Motivation and emotion/Tutorials/Time perspective

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Tutorial 10: Time perspective

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This is the tenth tutorial for the Motivation and emotion unit of study.

Overview[edit | edit source]

This tutorial is about the psychology of time and, more specifically, Zimbardo's model of time perspective and how it relates to motivation and emotion.

Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory[edit | edit source]

Before considering theory about time perspective:

Time perspective[edit | edit source]

Time perspective can be broadly divided into:

  • Past
  • Present
  • Future

Zimbardo (2009) further divides time perspective as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Six possible time perspective factors, based on Zimbardo (2009).

Key time perspective principles:

  • TP influences thoughts, feelings, and behaviour unconsciously
  • Each TP has benefits, but excesses create negative consequences
  • TPs are learned through personal experience

For more information, see an overview of time perspective types (

Compare scores[edit | edit source]

  • Compare your ZTPI scores with the:
    • Norms:
      • Past Negative (Mdn = 3.00)
      • Past Positive (Mdn = 3.22)
      • Present Fatalism (Mdn = 2.33)
      • Present Hedonism (Mdn = 3.93)
      • Future (Mdn = 3.38)
      • Transcendental Future
    • "Optimal" profile
      • High Past Positive (like your past)
      • Moderate Present Hedonism (choose when to select pleasure in the present) [1]
      • Moderately high Future orientation (work for the future)
    • The worst time-perspective profile includes:
      • High Past Negative
      • High Present Fatalism
      • "These people are living in a negative past and think nothing they do can change it."[2]

Video[edit | edit source]

Books[edit | edit source]

Book chapter development[edit | edit source]

  • Guided by student questions

Recording[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Zimbardo, P. G. & Boyd, J. N. (2009). The time paradox: Using the new psychology of time to your advantage. New York, NY: Free Press.