This is an animation of a radiation scintillation counter. Credit: KieranMaher.

Radiation astronomy detectors is a lecture as part of the astronomy department course on the principles of radiation astronomy.

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## Quiz

1 Complete the text:

 Match up the detector component/characteristic letter with each of the possibilities below: Optical bench - A Focal length - B CCD - C Coded aperture - D Grazing incidence - E Modulator - F Collimator - G Normal incidence - H varying amplitude, phase, or frequency . a platform used to support systems . narrows a beam . gold mirrors . a measure of how strongly a system converges or diverges . a device for the movement of electrical charge reflective multilayer optics . a flat grille .

2 A device that narrows a beam of particles or waves is a?

3 Which of the following is likely to be in a control group for assessing a radiation detector?

 very high peak to background (> 1000) for known radiation sources a minimum number of electronic components from the respondent material to the output or image a liquid nitrogen dewar easily shielded by neutral material, or anticoincidence material buried deep underground, under ice, or under water a wide temperature range for respondent material stability

4 The slowing down of a projectile ion due to the inelastic collisions between bound electrons in the medium and the ion moving through it?

5 Complete the text:

 To "narrow" can mean to the spatial of the beam to become limit.

6 Complete the text:

 The three key parameters of a waveform are its , and its .

7 Complete the text:

 With the modulation collimator, the amplitude ( ) of the incoming is reduced by the presence of diffraction gratings of that block or greatly reduce that portion of the incident upon the wires.

8 Complete the text:

 The multigrid collimator has the additional inserted at a specified position between the two grids, approximately to them, and and rotated so that each third lies in a plane defined by a wire in the outer grid and a wire in the grid.

9 Complete the text:

 The effects of the grid or external metal determine the envelope for the transmission peaks.

10 Yes or No, Wolter Type I X-ray optics uses three reflections to focus the incoming X-rays.

 Yes No

11 Fast, short duration electrical transients in voltage, current, or transferred energy in an electrical circuit?

12 True or False, Wolter Type II X-ray optics uses two reflections to focus the incoming X-rays.

 TRUE FALSE

13 The elastic collisions between the projectile ion and atoms in the detector involving the interaction of the ion with the nuclei in the detector material?

14 True or False, Wolter Type III X-ray optics uses one reflection to focus the incoming X-rays.

 TRUE FALSE

15 Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-ray optics?

 grazing incidence mirrors tungsten-silicon multilayer coatings nested mirrors an angular resolution X-ray lens

16 True or False, To reflect at the 79 keV level, glass layers are multi-coated with W/SiC.

 TRUE FALSE

 and

18 True or False, A sunrise may be detected by listening for bird song.

 TRUE FALSE

19 The first source of odor when the terminator passes at the beginning of daylight may be which of the following?

 the Sun a meteorite impact flowers that open their blooms at sunrise a late-summer rainstorm the Moon

20 An energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist?

21 True or False, A professional astronomer holding a digital camera in their hands while working on the International Space Station is a primary astronomical visual source detector.

 TRUE FALSE

22 Substances with large band gaps are generally?

23 The reason in principle that your automobile is not detecting X-rays is

 it is sitting on top of the Earth's crust below a thick atmosphere it is low on fuel those components that may respond to X-rays are not hooked up to needed counting electronics the top is not down the Moon is visible the Sun is behind the clouds

24 A random fluctuation in an electrical signal?

25 A device that detects and responds in a distinctive manner?

26 True or False, The Hubble Space Telescope currently uses the Wide Field Planetary Camera (PC-2) with its F492M filter among others for green astronomy.

 TRUE FALSE

27 The average energy loss of the particle per unit path length?

28 True or False, The Hβ emission line does not appear when the F492M filter is used on the Hubble Space Telescope because its wavelength is 486.1 nm.

 TRUE FALSE

29 A function of the form:

${\displaystyle f(x)=ae^{-{\frac {(x-b)^{2}}{2c^{2}}}}}$

for some real constants a, b, and c?

30 For the above function, the real constant a of the curve's peak?

31 For the above function, the real constant b of the curve's peak?

32 For the above function, the real constant c which controls the width of the curve?

33 True or False, The PC-1 F502N is centered at 501.85 nm with a band pass of 2.97 nm.

 TRUE FALSE

34 Complete the text:

 The tracks in emulsion chambers have been used for measurements of nuclei above in a series of balloon-borne experiments.

35 Which of the following is involved in planetary astronomy more so than planetary science?

 the occurrence of blue rock types on the surface of rocky objects the Earth and other rocky objects have a green mineral containing mantle checking equations about complex systems the advantages of a 559 nm band pass digging holes in the surface of Mars surface temperatures low enough to produce methane lakes

36 Natural X-ray sources emit, reflect, fluoresce, absorb, or?

37 The time after each event during which the system is not able to record another event?

38 A device capable of registering a specific substance or physical phenomenon?

39 The minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to become electrically conductive?

40 Complete the text:

 The hardware setup also defines key experimental parameters, such as , solid and detector .

41 Complete the text:

 Since the energy of a thermal is relatively low, particle reaction is i.e., essentially while other reactions such as reactions will span a broad energy , it is possible to among the sources.

42 Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below: Meteors - A Cosmic rays - B Neutrons - C Protons - D Electrons - E Positrons - F Neutrinos - G Muons - H Gamma rays - I X-rays - J Ultraviolet rays - K Optical rays - L Visual rays - M Violet rays - N Blue rays - O Cyan rays - P Green rays - Q Yellow rays - R Orange rays - S Red rays - T Infrared rays - U Submillimeter rays - V Radio rays - W Superluminal rays - X multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials . F547M . 511 keV gamma-ray peak . F675W . broad-band filter centered at 404 nm . a cloud chamber . ring-imaging Cherenkov . coherers . effective area is larger by 104 . F588N . pyroelectrics . a blemish about 8,000 km long . a metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate . coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum . thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals . F606W . aluminum nitride . heavy water . 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm . wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO) . a recoiling nucleus high-purity germanium . magnetic deflection to separate out incoming ions . 2.2-kilogauss magnet used to sweep out electrons .

43 True or False, A Faraday cup is a metal conductive cup designed to catch charged particles in vacuum.

 TRUE FALSE

44 True or False, A gas detector is a device which detects the presence of various X-rays within an area.

 TRUE FALSE

45 True or False, The presence of a liquid may be detected by using S-waves.

 TRUE FALSE

46 True or False, The Sun may be directly detected using radar astronomy.

 TRUE FALSE

47 True or False, The wheel of the OSO 5 satellite carried a thallium iodide crystal scintillator.

 TRUE FALSE

48 True or False, Call every lab you know, tell them to put the spectrometers on the roof and calibrate them for gamma-rays.

 TRUE FALSE

49 Complete the text:

 For the equation ${\displaystyle {1 \over \lambda }=R\left({1 \over (n^{\prime })^{2}}-{1 \over n^{2}}\right)\qquad }$ n is the , n' is the and R is the in units of inverse .

50 An optical device that measures the position of a star using a photocell is a?

51 A device that senses the direction to the Earth is?

52 A device that senses the direction to the Sun is a?

53 The name of a neutrino detector residing 2.5 km under the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Toulon, France, is?

54 The name of a neutrino detector under the ice at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica is?

55 To provide a cooling effect on the atmosphere surrounding the observatory building and eliminate ground heat radiation, put the detector housing in?

56 An argon-37 atom is converted by a neutrino by the charged current interaction from what atom?

57 A gallium detector design converts incoming neutrinos to what element?

58 A device that controls the output of a power supply to match an input signal shape but with a larger amplitude is an?

59 A solid state integrated circuit modulator that uses external feedback to control its transfer function or gain is what kind of modulator?

60 Complete the text:

 An optical instrument that detects light from the of the Earth's atmosphere, that is at the is an horizon .

61 Complete the text:

 A horizon sensor used to sense the direction to the center coupled with a to sense rotation about an axis normal to the orbit plane is an gyrocompass.

62 Complete the text:

 Condensed noble gases, most notably liquid and liquid , are excellent radiation detection .

63 Complete the text:

 A white beam source focused on a sample, upon striking the sample has photons whose energy matches the gaps in order to excite the molecules of the sample, while the other photons transmit unaffected and give the sample the color.

64 Complete the text:

 The electronic band structure of a solid describes those ranges of called energy that an electron within the sold may have, called bands and ranges of energy called band gaps or bands, which it may not have.

65 True or False, The density of states describes the number of states surrounding Afghanistan.

 TRUE FALSE

66 True or False, The number of states per interval of energy that are available to be occupied by positrons is called density of states.

 TRUE FALSE

67 True or False, The interval of energy at each energy level available for occupation by electrons is the density of states.

 TRUE FALSE

68 True or False, The density of states is the number of states per interval of energy at each energy level that are available to be occupied by electrons.

 TRUE FALSE

69 True or False, The density distributions of a solid or unit of condensed matter involving more than atoms or molecules is not discrete like a spectral density but continuous.

 TRUE FALSE

70 True or False, Local variations, most often due to distortions of the original system, are often called local density of states.

 TRUE FALSE

71 Complete the text:

 Match up the type of cosmic-ray detector with each of the possibilities below: visible tracks - A diffusion cloud chamber - B bubbles - C a grid of uninsulated electric wires - D similar to the Haverah Park experiment - E fluorescence detectors - F spark chamber . continuously sensitized to radiation . Pierre Auger Observatory . bubble chamber . Cherenkov detector expansion cloud chamber .

72 Complete the text:

 From the list of components below, construct a detector starting with incoming radiation: incoming radiation . high atomic number deflecting element . optical bench . a system convergence . modulator a beam narrower . a device for the movement of electrical charge focal length - D gracing incidence - F CCD - A a platform used to support systems - C aperture - G collimator - B device varying amplitude, phase, or frequency - E

73 True or False, The resolution of a detector is its separation into constituent parts.

 TRUE FALSE

74 For web colors the RGB decimal code (0 255 0) is what color?

75 True or False, In hexadecimal code, a hex triplet, #008000 or 00 80 00 is green.

 TRUE FALSE

76 Which of the following is not a prominent feature associated with the greenness response?

 M cone cells a green light source L cones "bluish green" 493-498 nm "yellowish green" 530-559 nm "yellow green" 559-570 nm

77 True or False, The resolution of a detector is the degree of fineness of its separation of incoming radiation.

 TRUE FALSE

## Hypotheses

1. A sense-around system needs to incorporate detection of all forms of radiation.