Literature/1903/Pavlov

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Pavlov, Ivan (1903). "The Experimental Psychology and Psychopathology of Animals." The 14th International Medical Congress, Madrid, Spain, April 23-30, 1903.

Russian title: "Eksperimental’naiia psikhologiia i psikhopatologiia na zhivotnykh."

Reprints[edit]

  • Pavlov, Ivan P. Lectures on Conditioned Reflexes. Translated by Horsley Gantt. New York: International Publishers, 1928.[1] Volume 1, pages 47-60. The translation of the extract in the text was provided by Gregory Razran.
See also
  • Pavlov, I. P. Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex. Translated and Edited by G. V. Anrep. London: Oxford University Press, 1927.

Excerpts[edit]

Wikimedia[edit]

w: Ivan Pavlov
w: Conditioned reflex

Chronology[edit]

Reviews[edit]

  • In this paper the definition of conditioned and other reflexes was given and it was shown that a conditioned reflex should be regarded as an elementary psychological phenomenon, which at the same time is a physiological one. It followed from this that the conditioned reflex was a clue to the mechanism of the most highly developed forms of reaction in animals and humans to their environment and it made an objective study of their psychic activity possible. -- From "Pavlov," nobelprize.org, 1904 [1]

Comments[edit]


Notes[edit]

  1. Horsley Gantt, who in 1928 produced an English translation of the first collection of Pavlov's work in this field, claimed his was just following an already-established convention: "Conditional (ooslovny) [uslovnyi] and not conditioned is Prof. Pavlov's term, but as conditioned reflex has become fixed in English usage instead of conditional reflex, we adhere to the term conditioned." See translator's footnote, in Pavlov, Lectures on Conditioned Reflexes, 79; emphasis in original. Gantt was referring here to the English translation of Pavlov's second major volume on this subject by G. V. Anref (a native Russian speaker), published the year before Gantt's translation of the earlier volume appeared; I. P. Pavlov, Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex, trans. G. V. Anrep (New York: Dover Publications, 1927). Gantt also remarks in his translator's note that "in French and German translation, Prof. Pavlov's original term (conditional) has been preserved." See Pavlov, Lectures on conditional reflexes, 79. -- Todes, Daniel Philip (2002). Pavlov's Physiology Factory: Experiment, Interpretation, Laboratory Enterprise. JHU Press, 2002. p. 438. Footnote 79. http://books.google.com/books?id=4FpobBC2V1oC
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The shade of the bar looks invariant in isolation but variant in context, in (favor of) sharp contrast with the color gradient background, hence an innate illusion we have to reasonably interpret and overcome as well as the mirage. Such variance appearing seasonably from context to context may not only be the case with our vision but worldview in general in practice indeed, whether a priori or a posteriori. Perhaps no worldview from nowhere, without any point of view or prejudice at all!

Ogden & Richards (1923) said, "All experience ... is either enjoyed or interpreted ... or both, and very little of it escapes some degree of interpretation."

H. G. Wells (1938) said, "The human individual is born now to live in a society for which his fundamental instincts are altogether inadequate."