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This visual image using the Vacuum Tower Telescope shows solar granulation around and outward from a sunspot or hole. Credit: Vacuum Tower Telescope, NASA.

Heliography is a lecture focusing on the features of the Sun's surface. It is a lecture as part of the radiation astronomy course on solar astronomy.

You are free to take this quiz based on heliogony at any time.

To improve your score, read and study the lecture, the links contained within, listed under See also, External links, and in the {{radiation astronomy resources}} template. This should give you adequate background to get 100 %.

As a "learning by doing" resource, this quiz helps you to assess your knowledge and understanding of the information, and it is a quiz you may take over and over as a learning resource to improve your knowledge, understanding, test-taking skills, and your score.

Suggestion: Have the lecture available in a separate window.

To master the information and use only your memory while taking the quiz, try rewriting the information from more familiar points of view, or be creative with association.

Enjoy learning by doing!

Quiz[edit | edit source]


1 Yes or No, As geography describes the features of the surface of the Earth, heliography describes the surface features of Helios or the Sun, Sol.


2 True or False, The Sun has no specific heliographic feature that allows the direct derivation of longitude and latitude.


3 Complete the text:


longitude (λ2) is measured from the central meridian as it passes through the

node of the solar equator at

noon on January 1, 1854 (JD 2398220.0) and rotating with the

period of 25.38 Earth days.

4 Yes or No, The surface of the Sun is often described by features observed which are located using heliographic coordinates based on heliographic north and south poles.


5 True or False, Sunspots are holes in the surface of the Sun.


6 What features occasionally show a heliographic distribution on the surface of the Sun?

granulation or supergranulation
active regions
coronal holes
the north an south heliographic poles
latitudinal bands that rotate at different rates

7 Yes or No, The Stonyhurst Disk may be superimposed on an image of the Sun to determine the heliographic coordinates.


8 Complete the text:

Match up a heliographic feature of the Sun with a heliographic property:
sunspots - L
polar coronal holes - M
coronal mass ejection - N
coronal loops - O
flares - P
photosphere - Q
atmosphere - R
106 temperature region - S
chromosphere - T
transition region - U
corona - V
heliosphere - W
begin to appear at high latitudes and move toward the equator

hemispherically centered on the solar equator

uniform and independent of latitude and longitude

intensity tracks with active regions

uniformly active above the photosphere

tracks with flaring

tracks with flares, loops, and active regions

tracks with active regions away from sunspots

differential rotation with latitude

track in active regions with sunspots

appear around the magnetic poles and track with them

forms a kind of nimbus around chromospheric features such as spicules and filaments, and is in constant, chaotic motion, viewed in the ultraviolet


9 Yes or No, The first longitude (λ1) is measured from the plane of the "central meridian" as it passes through the rotation axis of the Sun and the line connecting the center of the Sun to the observer.


10 Yes or No, The Carrington longitude (λ2) is measured from the central meridian as it passes through the ascending node of the solar equator at Greenwich noon on January 1, 1854 (JD 2398220.0) and rotating with the sidereal period of 25.38 Earth days.


Hypotheses[edit | edit source]

  1. Phenomena occurring above or below the surface of the Sun alter its appearance.

See also[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

{{Radiation astronomy resources}}