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This is a phase diagram for fluorine versus pressure. Credit: U.S. Energy Research & Development Administration (ERDA).{{free media}}

Although they do not occur naturally on the surface of the Earth, the phase diagram on the right shows temperatures and pressures for α-F (monoclinic) and β-F (cubic).

Emissions[edit | edit source]

This diagram contains the emission and absorption lines for the element fluorine. Credit: Alex Petty.{{fairuse}}
Fluorine spectrum uses strong lines from NIST. Credit: Mliu92.{{free media}}

Fluorine has green emission lines that occur in plasmas at 526.83, 528.56, 529.76 and 530.27 nm from F VI.[1]

The emission and absorption spectra of fluorine contains at least eight lines or bands from the cyan to the ultraviolet.[2]

Gases[edit | edit source]

Observation of fluorine's color (2) and comparison to air (1) or chlorine (3), published in 1892. Credit: Henri Moissan.

The set of images on the right compare the color of air (1) with fluorine (2) and chlorine (3) gases.

Liquids[edit | edit source]

The center tube contains liquid fluorine. Credit: B. G. Mueller.

Liquid fluorine in the tube on the right is yellow-orange in color.

"Variations in sea-surface temperature (SST) occur in association with changes in the Earth's climate. [...] However, despite a large effort, the glacial record of SST is still controversial, especially in the tropics. [Studies] of foraminifera demonstrated that the interspecific variability in Mg/Ca ratios of planktonic shells is strongly correlated with water temperature at the estimated calcification depth [...] Similar correlations were also observed Sr/Ca and F/Ca [...] possibly suggesting an important role for temperature on the elemental composition of foraminifera. [...] F/Ca of foraminafera is governed primarily by biological processes."[3]

Stars[edit | edit source]

"Fluorine abundances for red giants of type K, Ba, M, MS, S, SC,N, and J [may be] obtained from the [infrared] rotation-vibration lines of the molecule HF. There appears to be a clear correlation between [F/O] and 12C/16O since N stars display F abundances up to 30 times the solar system value. This correlation points toward the He-burning shell as the site of F synthesis. The nuclear chain 14N(α,γ)18F(β+)18O(p,α)15N(α,γ)19F (where protons come from 13C(α,n)16O followed by 14N(n,p)14C) operating at the very beginning of He-burning is the most likely for 19F production in thermal pulses."[4]

Resources[edit | edit source]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. K. J. McCarthy; A. Baciero; B. Zurro; TJ-II Team (12 June 2000). Impurity Behaviour Studies in the TJ-II Stellarator, In: 27th EPS Conference on Contr. Fusion and Plasma Phys.. 24B. Budapest: ECA. pp. 1244-7. Retrieved 20 January 2013. 
  2. Alex Petty (July 2007). Fluorine light signature. Retrieved 2013-06-01. 
  3. Yair Rosenthal; Edward A. Boyle; Niall Slowey (1997). "Temperature control on the incorporation of magnesium, strontium, fluorine, and cadmium into benthic foraminiferal shells from Little Bahama Bank: Prospects for thermocline paleoceanography". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61 (17): 3633-43. Retrieved 2014-09-22. 
  4. A. Jorissen; V.V. Smith; D.L. Lambert (July 1992). "Fluorine in red giant stars: evidence for nucleosynthesis". Astronomy and Astrophysics 261 (1): 164-87. Retrieved 2013-08-01.