Radiation astronomy/Theory/Quiz

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The images show a relativistic jet emanating from the active galactic nucleus of M87 using X-ray, radio, and optical astronomy. Credit: NASA/CXC/VLA/HST.

Theoretical radiation astronomy is the key theory lecture for the course on the principles of radiation astronomy.

This is a quiz based on the lecture that you are free to take at any time or knowledge level.

Once you’ve read and studied the lecture itself, the links contained within the article/lecture, listed under See also, External links and in the {{principles of radiation astronomy}} template, you should have adequate background to take the quiz and score highly.

As a "learning by doing" resource, this quiz helps you to assess your knowledge and understanding of the information, and it is a quiz you may take over and over as a learning resource to improve your knowledge, understanding, test-taking skills, and your score.

This quiz may need up to an hour to take and is equivalent to an hourly.

Suggestion: Have the lecture available in a separate window.

Enjoy learning by doing!

Quiz[edit]







  

1

True or False, An action or process of throwing or sending out a traveling ray in a line, beam, or stream of small cross section may be called radiation.

TRUE
FALSE

2

Which of the following is not a characteristic of radiation?

throwing a beam
a stream of charged or neutral particles
calculating the energy of a beam
sending out a traveling ray
a secondary-object hazard

3

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

a core which emits neutrinos
a solar wind which emanates out the polar coronal holes
gravity
the barycenter for the solar system
polar coronal holes
coronal clouds
its position

4

Before the current era and perhaps before 6,000 b2k which classical planet may have been observed as a pole star for the Earth?

5

Complete the text:

A neutron star is a type of

that can result from the

of a

during a

supernova event.

6

True or False, Neutrinos emanate from a neutron star because an atomic nucleus the size hypothesized for a neutron star is unstable and the neutrons decompose giving off neutrinos.

TRUE
FALSE

7

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a sky?

catching a beam
a stream of charged or neutral particles
it may appear as a dome over the Earth your standing on
impervious to some traveling rays
a secondary-object hazard

8

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Earth?

a core which emits neutrinos
a charged particle wind which emanates out the polar ionosphere holes
gravity
near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system
the swirls of tan, green, blue, and white are most likely sediment in the water
coronal clouds
chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

9

A possible solution to the discrepancy between the Spite plateau abundance and the predicted value of the primordial lithium abundance is lithium depletion through?

10

Complete the text:

The standard solar models have enjoyed tremendous success recently in terms of agreement between the predicted

and the results from

but some

of the Sun still defy explanation, such as the degree of

depletion.

11

Yes or No, The traditional equation equates energy with matter in their interconversion.

Yes
No

12

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a laboratory?

catching a beam
one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled
it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on
impervious to some traveling rays
a secondary-object hazard

13

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a laboratory on Earth?

a core which emits neutrinos
a charged particle wind which emanates out of a beam line
gravity
near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system
swirls of tan, green, blue, and white in the water
electric arcs
chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

14

A laboratory solution to the discrepancy between the Spite plateau abundance and the predicted value of the primordial lithium abundance is lithium depletion through?

15

Complete the text:

In the radiation physics laboratories here on Earth, the

,

,

,

, and

of radiation is studied and

relative to sources are proven.

16

True or False, The traditional equation equates electromagnetism with mass in their interconversion.

TRUE
FALSE

17

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a theory?

catching a beam
one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled
it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on
impervious to some traveling rays
a secondary-object hazard

18

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a satellite in orbit around the Earth?

background radiation
a charged particle wind which emanates out of a beam line
gravity
near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system
swirls of tan, green, blue, and white in the water
electric arcs
chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

19

Capital Greek letters are often used for?

20

Complete the text:

Let the English upper-case (capital) letter

when juxtaposed to

indicate radiation at wavelengths longer than those of radiation that emanates from atomic

to those just above the extreme

.

21

True or False, The traditional equation equates electromagnetism with matter in their interconversion.

TRUE
FALSE

22

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a control group?

catching a beam
one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled
it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on
impervious to some traveling rays
a secondary-object hazard

23

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a wanderer?

possible orbits
a charged particle wind
gravity
near the barycenter its system
swirls of tan, green, blue, and white in the liquid methane
electric arcs
chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in an upper atmosphere

24

Electromagnetic radiation emitted by accelerating charged particles that are moving at near the speed of light?

25

Complete the text:

Any of many

in which something is related to something else by an equation of the form f(x) = a·xk is called a

.

26

True or False, A theory may not be right but it should be testable.

TRUE
FALSE

27

Which of the following is not a characteristic of background radiation?

naturally present
ionizing radiation
a continuum
in the environment
a one-time occurrence

28

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a planet?

possible orbits
a hyperbolic orbit
nuclear fusion at its core
nuclear fusion in its ionosphere
near the barycenter of its stellar system
accretion
electric arcs
impact craters

29

Electromagnetic radiation emitted by accelerating charged particles?

30

Complete the text:

The emissivity of a perfect

equals 0, that of a perfect black body equals

.

31

True or False, A theory may not be testable but it should be right.

TRUE
FALSE

32

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a black body?

photons go in but they don't come out
absorption
a hole or entry much smaller than a cavity
emissivity
reflectance

33

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a star?

possible orbits
a hyperbolic orbit
nuclear fusion at its core
nuclear fusion in its chromosphere
near the barycenter of its planetary system
accretion
electric arcs
impact craters
radar signature

34

Electromagnetic radiation emitted by decelerating charged particles?

35

Complete the text:

A surface's spectral

and

do not depend on wavelength [for a graybody], so that the emissivity is a

.

36

True or False, The term meteor is usually associated with visual radiation from an object streaking across an Earth sky at night.

TRUE
FALSE

37

Which of the following is not a theoretical characteristic of a meteor?

size of the object
interpretation of associated phenomena
a hot bow-wave
ion wind
forming ahead of the meteor

38

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a megacryometeor?

possible orbits
a hyperbolic orbit
nuclear fusion at its core
nuclear fusion in its chromosphere
near the barycenter of its planetary system
accretion
electric arcs
non-water ice
cometary origin

39

Electromagnetic radiation emitted by passing charged particles?

40

Complete the text:

The Oort cloud is a hypothesized

cloud of

which may lie roughly

, or nearly a light-year, from the Sun.

41

True or False, Particle radiation has three main origins: (1) galactic cosmic radiation, (2) solar particle radiation, and (3) geomagnetically trapped particle radiation.

TRUE
FALSE

42

Which of the following is not a theoretical characteristic of space radiation?

spacetime
interpretation of associated phenomena
a hot bow-wave
a steady rise
forming ahead of the meteor

43

Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with space radiation?

possible orbits
a hyperbolic orbit
nuclear fusion at a star's exposed core
nuclear fusion in a star's chromosphere
near the barycenter of its planetary system
accretion
electric arcs
non-water ice
cometary origin

44

Measurements from Voyager 1 revealed a steady rise since May in collisions with?

45

Complete the text:

At the same time, in late

, there was a dramatic drop in collisions with

, which are thought to originate from the

.

46

True or False, Below EeV energies ultra high energy neutrons have boosted lifetimes.

TRUE
FALSE

47

Which of the following is not a major source of protons within the solar system?

solar coronal clouds
solar wind
photosphere
polar coronal holes
coronal mass ejections

48

Which of the following may supply power into the Crab Nebula?

an outflowing wind
particles into the pulsar
particles from the pulsar
electrons and positrons in the wind
particles coming out of the pulsar very close to light speed

49

The Galactic distribution of 511 keV line emission distribution are the bulge + the thick disk or?

50

Complete the text:

Some neutrinos originating from the Sun may be produced by the

reactions occurring in and above the

. Differentiating these coronal cloud-induced neutrinos from the neutrino background and those theorized to be produced within the

of the Sun may someday be possible with neutrino astronomy.

51

True or False, According to relativity theory, although the speed of light in a perfect vacuum cannot be exceeded, since there are no perfect vacuums anywhere in the universe, this speed of light can be exceeded in any medium and produce Cerenkov radiation.

TRUE
FALSE

52

Which of the following is not a characteristic of outer space?

gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure
similar to a laboratory vacuum
free space
imperfect vacuum
partial vacuum

53

Which of the following are characteristic of QED vacuum?

fluctuations
no photons
no matter particles
relative permittivity
relative permeability

54

The most accurate standard for the metre is conveniently defined so that there are exactly 299,792,458 of them to the distance travelled by light in a standard?

55

Complete the text:

According to

relativity, c is the maximum speed at which all

,

, and

in the universe can travel.

56

True or False, An electron beam furnace is a type of vacuum furnace employing a high-energy electron beam in vacuum as the means for delivery of heat to the material being melted.

TRUE
FALSE

57

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the heliosphere?

outward speed of the solar wind diminishes to zero
inward pressure from interstellar space is compacting the magnetic field
the solar wind even blows back at us
a 100-fold increase in the intensity of high-energy electrons from elsewhere in the galaxy diffuse into our solar system from outside
the source of heat that brings the coronal cloud near the Sun hot enough to emit X-rays may be the photosphere

58

Which of the following are characteristic of radiation all around us?

fluctuations
ionizing
airborne
biologically functional components of the human body
a component of DNA

59

Background radiation may simply be any radiation that is?

60

Complete the text:

The cosmic microwave background radiation is a

glow that fills the

in the

part of the

.

61

True or False, In a laboratory, background radiation refers to the measured value from any sources that affect an instrument when a radiation source sample is being measured.

TRUE
FALSE

62

Which of the following is not a characteristic of radiation sensitivity?

susceptibility
a material inert to change
physical changes from radiation
chemical changes by radiation
radiation induced change to a material

63

Which of the following are characteristic of radiation damage?

harmful changes
induced radioactivity
proton activation
photodisintegration
transmutation of elements
lead into gold

64

High-intensity ionizing radiation in air can produce a visible ionized air glow of telltale?

65

Complete the text:

Like gases,

lack fixed

structure; the effects of

is therefore mainly limited to

.

66

True or False, Although the Earth's field is generally well approximated by a magnetic dipole with its axis near the rotational axis, there are occasional dramatic events where the North and South geomagnetic poles trade places.

TRUE
FALSE

67

Which of the following is not a characteristic of geomagnetic polar reversals?

the Earth becomes a monopole
basalts record reversals
seafloor magnetic anomalies
reversals in ocean sediment cores
reversals appear to occur at random intervals

68

Which of the following are characteristic of geomagnetic polar reversals?

the longer the period for reversal the longer the surface irradiation
the ionosphere seems to reach the surface
life-forms may suffer from radiation sickness
asteroids may strike the Earth that otherwise would not
the rotation of the Earth slows to a halt
poles of ice completely melt

69

The diffuse extragalactic background radiation (DEBRA) refers to the diffuse photon field from extragalactic origin that fill our?

70

Complete the text:

DEBRA contains

over ~

decades of

from ~

eV to ~

GeV.

71

True or False, Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes pose a challenge to current theories of lightning, especially with the discovery of the clear signatures of neutrinos produced in lightning.

TRUE
FALSE

72

Which of the following is not a characteristic of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes?

antimatter signatures
atmospheric origin
TGFs occur about 50 times per day globally
gamma radiation fountains downward from high cloud-top sources
higher energy gamma rays than come from the Sun

73

Which of the following are characteristic of interstellar extinction?

redder color indices
closer stars more affected
color excess
observed color index minus intrinsic color index
red shift
blue shift

74

As of 1977, model calculations cannot reproduce the observed breadth of the Ca II λ3933 line in Da,F stars like Ross 627 without appealing to an?

75

Complete the text:

Regarding a blue haze layer near the south polar region of Titan, the difference in color

above and

nearer the

could be due to

of the haze.

76

True or False, Observations of X-rays have sometimes found the spectrum to have an upper portion and the lower portion suggesting a two stage acceleration process.

TRUE
FALSE

77

Which of the following is not a characteristic of terrestrial X-ray flashes?

antimatter signatures
atmospheric origin
X-ray flashes occur at least 50 times per day globally
X-radiation fountains upward from low cloud-top sources
as high or higher energy X-rays as come from the Sun

78

Which of the following are characteristic of high-velocity stars?

moving faster than 65 km/s
closer stars more affected
may point away from a stellar association
comet-like appearance
red shift
blue shift

79

A cyan color can result from a freshly excavated high-Ti?

80

Complete the text:

The swirls of tan, green, blue, and white are most likely

in the water. Some of the color may come from

.

81

True or False, Nitrogen/oxygen abundance ratios may decrease from outer-arm nebulae to inner-arm nebulae in spiral galaxies.

TRUE
FALSE

82

Which of the following is not a characteristic of meteoritic lithium abundance?

light elements may have been formed by the irradiation of interstellar matter
closely matches the solar abundance
not diminished by nucleosynthesis
not destroyed by nuclear fission reactions
may have been produced by cosmic-ray spallation

83

Which of the following may be characteristic of hydrogen deficiency in stars?

may have been consumed by nucleosynthesis
star formation in a cloud deficient in hydrogen
may point away from a stellar association
may have been formed by white dwarf mergers
may have had transfer of helium from the secondary to the primary
a possible massive convective event

84

Submillimeter radiances can be matched by models which include ice particles of?

85

Complete the text:

One of the reasons why detection of

is controversial is that although

(and some other methods like rotational spectroscopy) are good for the identification of simple species with large dipole moments, they are less sensitive to more

molecules, even something relatively small like

.

86

True or False, The weak speed of a charged particle can exceed the speed of light.

TRUE
FALSE

87

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a globular cluster?

a spherical collection of stars
moves together but unbound by gravity
orbits a galactic core
bound by gravity
relatively high stellar density towards its center
may have formed together

88

Which of the following may be characteristic of orbital theory?

a hyperbolic pass
stellar association
may point away from a stellar association
eccentricity
obliquity
precession

89

A double star with an orbital plane that lies near enough to the line of sight to undergo eclipses is an?

90

Complete the text:

By comparing astronomical observations with laboratory measurements, astrochemists can infer the

abundances,

, and

of stars and interstellar clouds.

91

True or False, A localized, transient volume that is observed may be called a region.

TRUE
FALSE

92

Which of the following is not a characteristic of astrognosy?

internal structure
element composition
distributions of plasma, gases, liquids, or solids
landscape
spheres
approximate concentricity

93

Which of the following may be characteristic of magnetohydrodynamics?

driven by current gradients
neutral atoms
closed tube loops
twisted flux
open field lines
synchrotron radiation

94

The MINOS experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos, that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the?

95

Complete the text:

Theoretical astrohistory concerns

,

, and experimental facts with respect to observations in the past of the

of Earth.

96

True or False, Although no tubular telescope has been found at ancient archaeological sites, ancient observers may have used air telescopes.

TRUE
FALSE

97

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the electrical theory of the corona?

repulsive force
repulsive ejection
auroral-like phenomenon around the Sun
rays and streamers
centrifugal ejection of particles from the solar limb
coronal discharges

98

Which of the following may be characteristic of a universe?

an origin
singularity
chaos
aether
local steady-state
uncountability
irrational numbers

99

Astronomical radiation mathematics is the laboratory mathematics such as simulations that are generated to try to understand the observations of?

100

Complete the text:

The materials science of observatories involves the use of

or

materials that allow greater flexibility in the construction and deployment of observatories on,

, and above rocky-object surfaces. The environment near the observatory can also be used to

observation.


Hypotheses[edit]

Main source: Hypotheses
  1. Questions leaning more on theoretical development may be better.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

{{Astronomy resources}}{{Principles of radiation astronomy}}