Introduction to Elasticity
Welcome to the Introduction to Elasticity learning project. Here you will find notes, assignments, and other useful information that will introduce you to this exciting subject.
Learning Project Summary 
- Project code:
- Suggested Prerequisites:
- Time investment: 6 months
- Assessment suggestions:
- Portal:Engineering and technology
- Department:Mechanical engineering
- Stream:Applied mechanics
- Subject Area:Elasticity
- Level:First year graduate
The theory of elasticity deals with the deformations of elastic solids and has a well developed mathematical basis. This course will deal with applied engineering aspects of the theory and will include :
- Definition of stresses, strains, equilibrium and compatibility.
- Derivation of the governing equations.
- Solution of problems in plane stress, plane strain, torsion, bending.
- Introduction to three-dimensional problems.
Vectors and tensors will be discussed and used to enhance understanding of the theory where necessary. The course intends to provide the student with the tools and an understanding of the use of vectors and tensors in describing the deformation and motion of elastic solids, the formulation of the governing equations using physical laws, and the solution of simple linear elasticity problems using various analytical techniques.
- Vectors, tensors and index notation
- Kinematics - deformation, strain measures, strain-displacement relations
- Kinetics - stress measures and stress-traction relations
- Constitutive equations - Hookes's law, linearized elasticity
- Equilibrium and compatibility, superposition, uniqueness
- Two-dimensional solutions - Plane stress and plane strain, St. Venant's principle, Airy stress function, Beam bending, Edge dislocation
- Two-dimensional problems - Michell solution, hole in a plate
- Two-dimensional problems with body forces - rotating beam, circular disk
- Two-dimensional problems - William's solution, Wedges
- Axisymmetric problems
- Torsion - Prandtl stress function, membrane analogy
- Torsion of circular cylinders
- Torsion of noncircular cylinders
- Warping functions
- Prandtl stress function
- Special problems - contact, dislocations, antiplane shear
- Variational methods and energy principles
- Energy methods in elasticity
- Minimizing a functional
- Kinematically admissible displacement field
- Principle of minimum potential energy
- Statically admissible stress field
- Principle of minimum complementary energy
- More variational principles
- Approximate solutions
Quizzes and Exams 
- Sample Midterm Exam
- Sample Final Exam
The Linearized Theory of Elasticity by William S. Slaughter, Publisher: Birkhauser, Boston; ISBN: 0-8176-4117-3
Elasticity: Second Edition by J.R. Barber, Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers; ISBN: 1-4020-0966-6; (2002)
Elasticity in Engineering Mechanics: Second Edition by Arthur P. Boresi and Ken P. Chong
Additional References 
- Journal of Elasticity by Springer Science+Business Media
- Theory of Elasticity : Third Edition by S. P. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970. This book is an excellent reference of the theory of elasticity.
- Theoretical Elasticity by A. E. Green and W. Zerna, Dover Publications, New York, 1992. This is a paperback edition of the original. Students interested in a mathematical approach may wish to consult this book.
- A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity : Fourth Edition by A. E. H. Love, Dover Publications, New York, 1944. Another older but excellent reference on elasticity.
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanics of Materials : Fifth Edition by J. M. Gere and S. P. Timoshenko, Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, CA, 2001. An excellent introduction to mechanics of materials.
- Mechanics of Materials : Second Edition by F. P. Beer, E. R. Johnston, Jr., and J. T. DeWolf, McGraw-Hill,New York, 1992. Another widely used introduction to mechanics of materials.
- Vectors and Tensors
- A Brief on Tensor Analysis : Second Edition by James G. Simmonds, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994. A brief introduction to tensors designed for undergraduates. A must read if you wish to introduce yourself to tensors.
- Vectors, Tensors and the Basic Equations of Fluid Mechanics by R. Aris, Dover Publications, New York, 1962. An excellent introduction to vectors and tensors.
- Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids : Volume 1 : Second Edition by R. B. Bird, R. C. Armstrong, O. Hassager, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1987. The appendix contains a brief introduction to tensors and their transformations in various coordinate systems.
- Engineering Mathematics
- Foundations of Applied Mathematics by Michael D. Greenberg, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984. A wonderful text on applied mathematics - great for Fourier series, complex variables and ordinary and partial differential equations.
- Advanced Engineering Mathematics : Eighth Edition by Erwin Kreyszig, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999. An updated version of the classic text on engineering mathematics.
Below is a list of potentially useful links to mathematical, symbolic computing and other resources.
- Maths Tutorials
- Mathematics dictionary from Wolfram Research
- Rebecca Brannon's tutorials on vectors, tensors and a lot more
- Unix Tutorials
- Unix tutorial from the Univeristy of Utah
- Unix tutorial from University of North Carolina
- Emacs Tutorials
- Emacs tutorial from the University of Chicago
- Emacs tutorial from Temple University
- LaTeX Tutorials
- Latex tutorial from UC Davis
- Latex tutorial from UMIST
- Maple Tutorials
- Maple tutorial from Indiana
- Maple tutorial from MapleSoft
- Maple tutorial from the University of Utah
- Maxima Tutorials
- The Computer Algebra Program Maxima - a Tutorial
- wxMaxima (a nice Maxima GUI) and Maxima tutorials list
- Minimal Maxima - tutorial
- Matlab Tutorials
- Matlab tutorial from Michigan Tech
- Matlab tutorial from the University of British Columbia
- Matlab tutorial from the University of Waterloo
- Matlab tutorial from the University of Utah
Brief History of Experimental Linearized Elasticity 
The historical information presented here has been taken from The experimental foundations of solid mechanics by J.F. Bell in Handbuch der Physiks, Volume VIa/1.
On Solid Mechanics:
That this branch of physics remains a vital and provocative subject for fundamental study nearly three fourths of the way through the 20th century, is one of the lessons to be learned from perusing the 300 year history of the growth of the experimental foundations of solid mechanics since the inaugural measurements of Robert Hooke in the 17th century.
J.F. Bell, 1973.
On Linear Stress-Strain Response For Small Deformations:
The dilemma of Leibniz in the 17th century over the apparently conflicting experiments of Hooke and James Bernoulli has been resolved in favor of the latter. The experiments of 280 years have demonstrated amply for every solid substance examined with sufficient care, that the strain resulting from small applied stress is not a linear function thereof.
J.F. Bell, 1973.
- 1678 : Robert Hooke
- Discovers that force is a linear function of elongation based on expeiments on long, thin wires and springs. His anagram for this law was "ceiiinosssttuu" (published 1676) which was deciphered as "Ut tensio sic vis" in his 1678 paper.
- 1720 : Jordan Ricatti
- Proposes that elastic properties of a body could be inferred from the frequency of vibration. The first experimental study of elastic E-moduli.
- 1729 : Pieter Van Musschenbroek
- Publishes the first book showing testing machines for tension, compression, and flexure.
- 1766 : Leonhard Euler
- Introduces the concept of "Young's modulus" eighty years before Thomas Young popularized Euler's concepts of the "height of the modulus" and the "weight of the modulus".
- 1780 : Charles Augustin Coulomb
- First to measure the shear modulus in the modern sense.
- 1787 : Ernst Chladni
- Calculates ratios of the velocity of sound in air to that in various solids. This work provided a major impetus for 19th century continuum mechanics.
- 1807 : Thomas Young
- Publishes his "Lectures on Natural Philosophy". This work led to the popularization of the "height of the modulus". The units were in feet.
- 1809 : Jean Baptiste Biot
- First direct measurement of the velocity of sound in a solid.
- 1813 : Alphonse Duleau
- First quasi-static experiments for small deformation linear elasticity (by design). This work provided experimental evidence for numerous theoretical developments in elasticity, including St Venant's principle and the theoretical work of Cauchy, Poisson and Navier.
- 1841 : Guillaume Wertheim
- Presents first definitive study of elastic properties of solids under various conditions to the French Academy. This study included results from Jean Victor Poncelet, Thomas Tregold, Antoin Masson, Felix Savart among others. Linear plots of stress versus strain begin to be widely used.
- 1848 : Guillaume Wertheim
- First experiments showing that the Poisson's ratio of a solid does not have the constant value of 0.25.
- 1859 : Gustav Robert Kirchhoff
- First measurement of Poisson's ratio indepenedent of the elastic modulus and specimen diameter.
- 1869 : Marie Alfred Cornu
- First direct optical measurement of Poisson's ratio.
- 1882 : Woldemar Voigt
- Performs experiments to prove the isotropy or otherwise of solids.
- 1904 : Arnulph Malloc
- Devises a method to determine the quasi-static bulk modulus based on the theory of linear elasticity.
- 1908 : Eduard August Gruneisen
- The Poisson's ratio is first determined experimentally as ratio of lateral and longitudinal strains. Uses Malloc's method to determine the compressibility of solids.
Brief Early History of Theoretical Linearized Elasticity 
- c 1630 : Isaac Beeckman
- Realizes that strain (change in length/length) should enter an elastic law.
- 1687 : Isaac Newton
- Publishes "Principia" which provide the laws of motion : inertia, conservation of momentum, and balance of forces, though inertia and momentum remained undefined.
- 1684 : Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
- Finds the relation between bending moment and the moment of inertia of a linear elastic beam.
- 1691-1704 : James Bernoulli
- Derives the general equations of equilibrium using different methods : balance of forces, balance of moments, and the principle of virtual work.
- Finds that the stress (force/area) as a function of strain characterizes a material and thus proposes the first true stress-strain relation and a material property.
- 1713 : Antoine Parent
- Determines the position of the neutral fiber and postulates the existence of shear stresses.
- 1736 : Leonhard Euler
- Publishes "Mechanics" where he defines a mass-point and acceleration. Also introduces vectors. Most of the equations in mechanics in use today can be traced to the work of Euler.
- 1742 : John Bernoulli
- First to refer all positions to a single, rectangular Cartesian co-ordinate system.
- 1743 : Jean le Rond d'Alembert
- First to derive a partial differential equation as the statement of a law of motion.
- 1750-1758 : Leonhard Euler
- Formulates the principles of conservation of linear momentum and moment of momentum. Distinguishes mass from inertia.
- 1773 : Charles Augustin de Coulomb
- Proved that shear stresses exist in a bending beam.
- 1788 : Joseph Louis Lagrange
- Publishes "Mechanique Analitique" which contains much of the mechanics known until that time.
- 1822 : Augustin Louis Cauchy
- Discovers the stress principle - relating the total forces and total moment to internal and external tractions. Cartesian co-ordinate system. This is basically the first description of the stress tensor. Cauchy also presented the equations of equilibrium and showed that the stress tensor is symmetric.
- 1833 : Siméon Denis Poisson
- Publishes statement and proof that a system of pairwise equilibriated and central forces exerts no torque. This is fundamental to the principle of conservation of moment of momentum.
More details can be found in the books by Timoshenko and Love.
Here are some people whose work you will encounter in engineering elasticity.
- Abel (Abel integral equations)
- Airy (Airy stress function)
- Bernoulli, James (Beam bending)
- Bernoulli, Daniel (Superposition)
- Betti (Betti's theorem)
- Boussinesq (Boussinesq solution)
- Burger (Burger's vector)
- Carter (Carter's problem)
- Castigliano (Castigliano's theorem)
- Cattaneo (Cattaneo's problem)
- Cauchy (Cauchy-Green deformation tensor)
- Christoffel (Christoffel symbols)
- Collins (Collins' method)
- Cosserat (Cosserat elasticity)
- Coulomb (Coulomb friction)
- D'Alembert (D'Alembert's principle)
- Descartes (Cartesian coordinates)
- Dirichlet (Dirichlet boundary conditions)
- Duhamel (Rational mechanics)
- Dundurs (Dundurs' theorem)
- Euclid (Euclidean geometry)
- Euler (Equations of equilibrium)
- Flamant (Flamant solution)
- Fourier (Fourier series)
- Louis Fredholm (Fredholm integral equations)
- Galileo (Bending of a beam)
- Galerkin (Galerkin finite element method)
- Gauss (Divergence theorem, potential theory)
- Green, George (Green's function)
- Hadamard (Elastodynamics)
- Hankel (Hankel transform)
- Helmholtz (Helmholtz potential)
- Hertz (Hertzian contact)
- Hooke (Hooke's law)
- Jacobi (Jacobian)
- Kirchhoff (Kirchhoff stress)
- Kronecker (Kronecker delta)
- Lagrange (Green-Lagrange strain tensor)
- Lamb (Elasticity solutions)
- Lame (Lame's constants)
- Laplace (Laplacian)
- Legendre (Legendre polynomials)
- Love (Mathematical thoery of elasticity)
- Maxwell (Maxwell's theorem)
- Mellin (Mellin transform)
- Michell (Michell's solution)
- Mindlin (Mindlin's problem)
- Mohr (Mohr's circle)
- Navier (Navier's equation)
- Neumann (Neumann boundary condition)
- Newton (Laws of motion)
- Noether (Invariants)
- Ockham (Occam's razor)
- Papkovich (Papkovich-Neuber solution)
- Pascal (Pascal's triangle)
- Poisson (Poisson's ratio)
- Prandtl (Prandtl's stress function)
- Rodrigues (Euler-Rodrigues formula for rotation)
- Saint-Venant (Saint-Venant's principle)
- Stokes (Stokes theorem)
- von Mises (von Mises failure criterion)
- Taylor (Taylor series expansion)
- Taylor, Geoffrey (Dislocations in metals)
- Williams (Williams' solution)
- Young (Young's modulus)