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This is carpathite under ultraviolet light. Credit: Rama.

Electromagnetic radiation is a stand-alone lecture. It overlaps areas such as radiation astronomy, radiation chemistry, radiation biology, and radiation physics. There are aspects included in the various health sciences and medicine. It is included in the department of radiation astronomy course on the principles of radiation astronomy.

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1 Which of the following is not a characteristic of the X-ray continuum?

Bragg peaks
may arise from an X-ray jet
may arise from the coronal cloud of an accretion disc
a power-law spectrum
a thermal emission at the lowest energies

2 Tarapacaite is a natural mineral pigment composed of what likely source of yellow?

3 True or False, Super soft X-ray sources are in most cases only detected below 0.5 keV.


4 Ashen light is involved in which of the following?

glow of the bright part of the lunar disk
light from different parts of Earth are mixed together
mimics the Earth as a single dot
neutron astronomy
X-ray astronomy

5 True or False, As gamma rays are defined to be radiation emitted from radionuclides, there are no radionuclides that emit X-rays.


6 On what date was GRB 970228 discovered?

August 22, 1997
February 28, 1997
September 7, 2002.28
1982 the 20th between July and September
2009 July 22nd and 8 hours
February 14, 2014

7 True or False, Submillimeter radiation ranges from 100 µm to 1 mm.


8 Imaging brown dwarfs involves which of the following:

far-infrared (submillimeter) observations at 350 microns
neutrino detection
heating of the nearby gas and dust
near-infrared covering 1.3 and 2.2 microns
infrared covering 4.5 and 8.0 microns

9 Red ochre is a natural pigment composed of what likely source of red?

10 Which of the following are or likely to be relatively common red minerals?


11 Yes or No, Clouds are a form of radiation because they have a temperature gradient.


12 Complete the text:

An aerometeor is a

unit of air traveling or

through an atmosphere.

13 Which of the following is associated with red radiation?

900 nm
300 THz
longer wavelengths than those of visible light
620 - 750 nm
1 mm

14 True or False, Hydrogen has an emission line in the yellow.


15 Complete the text:

Terahertz radiation refers to electromagnetic waves propagating at

in the


16 Light at the extreme red end of the visible spectrum, between red and infra-red light is called


17 Yes or No, Some cosmic-ray observatories also look for high energy gamma rays and X-rays.


18 Which of the following is not characteristic of a neutrino?

neutrinos are affected by the weak nuclear force
produced by a positron annihilating an electron
a decay product of a neutron
produced by the near surface fusion on the Sun
may have a mass
comes in mutable varieties

19 True or False, Boron has an emission line in the yellow.


20 Complete the text:


radiation are best absorbed by atoms with heavy nuclei.

21 True or False, The distribution of gamma-ray bursts is tetratropic.


22 Beta rays, or beta particles, are more penetrating than what other Greek letter designated rays or particles?

23 True or False, Radiation is an action or process of throwing or sending out a traveling ray in a line, beam, or stream of small cross section.


24 Complete the text:

A filter of type F588N allows the transmission of


25 True or False, Bremsstrahlung radiation may be a source of the yellow continuum.


26 Which of the following are cold dark matter gamma rays?

expected signal comparable to background
annihilation radiation
a pronounced cosmic-ray halo
difficult to separate from a dark halo
dwarf spheroidals
weakly interacting massless particles

27 True or False, Microwave radiation ranges from 1 micron to 1 mm.


28 Submillimeter radiances can be matched by models which include ice particles of?

29 Complete the text:

Beta particles are high-energy, high-speed

or positrons emitted by certain types of

nuclei such as


30 Using HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory, the first detection of what ion occurred on March 1 and March 23, 2010?

31 True or False, The Mauna Kea Observatories are used for scientific research across the electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to radio, and comprise the largest such facility in the world.


32 Complete the text:

Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below:
Optical rays - L
Visual rays - M
Violet rays - N
Blue rays - O
Cyan rays - P
Green rays - Q
Yellow rays - R
Orange rays - S
Red rays - T
multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials



broad-band filter centered at 404 nm


thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals


18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm

wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO)


33 True or False, A delta ray is a ray of very fast positrons.


34 Which types of radiation astronomy directly observe the rocky-object surface of Venus?

meteor astronomy
cosmic-ray astronomy
neutron astronomy
proton astronomy
beta-ray astronomy
neutrino astronomy
gamma-ray astronomy
X-ray astronomy
ultraviolet astronomy
visual astronomy
infrared astronomy
submillimeter astronomy
radio astronomy
radar astronomy
microwave astronomy
superluminal astronomy

35 True or False, Microwave radiation ranges from 1 m to 1 mm.


36 Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with the Earth?

Van Allen radiation belts
electrons striking the ionosphere
the geocorona
ice cores
diffuse X-ray background

37 A method used to count the number of X-rays of a specific wavelength diffracted by a crystal?

38 The reason in principle that your automobile is not detecting submillimeter rays is

it is sitting on top of the Earth's crust below a thick atmosphere
it is low on fuel
those components that may respond to submillimeter rays are not hooked up to needed counting electronics
the top is not down
the Moon is visible
the Sun is behind the clouds

39 Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-radiation?

throwing a beam
a stream of charged or neutral rays
calculating the energy of a beam
sending out a traveling ray
a secondary-object hazard

40 Complete the text:

A three-color (850, 650, and 350 GHz) single-pixel

system has been installed on the

Submillimeter Telescope (ASTE) and several massive star forming regions were mapped to derive submillimeter SEDs of these sources.

41 True or False, On the whole the emission strength is low in the submillimeter for astronomical objects.


42 Complete the text:

The submillimeter emission from a cometary

can be estimated under the assumption of thermal


43 Yes or No, X-rays span approximately three decades in wavelength, frequency, and energy.


44 The number and energy of the X-rays emitted from a specimen can be measured by an?

45 True or False, An aurora seen from Australia may be a blue radiation source.


46 High-energy particle acceleration during an energetic solar flare may involve which of the following at submillimeter wavelengths:

a rapid rise in temperature
a gradual, long-lasting component
large apparent source sizes
synchrotron emission
a magnetic field strength of ≥ 200 Gauss
a close correlation in time and space of radio emission with pion production

47 True or False, The planet Saturn exhibits a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere.


48 Which of the following emission/absorption phenomena are associated with radiation astronomy?

helium lines at 501 and 505 nm
the strong C2 (1,2) band
nitrogen emission in plasmas at 566.934 nm from N VIII
helium emission line at 5876 Å
neutral iron line at 526.96 nm
calcium yellow line at 569.4 nm

49 Yes or No, Radio rays have wavelengths of one millimeter or more.


50 Using the equation what temperature corresponds approximately to a Planckian peak wavelength of 580 nm?

5140 K
5800 K
5170 K
6000 K
5870 K
5250 K

51 True or False, The Earth's atmosphere does not transmit yellow radiation between 470 and 590 nm in wavelength because of water vapor.


52 Which of the following are characteristic of the telluric mercury green line?

546.1 nm
light pollution at the Calar Alto observatory
a decay product of uranium
mercury vapour lamps
tropospheric scattering
y-band of the ubvy Strömgren photometric system

53 True or False, The Earth's atmosphere does not transmit infrared radiation between 6 and 7 microns in wavelength because of water vapor.


54 Complete the text:

The three key parameters of a

waveform are its


and its


55 True or False, Inverse Compton scattering allows low energy electromagnetic radiation to become high energy electromagnetic radiation.



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  1. The electromagnetic radiation doses received by NASA and RSA astronauts probably are not the cause of the medical symptoms of spaceflight.
  2. Gamma rays may hold the key to conversion of electromagnetic radiation back into matter.

See also

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{{Radiation astronomy resources}}