# Risk Management

## Risk Management - Content Matrix

MATRIX Technology Implementation Rearch
RISK: Where is the risk? e.g GIS Tutorial for Risk Maps Implement Spatial Risk Mapping e.g. Identify Pathway of Toxicants to Humans
RESPONSE: Where are the resources? e.g. Tutorial of Resource Allocation with GIS e.g. Implement access to risk mitigation resource by application of mobile devices e.g. Research about Optimization of Resource Allocation applicable for Risk Mitigation
EDUCATION: Do the people know? e.g. Tutorial for Risk Mitigation app for mobile devices e.g. Implementation of Risk Literacy Program e.g. Living Lab Research for Capacity Building of Risk Literacy

Risk management is the

Basic Risk and Response Cycle
• (Risk) identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks as the effect of uncertainty on objectives
• (Response) coordination for an improved preparedness for the determined risk, followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events[1] or to maximize the realization of opportunities for risk mitigation.

The application and allocation of resources for risk mitigation is response to the identified risk. The response (e.g. vector control for mosquitos, education in risk literacy) in turn changes risk and triggers an alteration of allocation and application of resources to improve risk mitigation in the next loop.

## Origin of Course Development

The development of courses for Risk management as a learning content builds of the Open Community Approach to support Capacity Building for Risk Literacy and provide access to risk management knowledge. The objective is to support learning and comprehension of decision making process under uncertainty to minimize negative impacts on the community, improve awareness of the risk and better preparednes in case of a negative events. The spatial pattern of risk and the spatial availabilty of resources for risk mitigation are main aspect of the spatial decision support.

## Wiki Books as Course Material

The learning requirements of students are different. Therefore a tailored selection of course material creates a beneficial learning environment according to needs and objective for risk management. E.g. a student with a degree in Computer Sciences may not need a course in Geographic Information Systems and he may require knowledge about the living lab concept and user-driven innovation, for creating a benefical risk mitigation environment for rural communities with specific social and cultural constraints. Specific learning requirements of students lead to a tailored requirement of learning. Creating wiki books[7] (e.g. create a Wikibook for GIS and Health (Video)) is one option to provide tailored course material according to the learning requirements of the students in higher education.

## Format Import/Export of Course Material

Wikiversity or in general other wiki resource with wikimedia infrastructure are regarded as a Educational Content Sink (ECS) the Open Educational Resources. This means that content runs (like water downhill) into the sink and from the ECS Open Educational Resources are converted into other desired formats for further use in an educational environment. To accomplish this multiformat use of OER it is important to have an IT infrastructure that supports the authors of OER developers to create

• Office products,
• PDF,
• HTML,
• MarkDown,
• LaTeX documents,
• ...

PanDoc is the underlying tool to support the cross format conversion of Open Educational Resouces. A OpenSource converter PanDocElectron was build to support requirement.

## Quality Assurance of Course Material

The Wikiversity Enviroment is regarded as working environment with the Quality Assurance of the Wiki-Community. Nevertheless the educational institution may want to create snapshot of quality assured articles at a certain time. The following processes is suggested:

• Quality Assurance as Part of the Wiki Community: perform a quality assurance of the selected articles, topics, ... in Wikipedia and Wikiversity that are relevant for a certain course (e.g. GIS and Health) and add scientific citations, respond to , ...
• Wikibook Export & Publication: Publish the Wikibook with date, names of team members, that did the final quality assurance for creating the course material. So this procedure freezes a snapshot of Wiki content as reference for course material of an University ${\displaystyle X}$ in the year ${\displaystyle Y}$.
• Public-Private-Versioning (PPV): Private versioning are performed by a group of authors that allow public read access to the repository and write access is limited to the group of authors. trust in capacity building material is mainly the trust of potential users in the quality assurance of the group of authors. Private versioning can be realized e.g. in GitHub. This provides a transparency for
```      Who created, altered, what, when?
```

Just like a wiki is allows a private versioning of content and the trust in a group authors might lead to decision to use the last quality assured version in the private versioning system instead the lasted version in wiki. References in the wikiversity content to quality assured private version are recommended to insert in the learning resource. It is not necessary that the quality assured versions are stored in GitHub as technical solution. Quality assured Capacity Building material can be published by an organization on the web portal[8]. In turn public available resources need a OER license, so that the capacity building material can be adapted to local and regional requirements and constraints.

• Open Educational Resources are helpful, so people can access risk mitigation resource and learn about options for risk mitigation. Explore the application of PanDocElectron in conjunction with Wikiversity for the generation and adaptation of Educational Resources for improvment of Risk Literacy.
• Learner learn being an Author: A guiding principle of risk management learning resources is, that learner are encouraged to take over the role of an author in Wikiversity. This is incorporated by different user profiles:
• Academic Novice: e.g. look for citations to have more or updated scientific evidence for a specific content
• Academic Intermediate: e.g. Add a section to a wikiversity learning resource based on new scientific results
• Academic Expert: e.g. restructure a learning resource due to the evolution of content
• General Novice User: e.g. add a new use-case of the learning resource and report difficulties in application of the learning resource and ask for improvement
• General Intermediate: e.g. create wikiversity pages the explain the requirements and constraints of a setting in which an Open Educational Resource (OER) could support risk mitigation and [risk literacy].
• General Expert: develop, maintain, improve content in Wikiversity, design learning tasks with the educational background.

## Acknowledgements

In order to start this wikiversity initiative the following support was appreciated to iniated an infrastructure that is sustainable with an Open Community benefit for participating institutions.

• Living Lab Support for Risk Management by Prof. Dr. Marlien Herselmann (South Africa).
• Support for IT-Strategies for Batch Systems and Certificates by Dr. Adele Botha (South Africa).
• Support for Networking Support in the Risk Management in the Context of Proposals by Dr. Melanie Platz (Germany)
• support in structuring and linking the learning resources (Prof. Dr. Dave Braunschweig)

## References

1. Hubbard, Douglas (2009). The Failure of Risk Management: Why It's Broken and How to Fix It. John Wiley & Sons. p. 46.
2. Von Hippel, E. (1986). Lead users: a source of novel product concepts. Management Science 32, 791–805.
3. Chesbrough, H.W. (2003). Open Innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
4. Almirall, E., Wareham, J. (2011). Living Labs: Arbiters of Mid- and Ground- Level Innovation. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 23(1), 2011 pp. 87-102.
5. Bilgram, V.; Brem, A.; Voigt, K.-I. (2008). User-Centric Innovations in New Product Development; Systematic Identification of Lead User Harnessing Interactive and Collaborative Online-Tools, in: International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 419-458.
6. Pallot M. (2009). Engaging Users into Research and Innovation: The Living Lab Approach as a User Centred Open Innovation Ecosystem. Webergence Blog. http://www.cwe-projects.eu/pub/bscw.cgi/1760838?id=715404_1760838
7. Ravid, G., Kalman, Y. M., & Rafaeli, S. (2008). Wikibooks in higher education: Empowerment through online distributed collaboration. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(5), 1913-1928.
8. WHO Campaign - Clean Care Safer Care - Tools, rationals, self-assessment - 2005-2015 - http://www.who.int/infection-prevention/campaigns/clean-hands/background/en/