The images show a relativistic jet emanating from the active galactic nucleus of M87 using X-ray, radio, and optical astronomy. Credit: NASA/CXC/VLA/HST.

Theoretical radiation astronomy is the key theory lecture for the course on the principles of radiation astronomy.

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## Quiz

1 True or False, An action or process of throwing or sending out a traveling ray in a line, beam, or stream of small cross section may be called radiation.

 TRUE FALSE

2 Which of the following is not a characteristic of radiation?

 throwing a beam a stream of charged or neutral particles calculating the energy of a beam sending out a traveling ray a secondary-object hazard

3 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

 a core which emits neutrinos a solar wind which emanates out the polar coronal holes gravity the barycenter for the solar system polar coronal holes coronal clouds its position

4 Before the current era and perhaps before 6,000 b2k which classical planet may have been observed as a pole star for the Earth?

5 Complete the text:

 A neutron star is a type of that can result from the of a during a supernova event.

6 True or False, Neutrinos emanate from a neutron star because an atomic nucleus the size hypothesized for a neutron star is unstable and the neutrons decompose giving off neutrinos.

 TRUE FALSE

7 Which of the following is not a characteristic of a sky?

 catching a beam a stream of charged or neutral particles it may appear as a dome over the Earth your standing on impervious to some traveling rays a secondary-object hazard

8 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Earth?

 a core which emits neutrinos a charged particle wind which emanates out the polar ionosphere holes gravity near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system the swirls of tan, green, blue, and white are most likely sediment in the water coronal clouds chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

9 A possible solution to the discrepancy between the Spite plateau abundance and the predicted value of the primordial lithium abundance is lithium depletion through?

10 Complete the text:

 The standard solar models have enjoyed tremendous success recently in terms of agreement between the predicted and the results from but some of the Sun still defy explanation, such as the degree of depletion.

11 Yes or No, The traditional equation ${\displaystyle E=mc^{2}}$ equates energy with matter in their interconversion.

 Yes No

12 Which of the following is not a characteristic of a laboratory?

 catching a beam one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on impervious to some traveling rays a secondary-object hazard

13 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a laboratory on Earth?

 a core which emits neutrinos a charged particle wind which emanates out of a beam line gravity near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system swirls of tan, green, blue, and white in the water electric arcs chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

14 A laboratory solution to the discrepancy between the Spite plateau abundance and the predicted value of the primordial lithium abundance is lithium depletion through?

15 Complete the text:

 In the radiation physics laboratories here on Earth, the , , , , and of radiation is studied and relative to sources are proven.

16 True or False, The traditional equation ${\displaystyle E=mc^{2}}$ equates electromagnetism with mass in their interconversion.

 TRUE FALSE

17 Which of the following is not a characteristic of a theory?

 catching a beam one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on impervious to some traveling rays a secondary-object hazard

18 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a satellite in orbit around the Earth?

 background radiation a charged particle wind which emanates out of a beam line gravity near the barycenter for the Earth-Moon system swirls of tan, green, blue, and white in the water electric arcs chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in the upper atmosphere

19 Capital Greek letters are often used for?

20 Complete the text:

 Let the English upper-case (capital) letter when juxtaposed to indicate radiation at wavelengths longer than those of radiation that emanates from atomic to those just above the extreme .

21 True or False, The traditional equation ${\displaystyle E=mc^{2}}$ equates electromagnetism with matter in their interconversion.

 TRUE FALSE

22 Which of the following is not a characteristic of a control group?

 catching a beam one more degree of freedom than can be measured or controlled it may appear as a dome over a small portion of the Earth your standing on impervious to some traveling rays a secondary-object hazard

23 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a wanderer?

 possible orbits a charged particle wind gravity near the barycenter its system swirls of tan, green, blue, and white in the liquid methane electric arcs chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton aloft in an upper atmosphere

24 Electromagnetic radiation emitted by accelerating charged particles that are moving at near the speed of light?

25 Complete the text:

 Any of many in which something is related to something else by an equation of the form f(x) = a·xk is called a .

26 True or False, A theory may not be right but it should be testable.

 TRUE FALSE

27 Which of the following is not a characteristic of background radiation?

 naturally present ionizing radiation a continuum in the environment a one-time occurrence

28 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a planet?

 possible orbits a hyperbolic orbit nuclear fusion at its core nuclear fusion in its ionosphere near the barycenter of its stellar system accretion electric arcs impact craters

29 Electromagnetic radiation emitted by accelerating charged particles?

30 Complete the text:

 The emissivity of a perfect equals 0, that of a perfect black body equals .

31 True or False, A theory may not be testable but it should be right.

 TRUE FALSE

32 Which of the following is not a characteristic of a black body?

 photons go in but they don't come out absorption a hole or entry much smaller than a cavity emissivity reflectance

33 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a star?

 possible orbits a hyperbolic orbit nuclear fusion at its core nuclear fusion in its chromosphere near the barycenter of its planetary system accretion electric arcs impact craters radar signature

34 Electromagnetic radiation emitted by decelerating charged particles?

35 Complete the text:

 A surface's spectral and do not depend on wavelength [for a graybody], so that the emissivity is a .

36 True or False, The term meteor is usually associated with visual radiation from an object streaking across an Earth sky at night.

 TRUE FALSE

37 Which of the following is not a theoretical characteristic of a meteor?

 size of the object interpretation of associated phenomena a hot bow-wave ion wind forming ahead of the meteor

38 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with a megacryometeor?

 possible orbits a hyperbolic orbit nuclear fusion at its core nuclear fusion in its chromosphere near the barycenter of its planetary system accretion electric arcs non-water ice cometary origin

39 Electromagnetic radiation emitted by passing charged particles?

40 Complete the text:

 The Oort cloud is a hypothesized cloud of which may lie roughly , or nearly a light-year, from the Sun.

41 True or False, Particle radiation has three main origins: (1) galactic cosmic radiation, (2) solar particle radiation, and (3) geomagnetically trapped particle radiation.

 TRUE FALSE

42 Which of the following is not a theoretical characteristic of space radiation?

 spacetime interpretation of associated phenomena a hot bow-wave a steady rise forming ahead of the meteor

43 Which of the following are theoretical radiation astronomy phenomena associated with space radiation?

 possible orbits a hyperbolic orbit nuclear fusion at a star's exposed core nuclear fusion in a star's chromosphere near the barycenter of its planetary system accretion electric arcs non-water ice cometary origin

44 Measurements from Voyager 1 revealed a steady rise since May in collisions with?

45 Complete the text:

 At the same time, in late , there was a dramatic drop in collisions with , which are thought to originate from the .

46 True or False, Below EeV energies ultra high energy neutrons have boosted lifetimes.

 TRUE FALSE

47 Which of the following is not a major source of protons within the solar system?

 solar coronal clouds solar wind photosphere polar coronal holes coronal mass ejections

48 Which of the following may supply power into the Crab Nebula?

 an outflowing wind particles into the pulsar particles from the pulsar electrons and positrons in the wind particles coming out of the pulsar very close to light speed

49 The Galactic distribution of 511 keV line emission distribution are the bulge + the thick disk or?

50 Complete the text:

 Some neutrinos originating from the Sun may be produced by the reactions occurring in and above the . Differentiating these coronal cloud-induced neutrinos from the neutrino background and those theorized to be produced within the of the Sun may someday be possible with neutrino astronomy.

51 True or False, According to relativity theory, although the speed of light in a perfect vacuum cannot be exceeded, since there are no perfect vacuums anywhere in the universe, this speed of light can be exceeded in any medium and produce Cerenkov radiation.

 TRUE FALSE

52 Which of the following is not a characteristic of outer space?

 gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure similar to a laboratory vacuum free space imperfect vacuum partial vacuum

53 Which of the following are characteristic of QED vacuum?

 fluctuations no photons no matter particles relative permittivity relative permeability

54 The most accurate standard for the metre is conveniently defined so that there are exactly 299,792,458 of them to the distance travelled by light in a standard?

55 Complete the text:

 According to relativity, c is the maximum speed at which all , , and in the universe can travel.

56 True or False, An electron beam furnace is a type of vacuum furnace employing a high-energy electron beam in vacuum as the means for delivery of heat to the material being melted.

 TRUE FALSE

57 Which of the following is not a characteristic of the heliosphere?

 outward speed of the solar wind diminishes to zero inward pressure from interstellar space is compacting the magnetic field the solar wind even blows back at us a 100-fold increase in the intensity of high-energy electrons from elsewhere in the galaxy diffuse into our solar system from outside the source of heat that brings the coronal cloud near the Sun hot enough to emit X-rays may be the photosphere

58 Which of the following are characteristic of radiation all around us?

 fluctuations ionizing airborne biologically functional components of the human body a component of DNA

60 Complete the text:

 The cosmic microwave background radiation is a glow that fills the in the part of the .

61 True or False, In a laboratory, background radiation refers to the measured value from any sources that affect an instrument when a radiation source sample is being measured.

 TRUE FALSE

62 Which of the following is not a characteristic of radiation sensitivity?

 susceptibility a material inert to change physical changes from radiation chemical changes by radiation radiation induced change to a material

63 Which of the following are characteristic of radiation damage?

 harmful changes induced radioactivity proton activation photodisintegration transmutation of elements lead into gold

64 High-intensity ionizing radiation in air can produce a visible ionized air glow of telltale?

65 Complete the text:

 Like gases, lack fixed structure; the effects of is therefore mainly limited to .

66 True or False, Although the Earth's field is generally well approximated by a magnetic dipole with its axis near the rotational axis, there are occasional dramatic events where the North and South geomagnetic poles trade places.

 TRUE FALSE

67 Which of the following is not a characteristic of geomagnetic polar reversals?

 the Earth becomes a monopole basalts record reversals seafloor magnetic anomalies reversals in ocean sediment cores reversals appear to occur at random intervals

68 Which of the following are characteristic of geomagnetic polar reversals?

 the longer the period for reversal the longer the surface irradiation the ionosphere seems to reach the surface life-forms may suffer from radiation sickness asteroids may strike the Earth that otherwise would not the rotation of the Earth slows to a halt poles of ice completely melt

69 The diffuse extragalactic background radiation (DEBRA) refers to the diffuse photon field from extragalactic origin that fill our?

70 Complete the text:

 DEBRA contains over ~ decades of from ~ eV to ~ GeV.

71 True or False, Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes pose a challenge to current theories of lightning, especially with the discovery of the clear signatures of neutrinos produced in lightning.

 TRUE FALSE

72 Which of the following is not a characteristic of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes?

 antimatter signatures atmospheric origin TGFs occur about 50 times per day globally gamma radiation fountains downward from high cloud-top sources higher energy gamma rays than come from the Sun

73 Which of the following are characteristic of interstellar extinction?

 redder color indices closer stars more affected color excess observed color index minus intrinsic color index red shift blue shift

74 As of 1977, model calculations cannot reproduce the observed breadth of the Ca II λ3933 line in Da,F stars like Ross 627 without appealing to an?

75 Complete the text:

 Regarding a blue haze layer near the south polar region of Titan, the difference in color above and nearer the could be due to of the haze.

76 True or False, Observations of X-rays have sometimes found the spectrum to have an upper portion and the lower portion suggesting a two stage acceleration process.

 TRUE FALSE

77 Which of the following is not a characteristic of terrestrial X-ray flashes?

 antimatter signatures atmospheric origin X-ray flashes occur at least 50 times per day globally X-radiation fountains upward from low cloud-top sources as high or higher energy X-rays as come from the Sun

78 Which of the following are characteristic of high-velocity stars?

 moving faster than 65 km/s closer stars more affected may point away from a stellar association comet-like appearance red shift blue shift

79 A cyan color can result from a freshly excavated high-Ti?

80 Complete the text:

 The swirls of tan, green, blue, and white are most likely in the water. Some of the color may come from .

81 True or False, Nitrogen/oxygen abundance ratios may decrease from outer-arm nebulae to inner-arm nebulae in spiral galaxies.

 TRUE FALSE

82 Which of the following is not a characteristic of meteoritic lithium abundance?

 light elements may have been formed by the irradiation of interstellar matter closely matches the solar abundance not diminished by nucleosynthesis not destroyed by nuclear fission reactions may have been produced by cosmic-ray spallation

83 Which of the following may be characteristic of hydrogen deficiency in stars?

 may have been consumed by nucleosynthesis star formation in a cloud deficient in hydrogen may point away from a stellar association may have been formed by white dwarf mergers may have had transfer of helium from the secondary to the primary a possible massive convective event

84 Submillimeter radiances can be matched by models which include ice particles of?

85 Complete the text:

 One of the reasons why detection of is controversial is that although (and some other methods like rotational spectroscopy) are good for the identification of simple species with large dipole moments, they are less sensitive to more molecules, even something relatively small like .

86 True or False, The weak speed of a charged particle can exceed the speed of light.

 TRUE FALSE

87 Which of the following is not a characteristic of a globular cluster?

 a spherical collection of stars moves together but unbound by gravity orbits a galactic core bound by gravity relatively high stellar density towards its center may have formed together

88 Which of the following may be characteristic of orbital theory?

 a hyperbolic pass stellar association may point away from a stellar association eccentricity obliquity precession

89 A double star with an orbital plane that lies near enough to the line of sight to undergo eclipses is an?

90 Complete the text:

 By comparing astronomical observations with laboratory measurements, astrochemists can infer the abundances, , and of stars and interstellar clouds.

91 True or False, A localized, transient volume that is observed may be called a region.

 TRUE FALSE

92 Which of the following is not a characteristic of astrognosy?

 internal structure element composition distributions of plasma, gases, liquids, or solids landscape spheres approximate concentricity

93 Which of the following may be characteristic of magnetohydrodynamics?

 driven by current gradients neutral atoms closed tube loops twisted flux open field lines synchrotron radiation

94 The MINOS experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, which is an intense beam of neutrinos, that travels 455 miles (732 km) through the Earth to the?

95 Complete the text:

 Theoretical astrohistory concerns , , and experimental facts with respect to observations in the past of the of Earth.

96 True or False, Although no tubular telescope has been found at ancient archaeological sites, ancient observers may have used air telescopes.

 TRUE FALSE

97 Which of the following is not a characteristic of the electrical theory of the corona?

 repulsive force repulsive ejection auroral-like phenomenon around the Sun rays and streamers centrifugal ejection of particles from the solar limb coronal discharges

98 Which of the following may be characteristic of a universe?

 an origin singularity chaos aether local steady-state uncountability irrational numbers

99 Astronomical radiation mathematics is the laboratory mathematics such as simulations that are generated to try to understand the observations of?

100 Complete the text:

 The materials science of observatories involves the use of or materials that allow greater flexibility in the construction and deployment of observatories on, , and above rocky-object surfaces. The environment near the observatory can also be used to observation.

## Hypotheses

1. Questions leaning more on theoretical development may be better.