This is carpathite under ultraviolet light. Credit: Rama.

Electromagnetic radiation is a stand-alone lecture and an article. It overlaps areas such as radiation astronomy, radiation chemistry, radiation biology, and radiation physics. There are aspects included in the various health sciences and medicine. It is included in the department on astronomy course on the principles of radiation astronomy.

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## Quiz

1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the X-ray continuum?

 Bragg peaks may arise from an X-ray jet may arise from the coronal cloud of an accretion disc a power-law spectrum a thermal emission at the lowest energies

2. Tarapacaite is a natural mineral pigment composed of what likely source of yellow?

3. True or False, Super soft X-ray sources are in most cases only detected below 0.5 keV.

 TRUE FALSE

4. Ashen light is involved in which of the following?

 earthshine glow of the bright part of the lunar disk light from different parts of Earth are mixed together mimics the Earth as a single dot neutron astronomy X-ray astronomy

5. True or False, As gamma rays are defined to be radiation emitted from radionuclides, there are no radionuclides that emit X-rays.

 TRUE FALSE

6. On what date was GRB 970228 discovered?

 August 22, 1997 February 28, 1997 September 7, 2002.28 1982 the 20th between July and September 2009 July 22nd and 8 hours February 14, 2014

7. True or False, Submillimeter radiation ranges from 100 µm to 1 mm.

 TRUE FALSE

8. Imaging brown dwarfs involves which of the following:

 far-infrared (submillimeter) observations at 350 microns neutrino detection heating of the nearby gas and dust near-infrared covering 1.3 and 2.2 microns infrared covering 4.5 and 8.0 microns

9. Red ochre is a natural pigment composed of what likely source of red?

10. Which of the following are or likely to be relatively common red minerals?

 crocoite rhodolite cinnabar hematite eudialyte

11. Yes or No, Clouds are a form of radiation because they have a temperature gradient.

 Yes No

12. Complete the text:

 An aerometeor is a unit of air traveling or through an atmosphere.

13. Which of the following is associated with red radiation?

 900 nm 300 THz longer wavelengths than those of visible light 620 - 750 nm 1 mm

14. True or False, Hydrogen has an emission line in the yellow.

 TRUE FALSE

15. Complete the text:

 Terahertz radiation refers to electromagnetic waves propagating at in the range.

16. Light at the extreme red end of the visible spectrum, between red and infra-red light is called

 light.

17. Yes or No, Some cosmic-ray observatories also look for high energy gamma rays and X-rays.

 Yes No

18. Which of the following is not characteristic of a neutrino?

 neutrinos are affected by the weak nuclear force produced by a positron annihilating an electron a decay product of a neutron produced by the near surface fusion on the Sun may have a mass comes in mutable varieties

19. True or False, Boron has an emission line in the yellow.

 TRUE FALSE

20. Complete the text:

 and radiation are best absorbed by atoms with heavy nuclei.

21. True or False, The distribution of gamma-ray bursts is tetratropic.

 TRUE FALSE

22. Beta rays, or beta particles, are more penetrating than what other Greek letter designated rays or particles?

23. True or False, Radiation is an action or process of throwing or sending out a traveling ray in a line, beam, or stream of small cross section.

 TRUE FALSE

24. Complete the text:

 A filter of type F588N allows the transmission of rays.

25. True or False, Bremsstrahlung radiation may be a source of the yellow continuum.

 TRUE FALSE

26. Which of the following are cold dark matter gamma rays?

 expected signal comparable to background annihilation radiation a pronounced cosmic-ray halo difficult to separate from a dark halo dwarf spheroidals weakly interacting massless particles

27. True or False, Microwave radiation ranges from 1 micron to 1 mm.

 TRUE FALSE

28. Submillimeter radiances can be matched by models which include ice particles of?

29. Complete the text:

 Beta particles are high-energy, high-speed or positrons emitted by certain types of nuclei such as -40.

30. Using HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory, the first detection of what ion occurred on March 1 and March 23, 2010?

31. True or False, The Mauna Kea Observatories are used for scientific research across the electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to radio, and comprise the largest such facility in the world.

 TRUE FALSE

32. Complete the text:

 Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below: Optical rays - L Visual rays - M Violet rays - N Blue rays - O Cyan rays - P Green rays - Q Yellow rays - R Orange rays - S Red rays - T multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials . F547M . F675W . broad-band filter centered at 404 nm . F588N . thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals . F606W . 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm . wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO) .

33. True or False, A delta ray is a ray of very fast positrons.

 TRUE FALSE

34. Which types of radiation astronomy directly observe the rocky-object surface of Venus?

 meteor astronomy cosmic-ray astronomy neutron astronomy proton astronomy beta-ray astronomy neutrino astronomy gamma-ray astronomy X-ray astronomy ultraviolet astronomy visual astronomy infrared astronomy submillimeter astronomy radio astronomy radar astronomy microwave astronomy superluminal astronomy

35. True or False, Microwave radiation ranges from 1 m to 1 mm.

 TRUE FALSE

36. Which of the following are X-ray astronomy phenomena that may be associated with the Earth?

 lightning Van Allen radiation belts electrons striking the ionosphere the geocorona ice cores meteorites diffuse X-ray background hurricanes

37. A method used to count the number of X-rays of a specific wavelength diffracted by a crystal?

38. The reason in principle that your automobile is not detecting submillimeter rays is

 it is sitting on top of the Earth's crust below a thick atmosphere it is low on fuel those components that may respond to submillimeter rays are not hooked up to needed counting electronics the top is not down the Moon is visible the Sun is behind the clouds

39. Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-radiation?

 throwing a beam a stream of charged or neutral rays calculating the energy of a beam sending out a traveling ray a secondary-object hazard

40. Complete the text:

 A three-color (850, 650, and 350 GHz) single-pixel system has been installed on the Submillimeter Telescope (ASTE) and several massive star forming regions were mapped to derive submillimeter SEDs of these sources.

41. True or False, On the whole the emission strength is low in the submillimeter for astronomical objects.

 TRUE FALSE

42. Complete the text:

 The submillimeter emission from a cometary can be estimated under the assumption of thermal .

43. Yes or No, X-rays span approximately three decades in wavelength, frequency, and energy.

 Yes No

44. The number and energy of the X-rays emitted from a specimen can be measured by an?

45. True or False, An aurora seen from Australia may be a blue radiation source.

 TRUE FALSE

46. High-energy particle acceleration during an energetic solar flare may involve which of the following at submillimeter wavelengths:

 a rapid rise in temperature a gradual, long-lasting component large apparent source sizes synchrotron emission a magnetic field strength of ≥ 200 Gauss a close correlation in time and space of radio emission with pion production

47. True or False, The planet Saturn exhibits a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere.

 TRUE FALSE

48. Which of the following emission/absorption phenomena are associated with radiation astronomy?

 helium lines at 501 and 505 nm the strong C2 (1,2) band nitrogen emission in plasmas at 566.934 nm from N VIII helium emission line at 5876 Å neutral iron line at 526.96 nm calcium yellow line at 569.4 nm

49. Yes or No, Radio rays have wavelengths of one millimeter or more.

 Yes No

50. Using the equation ${\displaystyle {\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}{\frac {1}{e^{\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}-1}}e^{\frac {c2}{\lambda T}}-5=0}$ what temperature corresponds approximately to a Planckian peak wavelength of 580 nm?

 5140 K 5800 K 5170 K 6000 K 5870 K 5250 K

51. True or False, The Earth's atmosphere does not transmit yellow radiation between 470 and 590 nm in wavelength because of water vapor.

 TRUE FALSE

52. Which of the following are characteristic of the telluric mercury green line?

 546.1 nm light pollution at the Calar Alto observatory a decay product of uranium mercury vapour lamps tropospheric scattering y-band of the ubvy Strömgren photometric system

53. True or False, The Earth's atmosphere does not transmit infrared radiation between 6 and 7 microns in wavelength because of water vapor.

 TRUE FALSE

54. Complete the text:

 The three key parameters of a waveform are its , and its .

55. True or False, Inverse Compton scattering allows low energy electromagnetic radiation to become high energy electromagnetic radiation.

 TRUE FALSE

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## Hypotheses

Main source: Hypotheses
1. The electromagnetic radiation doses received by NASA and RSA astronauts probably are not the cause of the medical symptoms of spaceflight.
2. Gamma rays may hold the key to conversion of electromagnetic radiation back into matter.