# Charges/Interactions

A depiction of atomic structure is of the helium atom. Credit: Yzmo.

The interactions of charges is fundamental to subluminal physics. The transformation of an electron to a photon and back is the key to electromagnetic propagation.

As a subluminal entity, the electron possesses mass and a spin (a spinon).

On the right is a depiction of the atomic structure of the helium atom. The darkness of the electron cloud corresponds to the line-of-sight integral over the probability function of the 1s atomic orbital of the electron. The magnified nucleus is schematic, showing protons in pink and neutrons in purple. In reality, the nucleus (and the wavefunction of each of the nucleons) is also spherically symmetric and 1s, and the four particles, each with a different quantum number, like the electrons in the helium atom, are all most likely to be found in the same space, at the exact center of the nucleus.

## Charges

The locus of the abrupt change in conductance that clearly moves away from the 1D parabola is the chargon. Credit: Y. Jompol, C. J. B. Ford, J. P. Griffiths, I. Farrer, G. A. C. Jones, D. Anderson, D. A. Ritchie, T. W. Silk and A. J. Schofield.

Charge is usually thought of as a property of matter that is responsible for electrical phenomena, existing in a positive or negative form.

Def. "the quantity of unbalanced positive or negative ions in or on an object; measured in coulombs"[1] is called charge, or electric charge.

Def. "a quasiparticle produced as a result of electron spin-charge separation"[2] is called a chargon.

A chargon possesses the charge of an electron without a spin.

A spinon, in turn, possesses the spin of an electron without charge. The suggestion is that an elementary particle such as a positron may consist of at least two parts: spin and charge.

In the figure at the top of this section "the 1D parabola tracks the spin excitation (spinon)."[3]

Def. a "quasiparticle, corresponding to the orbital energy of an electron, which can result from an electron apparently ‘splitting’ under certain conditions"[4] is called an orbiton.

Both an orbiton and a spinon are kinetic or kinematic concepts applied to an electron.

Def. "a discrete particle having zero rest mass, no electric charge, and an indefinitely long lifetime"[5] is called a photon.

An electron may be thought of as a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative one.

## Interactions

"Laser pulses have been made to accelerate themselves around loops of optical fibre - which seems to go against Newton’s 3rd law. This states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction."[6]

"Under Newton’s third law of motion, if we imagine one billiard ball striking another upon a pool table, the two balls will bounce away from each other. If one of the billiard balls had a negative mass, then the collision of the two balls would result in them accelerating in the same direction."[6]

## Strong interactions

The strong interaction is observable in two areas: on a larger scale (about 1 to 3 femtometers (fm)), it is the force that binds protons and neutrons (nucleons) together to form the nucleus of an atom. On the smaller scale (less than about 0.8 fm, the radius of a nucleon), it is also the force that forms and holds together protons, neutrons and other hadron particles.

In the context of binding protons and neutrons together to form atoms, the strong interaction is called the nuclear force (or residual strong force). The strong interaction obeys a quite different distance-dependent behavior between nucleons.

"Another possibility [regarding neutron stars, called "baryon matter",] is that in the absence of gravity high-density baryonic matter is bound by purely strong forces. [...] nongravitationally bound bulk hadronic matter is consistent with nuclear physics data [...] and low-energy strong interaction data [...] The effective field theory approach has many successes in nuclear physics [...] suggesting that bulk hadronic matter is just as likely to be a correct description of matter at high densities as conventional, unbound hadronic matter."[7]

"The idea behind baryon matter is that a macroscopic state may exist in which a smaller effective baryon mass inside some region makes the state energetically favored over free particles. [...] This state will appear in the limit of large baryon number as an electrically neutral coherent bound state of neutrons, protons, and electrons in β-decay equilibrium."[7]

## Electromagnetic interactions

The electromagnetic interaction is a fundamental force of nature that is felt by charged particles. Its exchange particle is the photon (symbol γ) and the many forms of electromagnetic radiation are a manifestation of this interaction.

Sources of electromagnetic fields consist of two types of charge – positive and negative.

The relative strengths and ranges of the charge interactions:

Interaction Mediator Relative Magnitude Behavior Range
Strong interaction gluon 1038 1 10−15 m
Electromagnetic interaction photon 1036 1/r2 universal
Weak interaction W and Z bosons 1025 1/r5 to 1/r7 10−16 m
Gravity interaction photon 10 1/r2 universal

From an electromagnetic-type interaction point of view, the gravity interaction, or gravitational interaction, is a heavily charge-balanced ever so slight excess of positive charge amounting to 10-36 of a proton for the mass of a proton. Gravity owes its ability to attract other objects due to their apparent charge excess often represented by mass.

## Weak interactions

The diagram shows beta-minus decay from a nucleus. Credit: Inductiveload.

The weak interaction is expressed with respect to nuclear electrons and the continuous β-ray emission spectrum of β decay.[8]

## Ultraweak interactions

The relative strengths and ranges of the charge interactions:

Interaction Mediator Relative Magnitude Behavior Range
Electromagnetic interaction photon 1036 1/r2 universal
Weak interaction W and Z bosons 1025 1/r5 to 1/r7 10−16 m
Gravity interaction photon 10 1/r2 universal

As charge interactions tend toward apparent neutralization, the relative magnitude decreases.

The weakest interactions may be those associated with gravity.

For Keesom interactions:

${\displaystyle V={\frac {-m_{1}^{2}m_{2}^{2}}{24\pi ^{2}\varepsilon _{o}^{2}\varepsilon _{r}^{2}k_{b}Tr^{6}}}}$

Where m = charge per length, ${\displaystyle \varepsilon _{o}}$ = permitivity of free space, ${\displaystyle \varepsilon _{r}}$ = dielectric constant of surrounding material, T = temperature, ${\displaystyle k_{b}}$ = Boltzmann constant, and r = distance between molecules.

## Hypotheses

1. The interactions of charges is the result of attractions or repulsions.