Stars/Sun/X-ray sources/Quiz

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This X-ray image is first light of the Sun from the GOES-15 SXI, June 2, 2010. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Sun as an X-ray source is a lecture and an article about the X-ray astronomy of the Sun. It is part of the department of astronomy course on the X-ray astronomy.

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Quiz[edit]

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1

Which of the following is not a prominent feature associated with solar clouds?

coronal mass ejections
magnetic clouds
rotation
coronal clouds
plasma
magnetic field lines

2

True or False, Naked sunspots seen in Hα which are devoid of plage are never associated with coronal holes.

TRUE
FALSE

3

Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

ultraviolet emission
X-ray emission
gamma-ray emission
neutron emission
7Be emission
meteor emission

4

During the late 1600s the sunspot cycle lost its usual intensity and became what?

5

Which of the following is not a characteristic of solar active regions?

lithium
nucleosynthesis
coronal clouds
spot central meridian passage
a surface coverage of at least 95%.

6

Complete the text:

The photosphere of the Sun has an effective temperature of

yet its corona has an average temperature of

. The high temperature of the corona shows that it is heated by something other than direct

from the photosphere.

7

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a core which emits neutrinos
a solar wind which emanates out the polar coronal holes
gravity
the barycenter for the solar system
polar coronal holes
coronal clouds
its position
temperatures at or above 1 MK

8

The darker regions in X-rays at the North and South poles of the Sun are coronal holes, where the magnetic field lines are?

9

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a chromosphere which emits neutrinos
coronal loops that are particle accelerator-like
synchrotron radiation
a photosphere
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
a polar temperature inside two radii of 1 MK
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

10

In general there is no proper motion at all in the plage or the surrounding?

11

Which of the following are X-radiation astronomy phenomena associated with stellar surface fusion?

luminosities below ~3 x 1038 erg/s
a few SSS with luminosities ≥1039 erg/s
synchrotron radiation
a photosphere
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

12

Yes or No, "Some prominences break apart and give rise to coronal mass ejections."

Yes
No

13

Which of the following are theoretical X-ray astronomy phenomena associated with astrophysics?

a thermal plasma mechanism
idea of a close binary
synchrotron radiation
high-density wind extinction
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

14

Complete the text:

"When a prominence is viewed from a different perspective so that it is against the

instead of against space, it appears

than the surrounding

.

15

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena associated with an entity?

a thermal plasma mechanism
a close binary
synchrotron radiation
high-density wind extinction
a polar diameter that exceeds ever so slightly the equatorial diameter at solar cycle minimum
super soft X-rays
hot active regions with temperatures hot enough to fuse hydrogen
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

16

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena associated with an entity?

discovers an X-ray source in Scorpius
a control group
synchrotron radiation
intergalactic medium
a polar diameter
super soft X-rays
hot active regions
sunspots at the feet of coronal loops

17

Which of the following are associated with X-radiation?

spans three decades in wavelength
spans three decades in frequency
spans three decades in energy
emitted by 26Al
coronal clouds
60 keV electromagnetic radiation
90 eV electromagnetic radiation
visually dark source

18

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with comets?

lightning
solar wind
a sunward region
a geocorona
minerals high in magnesium
solar X-rays
diffuse X-ray background
low-oxygen conditions

19

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Hydrogen - H, or D
Helium - He
Lithium - Li
Beryllium - Be
Boron - B
Carbon - C
Nitrogen - N
Oxygen - O
Fluorine - F
Neon - Ne
consumed in chromosphere fusion to produce lithium and neutrinos

.
isotope fusion in the chromosphere producing neutrinos

fusion in the chromosphere producing the most neutrinos

.
a factor of ~200 below meteorite abundance in the Sun's photosphere

.
detected with X-rays on the Moon

.
an organic form detected in Allan Hills 84001 probably from Mars

.
detected marginally on Venus with Chandra

.
found in the X-ray spectra of comets

.
consumed to produce beryllium and neutrinos

.
a surface impurity on meteorites

.

20

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with Jupiter?

lightning
aurora
a geocorona
minerals high in magnesium
solar X-rays
diffuse X-ray background
a sunward region
low-oxygen conditions

21

Complete the text:

Match up the item letter with each of the possibilities below:
Sun - A
Mercury - B
Venus - C
Earth - D
Comets - E
Mars - F
Jupiter - G
Saturn - H
Auroral currents on the order of 106 Amps

Fluorescent radiation from oxygen at ~130 km above the surface

.
Faint halo of X-rays extending out some 7,000 km

.
Solar wind lighting up with X-rays

.
Bright X-ray arcs at low energy

.
Major source of hard X-rays

.
X-ray emission concentrated near the equator

.
Low surface iron content in minerals

.

22

Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with the Sun?

coronal cloud
hot regions of 8–20 x 106 K
fluorescence of Jovian X-rays
lightning
X-rays from rings
collisions with the Jovian wind
soft X-ray emission
hard X-ray emission

23

Which of the following sunspot phenomena are associated with the Maunder minimum?

extensively long quiet Sun
lowest 14C concentration from as far back as 1100 BP.
a period of lower-than-average European temperatures
a surface coverage of about 88%
only about 50 sunspots during one 30-year period
11-year cycles

24

Which of the following are characteristic of solar proton astronomy?

the solar wind
polar coronal holes
protons originating from the photosphere
the electron neutrino
GOES 11
neutrons

Hypotheses[edit]

Main source: Hypotheses
  1. The Sun (photosphere and below) is not the source of X-rays associated with and around the Sun.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]