Literature/1991/Traue

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Traue, James Edward (1991). Committed to Print: Selected Essays in Praise of the Common Culture of the Book. Victoria University Press.

Excerpts[edit]

"The Research Library and Public Knowledge" (pp. 53-57) [1]
  • Librarians are document oriented; they are professionally dependent on documents and fail to realise the limitations of documents, their difficulties, and the problems they present to 90 per cent of the population. Documents are irrelevant to most people most of the time; they prefer wherever possible to use other people to acquire information face to face, where they can ask questions and clarify what is uncertain or not understood. When they need help on a course of action they usually seek advice from other people.
  • Knowledge, in Wilson's formulation, consists of private knowledge and public knowledge. At any one time a great deal of knowledge is private, an individual's knowledge which is unrecorded, unavailable, private, never revealed. Public knowledge consists of recorded knowledge and other knowledge held by individuals which is publicly available though not necessarily recorded. [1]
  • ... documents are but representations of knowledge, not knowledge itself, and one has to work at the documents to obtain the knowledge for oneself. You may give a document to a person but he or she may not necessarily have the ability to acquire the knowledge represented. [...] Making knowledge available in a documentary representation is not necessarily making it accessible. (p. 54)
  • Let us now turn to the role of the library .... Jesse Shera ... has neatly summed it up in one sentence: 'the library is an instrumentality created to maximise the utility of graphic records for the benefit of society.'[2] Shera's formulation, with its emphasis on utility, that the usefulness, the profitability, of the use of graphic records, makes knowledge transfer the key element. A library's function, in my gloss of Shera, is to maximise knowledge transfer to society from graphic records for the benefit of society.
      However, if you accept Wilson's argument, by maximising document availability you are not necessarily maximising the accessibility of the knowledge contained in the documents, not necessarily maximising knowledge transfer.
  • Clearly then, if the acquisition of knowledge from documents by a person depends on the abilities and effort of that person, the most useful libraries are those in which the documents are closely matched with the abilities of the user, where the effort to acquire information is minimised.
  • The contents of a specialist library ... have been chosen to match the specialist knowledge of their users, and while they will have utility for their specialist user groups they could well be incomprehensible and therefore have no or very low utility for those lacking specialist knowledge.

Chronology[edit]

  • Reagle Jr., Joseph Michael (2010). Good Faith Collaboration: The Culture of Wikipedia. MIT Press. [^]
  • Wallace, Danny P. (2007). Knowledge Management: Historical and Cross-Disciplinary Themes. Libraries Unlimited. [^]
  • Rayward, W. Boyd (1999). "H.G. Wells's Idea of a World Brain: A Critical Reassessment," Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(7): 557-573. [^]
  • Brin, Sergey & Lawrence Page (1998). "The Anatomy of a Large-scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine," Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on World Wide Web 7, p.107-117, April 1998, Brisbane, Australia. [^]
  • Lawrence, Steve & C. Lee Giles (1998). "Searching the World Wide Web," Science, April 3, 1998, pp. 98-100. [^]
  • Literature/1997/Goodman [^]
  • Campbell-Kelly, Martin & William Aspray (1996). Computer: A History of the Information Machine. Basic Books. [^]
  • Cunningham, Ward (1995). WikiWikiWeb. Portland Pattern Repository, Cunningham & Cunningham, Inc. http://c2.com/cgi/wiki [^]
  • Rayward, W. Boyd (1994). "Visions of Xanadu: Paul Otlet (1868-1944) and Hypertext." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45(4): 235-250. [^]
  • Mayne, Alan J., ed. (1993). World Brain: H. G. Wells on the Future of World Education. London, UK: Adamantine Press. [^]
  • Buckland, Michael (1992). "Emanuel Goldberg, Electronic Document Retrieval, and Vannevar Bush's Memex." Journal of the American Society for Information Science, vol. 43, no. 4 (May 1992), pp. 284-294. [^]
  • Gloor, Peter A. ed. (1991). Cybermap: Yet Another Way of Navigating in Hyperspace (HYPERTEXT'91 Proceedings of the third annual ACM conference on Hypertext). New York, NY: ACM. [^]
  • Traue, James Edward (1991). Committed to Print: Selected Essays in Praise of the Common Culture of the Book. Victoria University Press. [^]
  • Literature/1990/Berners-Lee [^]
  • Weyer, Stephen A. & Alan H. Borning (1985). "A Prototype Electronic Encyclopedia," ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS) vol. 3, no. 1 (Jan. 1985) pp. 63-88. [^]
  • Smith, Linda Cheryl (1980). "'Memex' as an image of potentiality in information retrieval research and development." Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM conference on research and development in information retrieval (SIGIR '80, Cambridge, England, 1980) Kent, UK: Butterworth, 1981. pp. 345-369. [^]
  • Soergel, Dagobert (1977). "An Automated Encyclopedia: A Solution of the Information Problem?" International Classification, 4(1): 4-10; 4(2): 81-89. [^]
  • Wilson, Patrick (1977). Public Knowledge, Private Ignorance: Toward a Library and Information Policy. Greenwood Publishing Group. [^]
  • Fillmore, Charles J. (1976). "Frame Semantics and the Nature of Language," in: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences: Conference on the Origin and Development of Language and Speech. Volume 280: 20-32. [^]
  • Belkin, Nicholas J. & Stephen E. Robertson (1976). "Information Science and the Phenomenon of Information," Journal of the American Society for Information Science (Jul-Aug 1976) 27 (4): 197-204. [^]
  • Literature/1975/Einbinder [^]
  • Kochen, Manfred, ed. (1975). Information for Action: from Knowledge to Wisdom. New York: Academic Press. [^]
  • Wersig, G. & U. Neveling (1975). "The Phenomena of Interest to Information Science." The Information Scientist. 9 (4): 127-140. [^]
  • Literature/1974/Cerf [^]
  • Kochen, Manfred (1972). "WISE: A World Information Synthesis and Encyclopaedia." Journal of Documentation, 28: 322-341. [^]
  • Shera, Jesse (1972). The Foundations of Education for Librarianship. New York: Becker and Hayes. [^]
  • Kochen, Manfred (1969). "Stability in the Growth of Knowledge." American Documentation, 20 (3): 186-197. [^]
  • Kochen, Manfred, ed. (1967). The Growth of Knowledge: Readings on Organization and Retrieval of Information. New York: Wiley. [^]
  • Kochen, Manfred (1965). Some Problems in Information Science. Scarecrow Press. (Jan 1, 1965) [^]
  • Licklider, J. C. R. (1965). Libraries of the Future. MIT Press. [^]
  • Einbinder, Harvey (1964). The Myth of the Britannica. New York: Grove Press. [^]
  • Garfield, Eugene (1964). "Science Citation Indexing -- A New Dimension in Indexing." Science 144 (3619): 649-654. [^]
  • Licklider, J. C. R. (1960). "Man-Computer Symbiosis." In: IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, vol. HFE-1, pp. 4–11. [^]
  • Garfield, Eugene (1955). "Citation Indexes for Science: A New Dimension in Documentation through Association of Ideas." Science, 122(3159): 108-111. [^]
  • Bush, Vannevar (1945). "As We May Think." The Atlantic Monthly (July 1945): 101-108. [^]
  • Bernal, J. D. (1939). The Social Function of Science. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. [^]
  • Wells, H. G. (1938). World Brain. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Co. [^]
  • Ogden, C. K. & I. A. Richards (1923). The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. [^]

Comments[edit]


Notes[edit]

  1. Information, including "recorded knowledge" held in libraries, may well be understood simply as whatever knowledge informed or made known to others. Then, why information matters is not so much its inferiority to knowledge in itself, as the notion of w: DIKW wrongly suggests, as the explicit good it does in practice on behalf of the implicit knowledge in itself. Thus, what matters at last or after all is not the physical form or signification, but the logical meaning or significance, of whether knowledge or information. Not to mention w: DIKW, remarkably wrong in this perspective are:
    • Farradane, Jason (1979). "The Nature of Information," Journal of Information Science 1(1): 13-17. [^]
    • Buckland, Michael (1991). "Information as Thing." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42 (5): 351-360. [^]
    • Gorman, Michael (2004). "Google and God's Mind: The problem is, information isn't knowledge." (Commentary) Los Angeles Times, December 17, 2004. [^]
  2. Shera, J., The Foundation of Educations for Librarianship, 1972, p. 48.
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Gradient-optical-illusion.svg
The shade of the bar looks invariant in isolation but variant in context, in (favor of) sharp contrast with the color gradient background, hence an innate illusion we have to reasonably interpret and overcome as well as the mirage. Such variance appearing seasonably from context to context may not only be the case with our vision but worldview in general in practice indeed, whether a priori or a posteriori. Perhaps no worldview from nowhere, without any point of view or prejudice at all!

Ogden & Richards (1923) said, "All experience ... is either enjoyed or interpreted ... or both, and very little of it escapes some degree of interpretation."

H. G. Wells (1938) said, "The human individual is born now to live in a society for which his fundamental instincts are altogether inadequate."