Open Educational Resources
Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed text, media, and other digital assets that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. It is the leading trend in Wikipedia:distance education/open and distance learning domain as a consequence of the openness movement. There is no universal usage of open file formats in OER.
Defining the scope and nature of open educational resources
The idea of open educational resources (OER) has numerous working definitions. The term was firstly coined at UNESCO's 2002 Forum on Open Courseware and designates "teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions. Open licensing is built within the existing framework of intellectual property rights as defined by relevant international conventions and respects the authorship of the work". Often cited is the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation term which defines OER as:
teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge.
Drivers for OER
Driver of application of OER:
- Maximize public access to educational resources especially in a developing countries. If financial resources are not available, then access to commercial educational resources are not possible (see Risk Management). Therefore the impact of the educational resources are reduced due to the financial constraints. Open Educational Resources can reach even disadvatage
- trigger innovation by accessing the educational resource and learn about new concepts and approaches
- reducing developing costs for Educational Resources because the authors do not have to build from scatch, but can build, remix or translate existing capacity building material.
OER and Organisations
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) defines OER as: "digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students, and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning, and research. OER includes learning content, software tools to develop, use, and distribute content, and implementation resources such as open licences". (This is the definition cited by Wikipedia's sister project, Wikiversity.) By way of comparison, the Commonwealth of Learning "has adopted the widest definition of Open Educational Resources (OER) as 'materials offered freely and openly to use and adapt for teaching, learning, development and research'". The WikiEducator project suggests that OER refers "to educational resources (lesson plans, quizzes, syllabi, instructional modules, simulations, etc.) that are freely available for use, reuse, adaptation, and sharing'.
Open Community Approach
According to the definition of the Open Community Approach (AT6FUI) Open Educational Resources are a key element of capacity building.
- use Open Source Software if software is needed in the learning environment
- use Open Data if data is needed for data for learning analytic skills
- use Open Content to create Open Educational Resources
- use Open Proposal Management (see AT6FUI OpenProposal Management)
- Educational Content Sink: Learn about Wikiversity as Educational Content Sink.
- Convert a wikiversity content your choice and expertise with PanDocElectron into a webbased presentation e.g. Audioslideshow with RevealJS
- OER and Mobile Devices: Create a strategy document how to use, share and adapt OER for mobile devices.
- OER and Risk Literacy: Learn about Risk Literacy derive rationals for application of OER in the context of Risk Mitigation strategies especially in developing countries
- educational resource might be inappropriate for a specific learning environment
- missing localization of images (people from Africa visible on images instead of people from Latin America.
- Data sets used in the learning refer to specific country, the sample data sets had to be replaced by data sets that make sense for target group of learners
- Examples and use-cases are not directly transferable to the social and cultural environment of the group of learners.
- OER attached to Geolocations: Imagine your could attach digital Open Educational Resource to a real geolocation. The geolocation is e.g. a small river and use Augmented Reality Tutorial for OER:
- Attach a video that shows the place from a bird view.
- Provide a online questionnaire about the biological environmental observations at the river.
- Attach an image, how the river will look in winter.
- Visualize the work of mircro-bacteria doing work in the river.
- Show historic images of the river from the year 1912 and let the visitors analyse the human alteration in the river bed.
- Open educational resources: Characteristics, Benefits, Challenges, Limitations
- Introduction to Open Educational Resources
- Augmented Reality Tutorial for Mixare
- Bozkurt, A., Akgun-Ozbek, E., Onrat-Yilmazer, S., Erdogdu, E., Ucar, H., Guler, E., Sezgin, S., Karadeniz, A., Sen, N., Goksel-Canbek, N., Dincer, G. D., Ari, S.,& Aydin, C. H. (2015). "Trends in Distance Education Research: A Content Analysis of Journals 2009-2013". International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning 16 (1): 330–363. https://www.academia.edu/11056576/Trends_in_Distance_Education_Research_A_Content_Analysis_of_Journals_2009-2013.
- Sanchez, Claudia. "The use of technological resources for education: a new professional competency for teachers". Intel® Learning Series blog. Intel Corporation. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "What is OER?". wiki.creativecommons.org. Creative Commons. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- "Open Educational Resources". The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Giving Knowledge for Free: THE EMERGENCE OF OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES". Center for Educational Research and Innovation. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "Open Educational Resources (OER)". CoL.org. Commonwealth of Learning. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- "Oer". WikiEducator.org. WikiEducator.org. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- "Defining OER". WikiEducator.org. Open Education Resource Foundation. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Open Community Approach - Definition of Action Team 6 Follow-Up initiative / Expert Focus Group for Space and Global Health (2012) - http://at6fui.weebly.com/open-community-approach.html
- Open Proposal Management in AT6FUI/EFG-SGH (2015) - http://at6fui.weebly.com/open-proposal-management.html