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On Aldrin's right is the Solar Wind Composition (SWC) experiment already deployed. Credit: Neil A. Armstrong/NASA.

Circuit astronomy is a lecture as part of the radiation astronomy department series on charge in the universe.

You are free to take this quiz based on circuit astronomy at any time.

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Quiz[edit | edit source]


1 Yes or No, Van Allen radiation belt electrons are constantly removed by collisions with atmospheric neutrals, losses to the magnetopause, and outward radial diffusion.


2 Complete the text:

A composite

spectrum is approximately a

law over at least the ≈ 5 decade wavenumber range 10-13 m-1 < wavenumber < 10-8 m-1 and that may extend to


3 True or False, Interstellar scintillation is fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of radio waves caused by scattering in the interstellar medium.


4 Complete the text:

Match up the detector component/characteristic letter with each of the possibilities below:
Optical bench - A
Focal length - B
Coded aperture - D
Grazing incidence - E
Modulator - F
Collimator - G
Normal incidence - H
varying amplitude, phase, or frequency

a platform used to support systems

narrows a beam

gold mirrors

a measure of how strongly a system converges or diverges

a device for the movement of electrical charge

reflective multilayer optics

a flat grille


5 True or False, The electron reflectometer (ER) aboard the Lunar Prospector determines the location and strength of magnetic fields from the energy spectrum and direction of electrons.


6 When the Earth is viewed from space using X-ray astronomy what characteristic is readily observed?

the magnetic north pole
the Hudson Bay meteorite crater
the South Atlantic Anomaly
the Bermuda Triangle
solar positron events
electrons striking the ionosphere

7 True or False, Electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere are energized by neutral particles from the Sun.


8 A device that narrows a beam of particles or waves is a?

9 Which of the following is likely to be in a control group for assessing a radiation detector?

very high peak to background (> 1000) for known radiation sources
a minimum number of electronic components from the respondent material to the output or image
a liquid nitrogen dewar
easily shielded by neutral material, or anticoincidence material
buried deep underground, under ice, or under water
a wide temperature range for respondent material stability

10 The slowing down of a projectile ion due to the inelastic collisions between bound electrons in the medium and the ion moving through it?

11 Complete the text:

To "narrow" can mean to

the spatial

of the beam to become


12 Complete the text:

The three key parameters of a

waveform are its


and its


13 Complete the text:

With the modulation collimator, the amplitude (

) of the incoming

is reduced by the presence of

diffraction gratings of

that block or greatly reduce that portion of the

incident upon the wires.

14 Complete the text:

The multigrid collimator has the additional

inserted at a specified

position between the two grids,


to them, and

and rotated so that each third

lies in a plane defined by a wire in the outer grid and a wire in the


15 Complete the text:


effects of the grid

or external metal

determine the envelope for the

transmission peaks.

16 True or False, Wolter Type I X-ray optics uses three reflections to focus the incoming X-rays.


17 Fast, short duration electrical transients in voltage, current, or transferred energy in an electrical circuit?

18 True or False, Wolter Type II X-ray optics uses two reflections to focus the incoming X-rays.


19 The elastic collisions between the projectile ion and atoms in the detector involving the interaction of the ion with the nuclei in the detector material?

20 True or False, Wolter Type III X-ray optics uses one reflection to focus the incoming X-rays.


21 Which of the following is not a characteristic of X-ray optics?

grazing incidence mirrors
tungsten-silicon multilayer coatings
nested mirrors
an angular resolution
X-ray lens

22 True or False, To reflect at the 79 keV level, glass layers are multi-coated with W/SiC.


23 Radiotoxic alpha radiation emitters which are expensive?


24 True or False, A sunrise may be detected by listening for bird song.


25 The first source of odor when the terminator passes at the beginning of daylight may be which of the following?

the Sun
a meteorite impact
flowers that open their blooms at sunrise
a late-summer rainstorm
the Moon

26 An energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist?

27 True or False, A professional astronomer holding a digital camera in their hands while working on the International Space Station is a primary astronomical visual source detector.


28 Substances with large band gaps are generally?

29 The reason in principle that your automobile is not detecting X-rays is

it is sitting on top of the Earth's crust below a thick atmosphere
it is low on fuel
those components that may respond to X-rays are not hooked up to needed counting electronics
the top is not down
the Moon is visible
the Sun is behind the clouds

30 A random fluctuation in an electrical signal?

31 A device that detects and responds in a distinctive manner?

32 True or False, The Hubble Space Telescope currently uses the Wide Field Planetary Camera (PC-2) with its F492M filter among others for green astronomy.


33 The average energy loss of the particle per unit path length?

34 True or False, The Hβ emission line does not appear when the F492M filter is used on the Hubble Space Telescope because its wavelength is 486.1 nm.


35 A function of the form:

for some real constants a, b, and c?

36 For the above function, the real constant a of the curve's peak?

37 For the above function, the real constant b of the curve's peak?

38 For the above function, the real constant c which controls the width of the curve?

39 True or False, The PC-1 F502N is centered at 501.85 nm with a band pass of 2.97 nm.


40 Complete the text:


tracks in emulsion chambers have been used for

measurements of

nuclei above

in a series of balloon-borne experiments.

41 Which of the following is involved in planetary astronomy more so than planetary science?

the occurrence of blue rock types on the surface of rocky objects
the Earth and other rocky objects have a green mineral containing mantle
checking equations about complex systems
the advantages of a 559 nm band pass
digging holes in the surface of Mars
surface temperatures low enough to produce methane lakes

42 Natural X-ray sources emit, reflect, fluoresce, absorb, or?

43 The time after each event during which the system is not able to record another event?

44 A device capable of registering a specific substance or physical phenomenon?

45 The minimum voltage that causes a portion of an insulator to become electrically conductive?

46 Complete the text:

The hardware setup also defines key experimental parameters, such as

, solid

and detector


47 Complete the text:

Since the energy of a thermal

is relatively low,

particle reaction is

i.e., essentially

while other reactions such as

reactions will span a broad energy

, it is possible to

among the sources.

48 Complete the text:

Match up the radiation letter with each of the detector possibilities below:
Meteors - A
Cosmic rays - B
Neutrons - C
Protons - D
Electrons - E
Positrons - F
Neutrinos - G
Muons - H
Gamma rays - I
X-rays - J
Ultraviolet rays - K
Optical rays - L
Visual rays - M
Violet rays - N
Blue rays - O
Cyan rays - P
Green rays - Q
Yellow rays - R
Orange rays - S
Red rays - T
Infrared rays - U
Submillimeter rays - V
Radio rays - W
Superluminal rays - X
multialkali (Na-K-Sb-Cs) photocathode materials


511 keV gamma-ray peak


broad-band filter centered at 404 nm

a cloud chamber

ring-imaging Cherenkov


effective area is larger by 104



a blemish about 8,000 km long

a metal-mesh achromatic half-wave plate

coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum

thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals


aluminum nitride

heavy water

18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm

wide-gap II-VI semiconductor ZnO doped with Co2+ (Zn1-xCoxO)

a recoiling nucleus

high-purity germanium

magnetic deflection to separate out incoming ions

2.2-kilogauss magnet used to sweep out electrons


49 True or False, A Faraday cup is a metal conductive cup designed to catch charged particles in vacuum.


50 True or False, A gas detector is a device which detects the presence of various X-rays within an area.


51 True or False, The presence of a liquid may be detected by using S-waves.


52 True or False, The Sun may be directly detected using radar astronomy.


53 True or False, The wheel of the OSO 5 satellite carried a thallium iodide crystal scintillator.


54 True or False, Call every lab you know, tell them to put the spectrometers on the roof and calibrate them for gamma-rays.


55 Complete the text:

For the equation
n is the

, n' is the

and R is the

in units of inverse


56 An optical device that measures the position of a star using a photocell is a?

57 A device that senses the direction to the Earth is?

58 A device that senses the direction to the Sun is a?

59 The name of a neutrino detector residing 2.5 km under the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Toulon, France, is?

60 The name of a neutrino detector under the ice at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica is?

61 To provide a cooling effect on the atmosphere surrounding the observatory building and eliminate ground heat radiation, put the detector housing in?

62 An argon-37 atom is converted by a neutrino by the charged current interaction from what atom?

63 A gallium detector design converts incoming neutrinos to what element?

64 A device that controls the output of a power supply to match an input signal shape but with a larger amplitude is an?

65 A solid state integrated circuit modulator that uses external feedback to control its transfer function or gain is what kind of modulator?

66 Complete the text:

An optical instrument that detects light from the

of the Earth's atmosphere, that is at the

is an horizon


67 Complete the text:

A horizon sensor used to sense the direction to the

center coupled with a

to sense rotation about an axis normal to the orbit plane is an


68 Complete the text:

Condensed noble gases, most notably liquid

and liquid

, are excellent radiation detection


69 Complete the text:

A white beam source focused on a sample, upon striking the sample has photons whose energy matches the


in order to excite the molecules of the sample, while the other photons transmit unaffected and give the sample the


70 Complete the text:

The electronic band structure of a solid describes those ranges of

called energy

that an electron within the sold may have, called

bands and ranges of energy called band gaps or

bands, which it may not have.

71 True or False, The density of states describes the number of states surrounding Afghanistan.


72 True or False, The number of states per interval of energy that are available to be occupied by positrons is called density of states.


73 True or False, The interval of energy at each energy level available for occupation by electrons is the density of states.


74 True or False, The density of states is the number of states per interval of energy at each energy level that are available to be occupied by electrons.


75 True or False, The density distributions of a solid or unit of condensed matter involving more than atoms or molecules is not discrete like a spectral density but continuous.


76 True or False, Local variations, most often due to distortions of the original system, are often called local density of states.


77 Complete the text:

Match up the type of cosmic-ray detector with each of the possibilities below:
visible tracks - A
diffusion cloud chamber - B
bubbles - C
a grid of uninsulated electric wires - D
similar to the Haverah Park experiment - E
fluorescence detectors - F
spark chamber

continuously sensitized to radiation

Pierre Auger Observatory

bubble chamber

Cherenkov detector

expansion cloud chamber


78 Complete the text:

From the list of components below, construct a detector starting with incoming radiation:
incoming radiation

high atomic number deflecting element

optical bench

a system convergence


a beam narrower

a device for the movement of electrical charge

focal length - D
gracing incidence - F
a platform used to support systems - C
aperture - G
collimator - B
device varying amplitude, phase, or frequency - E

79 True or False, The resolution of a detector is its separation into constituent parts.


80 For web colors the RGB decimal code (0 255 0) is what color?

81 True or False, In hexadecimal code, a hex triplet, #008000 or 00 80 00 is green.


82 Which of the following is not a prominent feature associated with the greenness response?

M cone cells
a green light source
L cones
"bluish green" 493-498 nm
"yellowish green" 530-559 nm
"yellow green" 559-570 nm

83 True or False, The resolution of a detector is the degree of fineness of its separation of incoming radiation.


84 The electron and ion currents of the cosmogonic shadow effect are given by

et al., 1984.

85 What are some of the characteristics of Jovian electrons?

hard spectrum
Jovian electrons near Earth are on their way to the Sun
an energy power law
flux increases with 27 day periodicities
at 1 AU, flux decreases exhibit a short-term modulation of 13 minutes
come in mutable varieties

Hypotheses[edit | edit source]

  1. A sense-around system needs to incorporate detection of all forms of radiation.

See also[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

{{Radiation astronomy resources}}