Dominant group/Project Description
Surface differential rotation "will most easily be detected among stars that have relatively stable modulation over several rotations within a season from a dominant group of [ active regions (ARs)] that experience a noticeable change in mean AR latitude (corresponding to a change in mean rotational period) between consecutive observing seasons." Bold added.
Dominant group may be a subject-independent entity (specifically, a two-word scientific or technical term) that often serves as an identifier designated by an author, based on observations of phenomena.
It does not appear to have a rigorous definition yet appears in at least one field (medicine) dictionary.
Several theoretical definitions have been discovered.
From its early origins in Kirby's An Introduction to Entomology of 1826, as the plural dominant groups, the term has radiated to additional fields carrying a similar relative meaning, or in relative synonymy.
Perhaps it is initially a concept within the natural theological (High Church Hutchinsonian) creation theory.
- Term hypothesis: dominant group is a significant term that may require a 'rigorous definition' or application and verification of an empirical definition.
Notation: let the symbol Def. indicate that a definition is following.
Notation: let the symbols between [ and ] be replacement for that portion of a quoted text.
To help with definitions, their meanings and intents, there is the learning resource theory of definition.
Def. evidence that demonstrates that a concept is possible is called proof of concept.
The proof-of-concept structure consists of
- findings, and
The findings demonstrate a statistically systematic change from the status quo or the control group.
Statement of work 
The first question to answer is "What is the field of dominant group?"
Currently, the field to which dominant group is home is unknown. Determining what that field is constitutes an important part of the project.
Simply on the basis of construction, dominant as an adjective modifying the noun group, it is a two-word phrase that may be a scientific or technical term. The field applicable here is terminology.
What this term is and the author's decision-making process that applies it within a written text are a topic of interest. Primary source authors performing original research from a theoretical or empirical perspective are apparently using the term based on their training.
Research purpose: authors are apparently using dominant group with experimental, observational, or theoretical significance and implications. This effort involves exploration of individual articles to determine context, definition, or meaning, description with quotes from the authors to indicate context and meaning, explanation as a possible indicator or identifier, and prediction that uses possible meanings in fields where absent.
Period objectives 
In addition to exploring the field, origin, and the root meaning of dominant group, a number of hypotheses suggested, discovered, and proposed are to be tested.
- Accident hypothesis: dominant group is an accident of whatever processes are operating.
- Artifact hypothesis: dominant group may be an artifact of human endeavor or may have preceded humanity.
- Association hypothesis: dominant group is associated in some way with the original research.
- Bad group hypothesis: dominant group is the group that engages in discrimination, abuse, punishment, and additional criminal activity against other groups. It often has an unfair advantage and uses it to express monopolistic practices.
- Entity hypothesis: dominant group is an entity within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
- Evolution hypothesis: dominant group is a product of evolutionary processes, is an evolutionary process, produces evolutionary processes, or is independent of evolutionary processes.
- Identifier hypothesis: dominant group is an identifier used by primary source authors of original research to identify an observation in the process of analysis.
- Importance hypothesis: dominant group signifies original research results that usually need to be explained by theory and interpretation of experiments.
- Indicator hypothesis: dominant group may be an indicator of something as yet not understood by the primary author of original research.
- Influence hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article containing original research to indicate influence or an influential phenomenon.
- Interest hypothesis: dominant group is a theoretical entity used by scholarly authors of primary sources for phenomena of interest.
- Metadefinition hypothesis: all uses of dominant group by all primary source authors of original research are included in the metadefinition for dominant group.
- Null hypothesis: there is no significant or special meaning of dominant group in any sentence or figure caption in any refereed journal article.
- Object hypothesis: dominant group is an object within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
- Obvious hypothesis: the only meaning of dominant group is the one found in Mosby's Medical Dictionary.
- Original research hypothesis: dominant group is included in a primary source article by the author to indicate that the article contains original research.
- Primordial hypothesis: dominant group is a primordial concept inherent to humans such that every language or other form of communication no matter how old or whether extinct, on the verge of extinction, or not, has at least a relative synonym for dominant group.
- Purpose hypothesis: dominant group is written into articles by authors for a purpose.
- Regional hypothesis: dominant group, when it occurs, is only a manifestation of the limitations within a region. Variation of those limitations may result in the loss of a dominant group with the eventual appearance of a new one or none at all.
- Source hypothesis: dominant group is a source within each field where a primary author of original research uses the term.
- Term hypothesis: dominant group is a significant scientific term that may require a 'rigorous definition' or application and verification of an empirical definition.
- There is a control group that can be used to study dominant group.
- What is the nature of the relationship between "dominant group" and each article, subject area, and currently available definition?
- What is the difference between articles regarding usage?
- What is the effect of "dominant group" on the article?
- Are there fieldss that do not use the 'term'?
- Are the two words found together in any additional dictionaries or glossaries?
Expected significance 
Current activity is exploratory in nature and is resulting in an advance of knowledge and understanding about dominant group and its uses within various fields and languages. The identification of its own field may result; thereby, in allowing differentiation of other fields so as to determine how knowledge is advanced across those different fields with its use.
The number of occurrences of dominant group in any subject is low suggesting that it is not significantly relevant but may only be an artifact of author word choice. However, including relative synonyms, may bring the level of theoretical or empirical significance to an importance of approximately 15% of all concepts in any field.
Relation to longer term goals 
A course on terminology (elements of terminology) is being developed for educational use at Wikiversity. Gains in original research focused on dominant group are and will add to the content of this and other courses.
Relation to present state of knowledge 
It's like the mathematical term "differential equations". Although differential equations is a subject within mathematics, its spread to other subjects such as physics with ensuing use advanced knowledge within physics.
Relation to work in progress 
Broad design 
Experimental methods 
- Small-group study: within each subject area, the meaning and context is analyzed from a small group of publications.
- Survey: a survey using Google scholar and where needed offline library resources, Wikipedia, Wikiversity, and additional Wikimedia resources.
- Field experiment: testing each hypothesis and other possibilities during the course of investigating uses of "dominant group" in articles.
Sampling: Google scholar, Wikipedia, Wikiversity, other Wikimedia sources and offline libraries.
Broader impacts 
Intellectual merit 
Its definition and how it is used is a part of linguistics.
In psychology a dominant group may be only associated with psychology or be the subject of psychological research. Proof of concept may be either one or both, or involve more extensive classes of meaning. Dominant group may only be an artifact of human inquiry. It enjoys popularity in psychology.
Group theory has an abstract home in the field of mathematics and a humanities home in psychology among the study of groups.
Considering the wide variety of subject areas within which "dominant group" occurs, philosophy should be added to the list.
With its earliest readily accessible origin in the 1826 book by Kirby and Spence, 185 B.P. or 174 b2k (before 2000), the term may qualify as a topic in the history of science. Or, perhaps it is initially a concept within the natural theological (High Church Hutchinsonian) creation theory.
Archeology is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record).
The term enjoys current popularity in sociology.
Field of the proposal 
What is the field of the proposal?
The proposed activity consists of finding the origin of "dominant group" or one of its relative synonyms, defining the two-word technical term perhaps from context (lexical pragmatics) (or perhaps rigorously), determining why scientists outside biology use the term, and verifying its divergence and radiance by examples.
The proposed activity is to determine how "dominant group" advances knowledge and understanding within each field which may be considered its own field or across all these different fields.
Hypothesis: As an evolutionary process, a "dominant group" may be a force for extinction by driving a number of groups extinct and a force for speciation when spatial or temporal dispersion creates diversity and isolation which may eventually produce new groups. As a force for extinction, a particular dominant group may also through its actions on other groups ultimately produce its own extinction event. This departure from a zone then allows other groups to fill the niche.
The relative synonyms of "dominant group" appear to date from earlier times suggesting that the concept behind "dominant group" has been around longer and represents perhaps an artifact in human evolution.
From archeology: "Archaeology is the subdiscipline of Anthropology that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, ecofacts, human remains, and landscapes."
Per the Wikipedia article archaeology: archaeology "is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record)."
Def. "[a]n object, such as a tool, weapon or ornament, ... structure or finding in an experiment or investigation ... made or shaped by some agent or intelligence, ... [as] a result of external action, the test arrangement, or an experimental error ... rather than an inherent element", after Wiktionary artifact, is called an artifact, or artefact.
Is any "dominant group" in Archaeology or associated with Archaeology an artifact?
"Dominant group" may be an artifact of human endeavor or may have preceded humanity.
"Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins.", per Wikipedia article evolution.
With respect to dominant groups, evolutionary processes
- produce dominant groups,
- are the same as dominant groups (dominant groups are the evolutionary process),
- are produced by dominant groups, or
- are independent of dominant groups (i.e., dominant groups are an artifact).
"There is no evidence that the superiority of any existing dominant group is based on any thing but an accident, and any attempt to maintain that dominance by reason, is merely the rationalization of a "myth."
Lexical pragmatics 
From a metadefinitional point of view each use of "dominant group" has a relationship between members of the dominant group, a population from which the dominant group is a subset, a criterion for dominance, and a region, range, distribution or "in their own country". But, each of these four structures may have their meaning in the context within which the author or speaker places the two-word technical term "dominant group".
Oldest two-word terms 
It may be one of the oldest two-word scientific or technical terms.
1826 (Kirby): "Groups, according to their range, may be denominated either predominant, dominant, sub-dominant, or quiescent."
1840 (Shuckard): "The Ants and the Staphylini have been supposed to represent each other in the tropical and temperate zones. In the temperate zone, and especially in our own country, the Staphylini are a dominant group, and the ants a secondary one."
1857 (Tocqueville): “The fact that a group is egoistic and dominant proves that it is well formed and that it approaches the make-up of a man.”
Relative synonyms 
In dominant group/origin is the discovery of a use of "dominant group" in 1826 (174 b2k), the earliest use so far.
Dominant party 
"There was a violent war party, who wished all the resources of the State to be placed at the disposal of the national government; there was a peace party, composed of members of both parties, determined to put every obstacle in the way of the administration; while the Federalists generally regarded the declaration of war as an act of tyranny, and the measures of the dominant party as an infringement of State rights." [Bold added]
Dominant religion 
The phrase “die Dominanten Religionen von ganz Europa” occurs in 1726.
Most important interests 
"Even the actual promoters of the most important interests of mankind have seldom anticipated, in idea, the progressive consequences of their own plans."
The dominants 
“so sind solche entweder tonische Noten, Dominanten, oder Unterdominanren, und die Dominanten können simple oder tonische Dominanten seyn.”
Upper departments 
"For the impression of the commercial arts is often conspicuous in the upper departments of life, before it reaches those of inferior condition; but the circle gradually widens."
See also 
- Robert A. Donahue, Steven H. Saar, and Sallie L. Baliunas (July 1996). "A Relationship between Mean Rotation Period in Lower Main-Sequence Stars and Its Observed Range". The Astrophysical Journal 466 (7): 384-91. doi:10.1086/177517. Bibcode: 1996ApJ...466..384D. Retrieved on 2011-08-16.
- William Kirby, William Spence (1826). An Introduction to Entomology: or Elements of the Natural History of Insects, Volume IV. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, Paternoster Row. pp. 474-492. http://books.google.com/books?id=OgA7AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA485&hl=en#v=onepage&q=dominant&f=false. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
- Jonathan R. Topham (June 1998). "Beyond the "common context": the production and reading of the Bridgewater Treatises". Isis 89 (2): 233-62. Retrieved on 2011-12-05.
- Ginger Lehrman and Ian B Hogue, Sarah Palmer, Cheryl Jennings, Celsa A Spina, Ann Wiegand, Alan L Landay, Robert W Coombs, Douglas D Richman, John W Mellors, John M Coffin, Ronald J Bosch, David M Margolis (August 13, 2005). "Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept study". Lancet 366 (9485): 549-55. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67098-5. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
- B. K. Hall, B. Hallgrímsson, ed (2008). Strickberger's Evolution (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett. p. 762. ISBN 0763700665. http://www.jblearning.com/catalog/9780763700669/.
- Herbert Adolphus Miller (1924). Races, nations and classes: the psychology of domination and freedom. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. pp. 196. http://books.google.com/books?id=dZwFbkupcdEC&q=Races,+nations+and+classes:+the+psychology+of+domination+and+freedom&dq=Races,+nations+and+classes:+the+psychology+of+domination+and+freedom&hl=en. Retrieved 2012-02-15.
- W.E. Shuckard (1840). "XXII.—Monograph of the Dorylidæ, a family of the Hymenoptera Heterogyna". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History Series 1 5 (30): 188-201. doi:10.1080/00222934009496804. Retrieved on 2011-11-20.
- Alexis de Tocqueville (September 2001, prepared between 1853 and 1857). Francois Furet and Francoise Melonio. ed. The Old Regime and the Revolution: Notes on the French Revolution and Napoleon. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 257. http://books.google.com/books?lr=&id=ctAqVkbNCkIC&dq=1857+%22Alexis+de+Tocqueville%22+%22Democracy+in+America%22&q=%22dominant+group%22#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- T. L. Winthrop (April 1820). "Annual Meeting, April, 1820". Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 1: 288-330. Retrieved on 2011-12-05.
- Johann Jacob Scheuchzer, Anton L. Keller, Moritz Anton Cappeller (1726). Lucerna Lucens Alethophili: Eines Catholischen Priesters Schreiben An Aretophilum Seinen lieben Freund und Mit-Capitularen. Frenstadt. pp. 128. http://books.google.com/books?id=kEk-AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA27&dq=%22die+Dominanten%22+1726&hl=en. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
- James Dunbar (1780). Essays on the History of Mankind in rude and cultivated ages. London: Printed for W. Strahan. pp. 399. http://books.google.com/books?id=YOsTAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA399&dq=%22Hereditary+Genius%22&hl=en. Retrieved 2012-02-15.
- Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (1757). Systematische Einleitung in die musicalische Setzkunst. Leipzig: Joh. Gottlob Immanuel Breitlopf. pp. 136. http://books.google.com/books?id=o-1CAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA83&dq=%22die+Dominanten%22+1757&hl=en. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
Further reading 
- African Journals Online
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