Multilingual worksheet

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Multilingualism[edit | edit source]

This practicum develops learning resources and materials related to the general study of Multilingualism.

These will help facilitate Foreign Language Learning and Topic:Multilingual Studies at Wikiversity. The first (but not last) Language Divisions are:

Don't feel bad because you don't speak English!

This worksheet is here as an aid (like a "scratchpad") to translators and students of planet-wide community-building and for establishing Transwiki-versity.

Goals[edit | edit source]

This practicum aims to create a master reference for the School of Language and Literature in the form of a local article Multilingualism.

Wikiversity[edit | edit source]

Specific goals are to produce learning materials that will help to strengthen Wikiversity as an Online learning community. The principle that the learning community here will be open, accessible and free to all requires a multi-lingual aspect as a priority in its charter. To help meet this end, we are creating this ongoing Multilingual Practicum.

Beta.Wikiversity[edit | edit source]

As Wikiversity grows, replicates and reproduces through various languages and cultures, the need for multiple language resource versions and translation services will increase. This practicum is being designed to help meet these already-obvious needs. The following pages explain the multilingual system on Wikiversity Beta:

Institute of Multilingual Studies[edit | edit source]

Mission Statement: In the Spirit of an Open Community with the Assumption of Good Faith, the Institute of Multilingual Studies will leave Matters of Policy to Higher Powers.

English Division[edit | edit source]

English Division Mission Statement: This practicum, though born here at the English language version of Wikiversity shall not be defined, constrained nor imposed as a standard but offered only as a model, pattern, suggestion or example to the Betas as they come online.

The Division shall be responsible for the English version of:

  • Wikiversity:Translator's Handbook - A language-neutral general-purpose resource developed as an open collaborative project that grows along with Wikiversity's Betas.

Interlingual Beta Club[edit | edit source]

We are taking it upon ourselves to build a local (English) version of Multilingualism, synchronously with beta projects, established, developing and future as a mirror of

Our main challenge is to work within a host / guest paradigm that promotes the understanding that native speakers of one language are non-native speakers of another. As members of the English Wikiversity, we hope to be faithful custodians for translation resourses for those who have little or no experience with English.

We will do this by Hosting:

and guest stations:

  1. Wikiversity:Multilingualism/De
  2. Wikiversity:Multilingualism/Es
  3. Wikiversity:Multilingualism/Fr
  4. Wikiversity:Multilingualism/Zh
  5. Wikiversity:Multilingualism/Ar
  6. etc.

and a special one:

Organization[edit | edit source]

(under construction)

Schools: Media Studies | Linguistics | Computer Science | Language and Literature

Institute for Multilingual Studies

English Language
Translation Department
Translator's Handbook
Wikiversity translations/Recruiting translators
Wikiversity translations/Training translators
Interlingual Beta Club

Category:Languages and Language families Category: Wikiversity translations

Notes[edit | edit source]

Wikiversity using a method similar to Wikipedia:Multilingual coordination.

This worksheet may be used as an outline to help develop a learning path for Wikiversity participants who want to become certified translator(s).

Suggested reading[edit | edit source]

Practicum Reading List:

See more in the Resources section below.

Collaborations[edit | edit source]

  1. Computer Science learners studying Computer-assisted translation or Machine translation may also have contributions and a use for this worksheet.
  2. Wikiversity the Movie may need some help with Wikiversity the Movie/multi-lingual
  3. ...

See Wikiversity:Practicum - Guideline document for more on collaborations.

Labs[edit | edit source]

Develop some lists and tables:

We should decide if two-letter codes are enough to get a fairly comprehensive listing to start with. The following are somewhat arbitrarily selected as examples:

zh es en pt
ru ja de ko
fr it pl ku
ro nl sv eo

These are ISO 639-2 Alpha-2 codes. See List of ISO 639-2 codes for the complete list including Alpha-3 codes.

We're focusing on en-de and de-en to prime the Wikiversity:Multilingualism program.

Currently Wikiversity has seeded beta projects for English, Deutsch, Français, Kölsch, Norsk (bokmål) and 中文. We would do well to follow suit. Check (en), Template:De, (fr), ?, ?? (?) and Template:Zh.

SESSION/2006/10/19: Q) Do all languages have 2-letter codes? Are there some that have no codes at all? Is this a problem? Jade Knight
A) They may be unable to use some w:machine translation features, but certainly shall not exclude them from the mix. We ARE Human! CQ

Native names[edit | edit source]

18 Native Names:


Nominal listing[edit | edit source]

This list is based on w:Language speaker data mostly from the Ethnologue estimate (1999).

Ranking # code Name in English | Native name:

  1. zh Chinese | 中文
  2. es Spanish | Español
  3. en English | English
  4. pt Portuguese | Português
  5. ru Russian | Русский
  6. ja Japanese | 日本語
  7. de German | Deutsch
  8. ko Korean | 한국어
  9. fr French | Français
  10. it Italian | Italiano
  11. zz Zazaish | Zazaki
  12. pl Polish | Polski
  13. ku Kurdish | Kurdî
  14. ro Romanian | Română
  15. nl Dutch | Nederlands
  16. sv Swedish | Svenska
  17. eo Esperanto Esperanto
  18. ar Arabic | عربي

It's a start.

MediaWiki listing[edit | edit source]

The following languages are supported by MediaWiki and can be used as the default language for new Wikia sites, Wikiversity betas, your own language setting in Special:Preferences, or for interlanguage links when making translations.

The supported languages are also listed at

Code Native English
aa Afar Afar
ab Аҧсуа Abkhaz
af Afrikaans Afrikaans
ak Akana Akan
als Alemannisch Alemannic
am አማርኛ Amharic
an Aragonés Aragonese
ang Anglo Saxon Old English
ar العربية Arabic
arc ܐܪܡܝܐ Aramaic
as অসমীয়া Assamese
ast Asturianu Asturian
av Авар Avar
ay Aymar Aymara
az Azərbaycan Azerbaijani
ba Башҡорт Bashkir
be Беларуская Belarusian
bg Български Bulgarian
bh भोजपुरी Bihara
bi Bislama Bislama
bm Bamanankan Bambara
bn বাংলা Bengali
bo བོད་ཡིག Tibetan
br Brezhoneg Breton
bs Bosanski Bosnian
ca Català Catalan
ce Нохчийн Chechen
ceb Cebuano Cebuano
ch Chamoru Chamorro
cho Choctaw Choctaw
chr ᏣᎳᎩ Cherokee
chy Tsetsêhestâhese Cheyenne
co Corsu Corsican
cr Nehiyaw Cree
cs Česky Czech
csb Kaszëbscziej Cassubian
cv Чӑваш Chuvash
cy Cymraeg Welsh
da Dansk Danish
de Deutsch German
dv ހިބަސް Dhivehi
dz ཇོང་ཁ Bhutani
ee Ɛʋɛ Ewe
el Ελληνικά Greek
en English English
eo Esperanto Esperanto
es Español Spanish
et Eesti Estonian
eu Euskara Basque
fa فارسی Persian
ff Fulfulde Fulah
fi Suomi Finnish
fiu-vro Võro Võro
fj Na Vosa Vakaviti Fijian
fo Føroyskt Faroese
fr français French
fur Furlan Friulian
fy Frysk Frisian
ga Gaeilge Irish
gd Gàidhlig Scots Gaelic
gl Galego Gallegan
gn Avañe'ẽ Guarani
got 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺 Gothic
gu ગુજરાતી Gujarati
gv Gaelg Manx
ha هَوُسَ Hausa
haw Hawai`i Hawaiian
he עברית Hebrew
hi हिन्दी Hindi
ho Hiri Motu Hiri Motu
hr Hrvatski Croatian
ht Krèyol ayisyen Haitian
hu Magyar Hungarian
hy Հայերեն Armenian
hz Otsiherero Herero
ia Interlingua Interlingua
id Bahasa Indonesia Indonesian
ie Interlingue Interlingue
ig Igbo Igbo
ii ꆇꉙ Sichuan Yi
ik Iñupiak Inupiak
io Ido Ido
is Íslenska Icelandic
it Italiano Italian
iu ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ Inuktitut
ja 日本語 Japanese
jbo Lojban Lojban
jv Basa Jawa Javanese
ka ქართული Georgian
kg Kongo Kongo
ki Gĩkũyũ Kikuyu
kj Kuanyama Kuanyama
kk қазақша Kazakh
kl Kalaallisut Greenlandic
km ភាសាខ្មែរ Cambodian
kn ಕನ್ನಡ Kannada
ko 한국어 Korean
kr Kanuri Kanuri
ks कश्मीरी - (كشميري) Kashmiri
ku Kurdî Kurdish
kv Коми Komi
kw Kernewek Cornish
ky Kırgızca Kirghiz
la Latina Latin
lb Lëtzebuergesch Luxemburguish
lg Luganda Ganda
li Limburgs Limburgian
ln Lingala Lingala
lo ລາວ Laotian
lt Lietuvių Lithuanian
lv Latviešu Latvian
mg Malagasy Malagasy
mh Ebon Marshallese
mi Māori Maori
mk Македонски Macedonian
ml മലയാളം Malayalam
mn Монгол Mongoloian
mo Moldoveana Moldovan
mr मराठी Marathi
ms Bahasa Melayu Malay
mt bil-Malti Maltese
mus Muscogee Creek
my Myanmasa Burmese
na Ekakairũ Naoero Nauruan
nah Nahuatl Nahuatl
nds Plattdüütsch Low German or Low Saxon
ne नेपाली Nepali
ng Oshiwambo Ndonga
nl Nederlands Dutch
nn Norsk (nynorsk) Norwegian (Nynorsk)
no Norsk (bokmål) Norwegian
nv Diné bizaad Navajo
ny Chi-Chewa Chichewa
oc Occitan Occitan
om Oromoo Oromo
or ଓଡ଼ିଆ Oriya
os Иронау Ossetic
pa ਪੰਜਾਬੀ Punjabi
pam Pampangan Pampanga
pi पािऴ Pali
pl Polski Polish
ps پښتو Pashto
pt Português Portuguese
pt-br Português Brazilian Portuguese
qu Runa Simi Quechua
rm Rumantsch Raeto-Romance
rn Kirundi Kirundi
ro Română Romanian
roa-rup Armâneashti Aromanian
ru Русский Russian
rw Kinyarwanda Kinyarwanda
sa संस्कृत Sanskrit
sc Sardu Sardinian
scn Sicilianu Sicilian
sco Scots Scots
sd सिनधि Sindhi
se Sámegiella Northern Sami
sg Sängö Sango
sh Srbskohrvatski/Српскохрватски Serbocroatian
si සිංහල Sinhalese
sk Slovenčina Slovak
sl Slovenščina Slovenian
sm Gagana Samoa Samoan
sn chiShona Shona
so Soomaaliga Somali
sq Shqip Albanian
sr Српски / Srpski Serbian
srr Seereer Serer
ss SiSwati Swati
st seSotho Southern Sotho
su Basa Sunda Sundanese
sv Svenska Swedish
sw Kiswahili Swahili
ta தமிழ் Tamil
te తెలుగు Telugu
tg Тоҷикӣ Tajik
th ไทย Thai
ti ትግርኛ Tigrinya
tk تركمن / Туркмен Turkmen
tl Tagalog Tagalog (Filipino)
tn Setswana Setswana
to faka-Tonga Tonga
tokipona Toki Pona Toki Pona
tpi Tok Pisin Tok Pisin
tr Türkçe Turkish
ts Xitsonga Tsonga
tt Tatarça Tatar
tum chiTumbuka Tumbuka
tw Twi Twi
ty Reo Mā`ohi Tahitian
ug Oyghurque Uyghur
uk Українська Ukrainian
ur اردو Urdu
uz Ўзбек Uzbek
ve Tshivenda Venda
vi Tiếng Việt Vietnamese
vo Volapük Volapük
wa Walon Walloon
wo Wollof Wolof
xh isiXhosa Xhosan
yi ייִדיש Yiddish
yo Yorùbá Yoruba
za (Cuengh) Zhuang
zh 中文 Chinese
zh-min-nan Bân-lâm-gú Min-nan
zu isiZulu Zulu

These language names are based on the MediaWiki names.php file.

Notes[edit | edit source]

need that Wikiversity:Multilingualism/NEW thingie

Sample table[edit | edit source]

Now we make a table:

zh es en pt ru ja de ko fr it pl ku ro nl sv eo
zh-es es-en en-pt pt-ru ru-ja ja-de de-ko ko-fr fr-it it-pl pl-ku ku-ro ro-nl nl-sv sv-eo eo-zh
zh-en es-pt en-ru pt-ja ru-de ja-ko de-fr ko-it fr-pl it-ku pl-ro ku-nl ro-sv nl-eo sv-zh eo-es
zh-pt es-ru en-ja pt-de ru-ko ja-fr de-it ko-pl fr-ku it-ro pl-nl ku-sv ro-eo nl-zh sv-es eo-en
zh-ru es-ja en-de pt-ko ru-fr ja-it de-pl ko-ku fr-ro it-nl pl-sv ku-eo ro-zh nl-es sv-en eo-pt
zh-ja es-de en-ko pt-fr ru-it ja-pl de-ku ko-ro fr-nl it-sv pl-eo ku-zh ro-es nl-en sv-pt eo-ru
zh-de es-ko en-fr pt-it ru-pl ja-ku de-ro ko-nl fr-sv it-eo pl-zh ku-es ro-en nl-pt sv-ru eo-ja
zh-ko es-fr en-it pt-pl ru-ku ja-ro de-nl ko-sv fr-eo it-zh pl-es ku-en ro-pt nl-ru sv-ja eo-de
zh-fr es-it en-pl pt-ku ru-ro ja-nl de-sv ko-eo fr-zh it-es pl-en ku-pt ro-ru nl-ja sv-de eo-ko
zh-it es-pl en-ku pt-ro ru-nl ja-sv de-eo ko-zh fr-es it-en pl-pt ku-ru ro-ja nl-de sv-ko eo-fr
zh-pl es-ku en-ro pt-nl ru-sv ja-eo de-zh ko-es fr-en it-pt pl-ru ku-ja ro-de nl-ko sv-fr eo-it
zh-ku es-ro en-nl pt-sv ru-eo ja-zh de-es ko-en fr-pt it-ru pl-ja ku-de ro-ko nl-fr sv-it eo-pl
zh-ro es-nl en-sv pt-eo ru-zh ja-es de-en ko-pt fr-ru it-ja pl-de ku-ko ro-fr nl-it sv-pl eo-ku
zh-nl es-sv en-eo pt-zh ru-es ja-en de-pt ko-ru fr-ja it-de pl-ko ku-fr ro-it nl-pl sv-ku eo-ro
zh-sv es-eo en-zh pt-es ru-en ja-pt de-ru ko-ja fr-de it-ko pl-fr ku-it ro-pl nl-ku sv-ro eo-nl
zh-eo es-zh en-es pt-en ru-pt ja-ru de-ja ko-de fr-ko it-fr pl-it ku-pl ro-ku nl-ro sv-nl eo-sv

Evaluation[edit | edit source]

The goal of translation is to ensure that the source and the target texts communicate the same message.

We selected en, because that's our native language. Notice that when we scanned the whole table for instances of en, two vectors become evident:

  1. The vertical vector - native
  2. The diagonal vector - foreign

As native speakers of English, we are the custodians or the host of English as a source language. The pages in the verticle vector:

en-zh, en-es, ... en-de, etc. 

are written in English. They are for native English speakers wishing to learn a selected foreign language.

Conversly, the pages in the diagonal vector:

zh-en, es-en, ... de-en, etc. 

are written in foreign languages. Native English speakers now become visitors or the guest of the target language custodians.

The pages, en-de and de-en become mirror images of each other. They are translated, (not just transliterated) therefore display the same ideas in matching positions on each page. For example, the page title:

en-de - English-German Translation Guide
de-en - Deutsch-Englisch [Translation Guide/de]

I don't know how to say "Translation Guide" in German, so I indicate that I need some help from the German-speaking custodians of the de-en page.

Notes[edit | edit source]

Table still doesn't adequately demonstrate source / target or guest / host theory (which by the way has no documentation as yet). Perhaps you should back up and punt, Charley ;)

Wikiversity Resources[edit | edit source]

Internal Resources[edit | edit source]

External Resources[edit | edit source]

Categories[edit | edit source]

  1. Category:Language Acquisition
  2. [proposed category]