# Charges/Interactions

A depiction of atomic structure is of the helium atom. Credit: Yzmo.{{free media}}

The interactions of charges is fundamental to subluminal physics. The transformation of an electron to a photon and back is the key to electromagnetic propagation.

As a subluminal entity, the electron possesses mass and a spin (a spinon).

On the right is a depiction of the atomic structure of the helium atom. The darkness of the electron cloud corresponds to the line-of-sight integral over the probability function of the 1s atomic orbital of the electron. The magnified nucleus is schematic, showing protons in pink and neutrons in purple. In reality, the nucleus (and the wavefunction of each of the nucleons) is also spherically symmetric and 1s, and the four particles, each with a different quantum number, like the electrons in the helium atom, are all most likely to be found in the same space, at the exact center of the nucleus.

## Chargomagnetism

Def. an attraction is called a chargism.

Def. a repulsion is called a magnetism.

Def. chargism at right angles to magnetism is called chargomagnetism.

Chargism occurs in two forms positive and negative. Magnetism occurs in two forms north and south. Chargism in both forms at right angles to magnetism in two forms is polar chargomagnetism.

Polar chargomagnetism can self-divide. As polar chargomagnetism separates it creates an apparent two dimensional space between the polar chargomagnetisms which is composed of polar chargomagnetisms. The more self-divisions that occur the larger the apparent two dimensional space.

Electronorthism, protosouthism, protonorthism or electrosouthism result. Interference both constructive and destructive can occur increasing or reducing the number of polar chargomagnetism.

To avoid confusion protosouthism could be called positivosouthism or positivonorthism to indicate magnetism (north/south) at right angles to positive chargism.

When polar chargomagnetism splits (radiates) into opposites the radiation produces space and motion between the split polar chargomagnetism. An electronorthism, protosouthism, protonorthism or electrosouthism result.

Def. a splitting of chargomagnetism producing more chargomagnetisms, interactions or interferences is called a chargomagnetic field.

Def. "an action or process of throwing or sending out (splitting produces) a traveling ray in a line, beam, or stream of small cross section" is called radiation.

Def. splitting in a particular direction from the initial chargomagnetism that produces a traveling ray is called radiation.

## Charges

The locus of the abrupt change in conductance that clearly moves away from the 1D parabola is the chargon. Credit: Y. Jompol, C. J. B. Ford, J. P. Griffiths, I. Farrer, G. A. C. Jones, D. Anderson, D. A. Ritchie, T. W. Silk and A. J. Schofield.

Charge is usually thought of as a property of matter that is responsible for electrical phenomena, existing in a positive or negative form.

Def. "the quantity of unbalanced positive or negative ions in or on an object; measured in coulombs"[1] is called charge, or electric charge.

Def. "a quasiparticle produced as a result of electron spin-charge separation"[2] is called a chargon.

A chargon possesses the charge of an electron without a spin.

A spinon, in turn, possesses the spin of an electron without charge. The suggestion is that an elementary particle such as a positron may consist of at least two parts: spin and charge.

In the figure at the right "the 1D parabola tracks the spin excitation (spinon)."[3]

Def. a "quasiparticle, corresponding to the orbital energy of an electron, which can result from an electron apparently ‘splitting’ under certain conditions"[4] is called an orbiton.

Both an orbiton and a spinon are kinetic or kinematic concepts applied to an electron.

Def. "a discrete particle having zero rest mass, no electric charge, and an indefinitely long lifetime"[5] is called a photon.

An electron may be thought of as a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative one.

## Interactions

Polar chargomagnetisms that interact at the right angles produces an apparent three dimensional space.

Interaction can also produce a separation speed or speed of division. Interaction of polar chargomagnetism where the charge portion most closely interacts with the charge portion produces a chargon effect. Interaction of polar chargomagnetism where the magnetism portion most closely interacts with the magnetism portion produces a magneton effect. Interaction of polar chargomagnetism where the magnetism portion most closely interacts with the chargism portion produces a spinon effect.

A holon is "One of three kinds of quasiparticle (the others being the spinon and orbiton) that electrons in solids are able to split into during the process of spin–charge separation, when extremely tightly confined at temperatures close to absolute zero." Synonym: chargon. Electromagnetism comes from electric "1640s (Thomas Browne), from New Latin ēlectricus (“electrical; of amber”), from ēlectrum (“amber”) +‎ -icus (“adjectival suffix”), from Ancient Greek ἤλεκτρον (ḗlektron, “amber”), related to ἠλέκτωρ (ēléktōr, “shining sun”), origin unknown, see there for further information." or electron.

But there is also the positron so if a positron can produce a chargon: "a quasiparticle produced as a result of [positron] spin-charge separation." it would also be called a chargon.

"Chargomagnetism" indicates a positive field or positive "electric field" at 90° to a magnetic field (which has polarity: north vs. south) as well as a negative field or electric field at 90° to a magnetic field can occur.

## Annihilations

Naturally occurring electron-positron annihilation is a result of beta plus decay. Credit: .
A Germanium detector spectrum shows the annihilation radiation peak (under the arrow). Note the width of the peak compared to the other gamma rays visible in the spectrum. Credit: Hidesert.

The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. The positron has an electric charge of +1e, a spin of ½, and has the same mass as an electron. When a low-energy positron collides with a low-energy electron, annihilation occurs, resulting in the production of two or more gamma ray photons.

Def. the process of a particle and its corresponding antiparticle combining to produce energy is called annihilation.

The figure at right shows a positron (e+) emitted from an atomic nucleus together with a neutrino (v). Subsequently, the positron moves randomly through the surrounding matter where it hits several different electrons (e-) until it finally loses enough energy that it interacts with a single electron. This process is called an "annihilation" and results in two diametrically emitted photons with a typical energy of 511 keV each. Under normal circumstances the photons are not emitted exactly diametrically (180 degrees). This is due to the remaining energy of the positron having conservation of momentum.

Electron–positron annihilation occurs when an electron (e
) and a positron (e+
, the electron's antiparticle) collide. The result of the collision is the annihilation of the electron and positron, and the creation of gamma ray photons or, at higher energies, other particles:

e
+ e+
→ γ + γ

The process [does] satisfy a number of conservation laws, including:

As with any two charged objects, electrons and positrons may also interact with each other without annihilating, in general by elastic scattering.

The creation of only one photon can occur for tightly bound atomic electrons.[6] In the most common case, two photons are created, each with energy equal to the rest energy of the electron or positron (511 keV).[7] It is also common for three to be created, since in some angular momentum states, this is necessary to conserve C parity.[8] Any larger number of photons [can be created], but the probability becomes lower with each additional photon. When either the electron or positron, or both, have appreciable kinetic energies, other heavier particles can also be produced (such as D mesons), since there is enough kinetic energy in the relative velocities to provide the rest energies of those particles. Photons and other light particles may be produced, but they will emerge with higher energies.

At energies near and beyond the mass of the carriers of the weak force, the W and Z bosons, the strength of the weak force becomes comparable with electromagnetism.[8] It becomes much easier to produce particles such as neutrinos that interact only weakly.

The heaviest particle pairs yet produced by electron–positron annihilation are W+
W
pairs. The heaviest single particle is the Z boson.

Annihilation radiation is not monoenergetic, unlike gamma rays produced by radioactive decay. The production mechanism of annihilation radiation introduces Doppler broadening.[9] The annihilation peak produced in a gamma spectrum by annihilation radiation therefore has a higher full width at half maximum (FWHM) than other gamma rays in [the] spectrum. The difference is more apparent with high resolution detectors, such as Germanium detectors, than with low resolution detectors such as Sodium iodide. Because of their well-defined energy (511 keV) and characteristic, Doppler-broadened shape, annihilation radiation can often be useful in defining the energy calibration of a gamma ray spectrum.

When two gamma rays interact at 511 Kev they produce a positron and electron pair. Easier to explain from chargomagnetism than electromagnetism.

"Laser pulses have been made to accelerate themselves around loops of optical fibre - which seems to go against Newton’s 3rd law. This states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction."[10]

"Under Newton’s third law of motion, if we imagine one billiard ball striking another upon a pool table, the two balls will bounce away from each other. If one of the billiard balls had a negative mass, then the collision of the two balls would result in them accelerating in the same direction."[10]

## Strong interactions

The strong interaction is observable in two areas: on a larger scale (about 1 to 3 femtometers (fm)), it is the force that binds protons and neutrons (nucleons) together to form the nucleus of an atom. On the smaller scale (less than about 0.8 fm, the radius of a nucleon), it is also the force that forms and holds together protons, neutrons and other hadron particles.

In the context of binding protons and neutrons together to form atoms, the strong interaction is called the nuclear force (or residual strong force). The strong interaction obeys a quite different distance-dependent behavior between nucleons.

"Another possibility [regarding neutron stars, called "baryon matter",] is that in the absence of gravity high-density baryonic matter is bound by purely strong forces. [...] nongravitationally bound bulk hadronic matter is consistent with nuclear physics data [...] and low-energy strong interaction data [...] The effective field theory approach has many successes in nuclear physics [...] suggesting that bulk hadronic matter is just as likely to be a correct description of matter at high densities as conventional, unbound hadronic matter."[11]

"The idea behind baryon matter is that a macroscopic state may exist in which a smaller effective baryon mass inside some region makes the state energetically favored over free particles. [...] This state will appear in the limit of large baryon number as an electrically neutral coherent bound state of neutrons, protons, and electrons in β-decay equilibrium."[11]

## Electromagnetic interactions

The electromagnetic interaction is a fundamental force of nature that is felt by charged particles. Its exchange particle is the photon (symbol γ) and the many forms of electromagnetic radiation are a manifestation of this interaction.

Sources of electromagnetic fields consist of two types of charge – positive and negative.

The relative strengths and ranges of the charge interactions:

Interaction Mediator Relative Magnitude Behavior Range
Strong interaction gluon 1038 1 10−15 m
Electromagnetic interaction photon 1036 1/r2 universal
Weak interaction W and Z bosons 1025 1/r5 to 1/r7 10−16 m
Gravity interaction photon 10 1/r2 universal

From an electromagnetic-type interaction point of view, the gravity interaction, or gravitational interaction, is a heavily charge-balanced ever so slight excess of positive charge amounting to 10-36 of a proton for the mass of a proton. Gravity owes its ability to attract other objects due to their apparent charge excess often represented by mass.

## Weak interactions

The diagram shows beta-minus decay from a nucleus. Credit: Inductiveload.

The weak interaction is expressed with respect to nuclear electrons and the continuous β-ray emission spectrum of β decay.[12]

## Ultraweak interactions

The relative strengths and ranges of the charge interactions:

Interaction Mediator Relative Magnitude Behavior Range
Electromagnetic interaction photon 1036 1/r2 universal
Weak interaction W and Z bosons 1025 1/r5 to 1/r7 10−16 m
Gravity interaction photon (?) 10 1/r2 universal

As charge interactions tend toward apparent neutralization, the relative magnitude decreases.

The weakest interactions may be those associated with gravity.

For Keesom interactions:

${\displaystyle V={\frac {-m_{1}^{2}m_{2}^{2}}{24\pi ^{2}\varepsilon _{o}^{2}\varepsilon _{r}^{2}k_{b}Tr^{6}}}}$

Where m = charge per length, ${\displaystyle \varepsilon _{o}}$ = permitivity of free space, ${\displaystyle \varepsilon _{r}}$ = dielectric constant of surrounding material, T = temperature, ${\displaystyle k_{b}}$ = Boltzmann constant, and r = distance between molecules.

## Hypotheses

1. The interactions of charges is the result of attractions or repulsions.

## References

1. "electric charge". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 24 July 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
2. Xhienne (30 April 2012). "chargon". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-08-08. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
3. Y. Jompol, C. J. B. Ford, J. P. Griffiths, I. Farrer, G. A. C. Jones, D. Anderson, D. A. Ritchie, T. W. Silk and A. J. Schofield (July 2009). "Probing spin-charge separation in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid". Science 325 (5940): 597-601. doi:10.1126/science.1171769. Retrieved 2015-08-08.
4. Widsith (19 April 2012). "orbiton". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-08-08. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
5. Poccil (18 October 2004). "photon". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-08-08. {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
6. L. Sodickson; W. Bowman; J. Stephenson; R. Weinstein (1960). "Single-Quantum Annihilation of Positrons". Physical Review 124: 1851. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.124.1851.
7. W.B. Atwood; P.F. Michelson; S.Ritz (2008). "Una Ventana Abierta a los Confines del Universo". Investigación y Ciencia 377: 24–31.
8. D.J. Griffiths (1987). Introduction to Elementary Particles. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-60386-4.
9. Gilmore, G., and Hemmingway, J.: "Practical Gamma Ray Spectrometry", page 13. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1995
10. GrrlScientist (22 October 2013). "Scientists have made light appear to break Newton's third law". IFLScience. Retrieved 2015-09-28.
11. Safi Bahcall, Bryan W. Lynn, and Stephen B. Selipsky (October 10, 1990). "New Models for Neutron Stars". The Astrophysical Journal 362 (10): 251-5. doi:10.1086/169261. Retrieved 2014-01-11.
12. Fred L. Wilson (December 1968). "Fermi's Theory of Beta Decay". American Journal of Physics 36 (12): 1150-60. Retrieved 2012-06-24.