
particular combinations of glass filters and photomultiplier tubes

37 The Na I green lines at 568.2 and 568.8 nm arise in the what?

38 True or False, Stars of spectral classes F and G, such as our sun, have color temperatures that make them look "greenish".


39 Which of the following are photospheric observatories on Earth?

Chandra X-ray Observatory
Big Bear
the Hubble
Lomnický štít

40 Sayan Observatory is located in.

41 True or False, Some observed properties of the Sun still defy explanation, such as the degree of Li depletion: the solar Li abundance is roughly a factor of 200 below the meteoritic abundance.


42 Which of the following are associated with the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope?

a launch location
Kitt Peak National Observatory
a heliostat
a distinctive diagonal shaft that continues underground
a theoretical resolution of 0.07"
NOAA designations

43 The metallicity is often expressed as "[Fe/H]", which represents the what of the ratio?

44 True or False, Heliognosy is the composition of the Sun.


45 Which of the following observatories are solar observatories?

The Huairou Solar Observing Station in China
Mauna Loa Solar Observatory
Los Alamos National Solar Laboratory
National Solar Observatory
Mees Solar Observatory

46 About one third of ejecta observed by satellites at Earth is composed of what?

47 True or False, A spotless flare may occur in a plage region during its first rotation.


48 Which of the following are solar observatory satellites?

Einstein Observatory
High Energy Astronomy Observatory 1

49 Suborbital solar probing may be accomplished from different geographical locations using?

50 True or False, The Mauna Kea Observatories are used for scientific research across the electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to radio, and comprise the largest such facility in the world.


51 Which series of emission lines from hydrogen occur in the visible spectrum of the Sun?

Paschen series
Brackett series
Pfund series
Lyman series
Humphreys series
Rydberg series
Balmer series

52 True or False, Helium does not occur in the photosphere because it was first detected during a solar eclipse.


53 Which of the following phenomena are associated with the core of the Sun?

origin of the magnetic field
the convection zone
the tachocline
Solar neutrinos
radiative zone

54 True or False, Heliography is the geography of the Sun.


55 Which of the following are green radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

the color of the upper rim as seen from Earth
an excess brightness at or near the edge of the Sun
the iron XIV green line
neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission
changes in the line-blanketing

56 True or False, The Sun has a net positive charge on its surface.


57 True or False, The Hβ emission line does not appear when the F492M filter is used on the Hubble Space Telescope because its wavelength is 486.1 nm.


Hypotheses[edit | edit source]

  1. The portion of the Sun generally the focus of various radiation astronomies has its heat origin from impinging electrons.

See also[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]