Literature/1985/Weyer

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Weyer, Stephen A. & Alan H. Borning (1985). "A Prototype Electronic Encyclopedia," ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS) vol. 3, no. 1 (Jan. 1985) pp. 63-88.

Authors[edit]

Stephen A. Weyer 
Atari Sunnyvale Research Laboratory
Alan H. Borning 
University of Washington

Abstract[edit]

We describe a prototype electronic encyclopedia implemented on a powerful personal computer, in which user interface, media presentation, and knowledge representation techniques are applied to improving access to a knowledge resource. In itself, an electronic encyclopedia is an important information resource, but this work also illustrates the issues and approaches for many types of electronic information retrieval environments. In the prototype we make dynamic use of the structure and semantics of the text articles and index of an existing encyclopedia, while experimenting with other forms of representation, such as simulation and videodisc images. We present a long-term vision of an intelligent user-interface agent; summarize previous work related to futuristic encyclopedias, electronic books, decision support systems, and knowledge libraries; and outline current and potential research directions.

Excerpts[edit]

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Chronology[edit]

  • Literature/1990/Berners-Lee [^]
  • Literature/1989/Berners-Lee [^]
  • Adler, Mortimer J. & Geraldine van Doren (1988). Reforming Education: The Opening of the American Mind. New York: Macmillan. [^]
  • Literature/1988/Marchionini [^]
  • Literature/1987/Conklin [^]
  • Trigg, Randall H. & Peggy M. Irish (1987). "Hypertext Habitats: Experiences of Writers in NoteCards." HYPERTEXT '87 Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Hypertext. New York, NY: ACM. [^]
  • Trigg, Randall Hagner & Mark Weiser (1986). "TEXTNET: A Network-based Approach to Text Handling," ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS) Vol. 4, No.1 (Jan. 1986) pp. 1-23. [^]
  • Weyer, Stephen A. & Alan H. Borning (1985). "A Prototype Electronic Encyclopedia," ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS) vol. 3, no. 1 (Jan. 1985) pp. 63-88. [^]
  • Shneiderman, Ben (1983). "Direct Manipulation: A Step Beyond Programming Languages," Computer, Vol. 16, No. 8 (August 1983) pp. 57-69. [^]
  • Trigg, Randall Hagner (1983). A Network-based Approach to Text Handling for the On-line Scientific Community. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, MD. [^]
  • Literature/1982/Brown [^]
  • Weyer, Stephen A. (1982). Searching for Information in a Dynamic Book. Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. of Education, Stanford University, February 1982. [^]
  • Weyer, Stephen A. (1982). "The design of a dynamic book for information search." Int. J. Man-Mach. Stud. (1982) 17: 87-107.
  • Literature/1980/Berners-Lee [^]
  • Preece, Warren E. (1980). "Notes toward a New Encyclopedia Part 1," Scholarly Publishing vol. 12, no. 1 (Oct. 1980) pp. 13-30; "Part 2," ibid vol. 12, no. 2 (Jan. 1981) pp. 141-157. [^]
  • Judge, Anthony (1977). "Knowledge-representation in a Computer-supported Ennvironment," International Classification, 4(2): 76-81. [^]
  • Soergel, Dagobert (1977). "An Automated Encyclopedia: A Solution of the Information Problem?" International Classification, 4(1): 4-10; 4(2): 81-89. [^]
  • Kochen, Manfred, ed. (1975). Information for Action: from Knowledge to Wisdom. New York: Academic Press. [^]
  • Kochen, Manfred (1974). Principles of Information Retrieval. New York: Wiley. [^]
  • Kochen, Manfred (1972). "WISE: A World Information Synthesis and Encyclopaedia." Journal of Documentation, 28: 322-341. [^]
  • Kochen, Manfred (1969). "Stability in the Growth of Knowledge." American Documentation, 20 (3): 186-197. [^]
  • Kochen, Manfred & R. Tagliacozzo (1968) "A Study of Cross-referencing." Journal of Documentation. 24: 173-191. [^]
  • Kochen, Manfred, ed. (1967). The Growth of Knowledge: Readings on Organization and Retrieval of Information. New York: Wiley. [^]
  • Kochen, Manfred (1965). Some Problems in Information Science. Scarecrow Press. (Jan 1, 1965) [^]
  • Bohnert, Herbert G. & Manfred Kochen (1963). "The automated multilevel encyclopedia as a new mode of scientific communication." In: Proceedings of the American Documentation Institute, Oct. 1963, pp. 269-270. [^]
  • Bush, Vannevar (1945). "As We May Think." The Atlantic Monthly (July 1945): 101-108. [^]
  • Wells, H. G. (1938). World Brain. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Co. [^]

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Gradient-optical-illusion.svg
The shade of the bar looks invariant in isolation but variant in context, in (favor of) sharp contrast with the color gradient background, hence an innate illusion we have to reasonably interpret and overcome as well as the mirage. Such variance appearing seasonably from context to context may not only be the case with our vision but worldview in general in practice indeed, whether a priori or a posteriori. Perhaps no worldview from nowhere, without any point of view or prejudice at all!

Ogden & Richards (1923) said, "All experience ... is either enjoyed or interpreted ... or both, and very little of it escapes some degree of interpretation."

H. G. Wells (1938) said, "The human individual is born now to live in a society for which his fundamental instincts are altogether inadequate."